Our Watershed
Thursday, February 20, 2014
Thursday, February 20, 2014
Riparian zone
Thursday, February 20, 2014
Thursday, February 20, 2014
Conservation
Thursday, February 20, 2014
Restoration
Thursday, February 20, 2014
Native vs. Invasive
Thursday, February 20, 2014
Habitat
Thursday, February 20, 2014
Erosion
Thursday, February 20, 2014
Native Plants
For Riparian Plantings in Oregon

Thursday, February 20, 2014
Red Twig Dogwood
Scientific name: Cornus sericea
Taxonomy

Plant Requirements

Family: Cornaceae

Zone:

2 to 9

Type:

Su...
Indian Plum
Scientific name: Oemleria cerasiformis
Taxonomy

Plant Requirements

Family: Rosaceae

Zone:

6 to 10

Type:

...
Black Twinberry
Scientific name: Lonicera involucrate
Taxonomy

Plant Requirements

Family: Caprifoliaceae

Zone:

6 to 8
...
Common Snowberry
Scientific name: Symphoricarpos albus
Taxonomy

Plant Requirements

Family: Caprifoliaceae

Zone:

3 to 8...
Oregon Ash
Scientific name: Fraxinus latifolia
Taxonomy

Plant Requirements

Family: Oleaceae

Zone:

6 to 7

Type:

Sun:
...
Oregon Grape
Scientific name: Mahonia aquifolium
Taxonomy

Plant Requirements

Family: Berberidaceae

Zone:

5 to 9

Type:...
Nootka Rose
Scientific name: Rosa nutkana
Taxonomy

Plant Requirements

Family: Rosaceae

Zone:

5 to 8

Type:

Sun:

Full...
Red Elderberry
Scientific name: Sambucus racemosa
Taxonomy

Plant Requirements

Family: Caprifoliaceae

Zone:

4 to 8

Typ...
Western Spirea
Scientific name: Spiraea douglassi
Taxonomy

Plant Requirements

Family: Rosaceae

Zone:

Type:

1 to 9

De...
Cascara
Scientific name: Rhamnus purshiana
Taxonomy

Plant Requirements

Family: Rhamnaceae

Zone:

3 to 9

Type:

Sun:

F...
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Conservation efforts on the McKenzie River; Key terms and questions

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Our watershed copy

  1. 1. Our Watershed Thursday, February 20, 2014
  2. 2. Thursday, February 20, 2014
  3. 3. Riparian zone Thursday, February 20, 2014
  4. 4. Thursday, February 20, 2014
  5. 5. Conservation Thursday, February 20, 2014
  6. 6. Restoration Thursday, February 20, 2014
  7. 7. Native vs. Invasive Thursday, February 20, 2014
  8. 8. Habitat Thursday, February 20, 2014
  9. 9. Erosion Thursday, February 20, 2014
  10. 10. Native Plants For Riparian Plantings in Oregon Thursday, February 20, 2014
  11. 11. Red Twig Dogwood Scientific name: Cornus sericea Taxonomy Plant Requirements Family: Cornaceae Zone: 2 to 9 Type: Sun: Full sun Deciduous shrubs Native: YES Moisture: Wet Plant Characteristics Height: 10 ft Bloom: Spring flowers Width: 12 ft Bloom Time: April to May Bloom Color: White Additional Characteristics Trees Leaves Small lot suitable Good Fall color Flowering tree Leaves fragrant Safe for beneath power lines Fruit Showy Edible Gold foliage Evergreen Bark Showy Wildlife value Attract hummingbirds Attract butterflies Attract birds Poisonous Foliage Fruit Description Red Twig Dogwood is best known for its bright red winter stems which add color when it is needed most. The alternative name for this shrub is Redosier Dogwood. Morphology: This Northwest native deciduous shrub grows to a height of 6’-10’ with an equal to greater spread. It has a rounded and spreading habit, but stays loose and open in appearance. It spread by underground stolens. This species bears deciduous simple leaves, arranged in an opposite arrangement. The leaf shape is described as ovate with rounded bases and acuminate tips. Leaves are 2”-5” long and 1”-2.5” wide. During the summer the leaves have a dark green color, but in the fall they take on a dull or rich purple-red color which is very pleasing in the woodland garden. During the late spring white flower clusters begin to show. In the late summer the flowers morph to dull white berries. Berries are 1/3” in diameter. Birds love to feast on this fruit! Adaptation: Red stem dogwood is very adaptable to many soils, including those that are wet. It is often used in wetland restoration sites for this reason. With its ability to spread to form thickets Red Twig Dogwood is very effective in keeping soils intact on steeper slopes. It does best in full sun conditions. Thursday, February 20, 2014 Pests:
  12. 12. Indian Plum Scientific name: Oemleria cerasiformis Taxonomy Plant Requirements Family: Rosaceae Zone: 6 to 10 Type: Sun: Partial shade Deciduous shrubs Native: YES Moisture: Medium Plant Characteristics Height: 10 ft Bloom: Winter flowers Width: 12 ft Bloom Time: February to April Bloom Color: White Additional Characteristics Trees Leaves Small lot suitable Good Fall color Flowering tree Leaves fragrant Safe for beneath power lines Fruit Showy Edible Gold foliage Evergreen Bark Showy Wildlife value Attract hummingbirds Attract butterflies Attract birds Poisonous Foliage Fruit Description Indian Plum is a Northwest native shrub best known for its attractive late winter to early spring dangling white blooms that appear before the leaves emerge. Morphology: This deciduous shrub ranges in height from 6’-20’ and in width to 12’. It has an upright growth habit and can spread by suckers. As for vegetation, Indian Plum features green lance-shaped leaves that are gray-green underneath and fuzzy. If the leaves are crushed they give off a watermelon rind scent. The name comes from the presence of small plum-like fruit. These ripen in the fall providing winter feed for birds, rodents, deer, foxes and coyotes, all of whom relish the bittersweet fruits. As such this species is dioecious meaning that male and female plants exist. If fruit is sought after, both male and female plants will need to be planted near one another. Only the female plants will bear fruit. Adaptation: Indian Plum grows well on all sorts of Northwest sites from moist stream banks to dry woodland sites, but prefers the rich humus soils. It grows all through western Washington, Oregon, and northern California. Thursday, February 20, 2014 Pests:
  13. 13. Black Twinberry Scientific name: Lonicera involucrate Taxonomy Plant Requirements Family: Caprifoliaceae Zone: 6 to 8 Type: Sun: Full to partial sun Deciduous shrubs Native: YES Moisture: Medium Plant Characteristics Height: 6 ft Bloom: Showy flowers Width: 10 ft Bloom Time: March to July Bloom Color: Yellow Additional Characteristics Trees Leaves Small lot suitable Good Fall color Flowering tree Leaves fragrant Safe for beneath power lines Fruit Showy Edible Gold foliage Evergreen Bark Showy Wildlife value Attract hummingbirds Attract butterflies Attract birds Poisonous Foliage Fruit Description Black Twinberry is a woody, branching honeysuckle shrub semi-evergreen to fully deciduous in the Pacific Northwest. Black Twinberry is also known as Inkberry for the fruits' color, as well as Bracted Honeysuckle for its showy flower bracts that accompany the black fruit. Morphology: This is a deciduous shrub that grows to 6’ tall and 10’ wide. It bears ovate to oblong, lance-shaped, bright green leaves that are hairy underneath and along the margins. As early as the end of March it begins to set tubular flowers, half inch in length, which are surrounded by large green bracts. The flowering season extends through the beginning of July. By early June ripe berries are on display. When they mature, bright red bracts surround purple-black to jet-black doubled fruit. Fruit are globose berries up to 3/8” in width. Young branches have yellow bark which ages to yellow-brown. As with most honeysuckles, the twinberries attract hummingbirds, bees and butterflies Adaptation: This species prefers full sun to partial shade. It thrives in a wide array of soils and sites. As a native plant, it will populate moist sites along streams and swamps, as well as along the ocean near sand dunes. Thursday, February 20, 2014
  14. 14. Common Snowberry Scientific name: Symphoricarpos albus Taxonomy Plant Requirements Family: Caprifoliaceae Zone: 3 to 8 Type: Sun: Full to partial sun Deciduous shrubs Native: YES Moisture: Dry Plant Characteristics Height: 5 ft Bloom: Spring flowers Width: 6 ft Bloom Time: May to June Bloom Color: White Additional Characteristics Trees Leaves Small lot suitable Good Fall color Flowering tree Leaves fragrant Safe for beneath power lines Fruit Showy Edible Gold foliage Evergreen Bark Showy Wildlife value Attract hummingbirds Attract butterflies Attract birds Poisonous Foliage Fruit Description In the Pacific Northwest native plant community Common Snowberry is widely known for its white, waxy berry-like drupes that provide winter substance for area songbirds. Also known as Waxberry or Coralberry Morphology: Common Snowberry is an erect deciduous shrub which can grow 2’-5’ tall and spread out to 4’-6’ wide in a rounded thicket spreading by root suckers. Limbs are multi-branched, slender and have brown, shreddy bark. Leaves are arranged in an opposite fashion. They are typically 1.5” long and elliptic to oval in shape. They are thin and light green on their upper surfaces and paler below. Leaf margins are entire or wavy-toothed. Flowers appear in the spring in small dense clusters at the ends of the branches. These flowers are pinkish to white and bell-shaped. This plant is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds. Flowers give rise to the white fruit which can grow 3/8” in diameter. The fruit are inedible to humans. Over the winter months birds feast on the berries until they disintegrate naturally. Adaptation: This species does best in full sun to partial shade on moist, well-drained soils. The roots of Common Snowberry are considered very vigorous and deep ranging making it an excellent choice for bank stabilization. All parts of plant are poisonous if ingested. Pests: Thursday, February 20, 2014
  15. 15. Oregon Ash Scientific name: Fraxinus latifolia Taxonomy Plant Requirements Family: Oleaceae Zone: 6 to 7 Type: Sun: Partial shade Deciduous tree Native: YES Moisture: Wet Plant Characteristics Height: 70 ft Bloom: Spring flowers Width: 70 ft Bloom Time: April to May Bloom Color: Purple Additional Characteristics Trees Leaves Small lot suitable Good Fall color Flowering tree Leaves fragrant Safe for beneath power lines Fruit Showy Gold foliage Wildlife value Attract hummingbirds Attract butterflies Attract birds Evergreen Bark Poisonous Showy Edible Foliage Fruit Description A PNW native deciduous tree commonly found in wet areas in the lower reaches of the river valleys west of the Cascades. Its range extends from British Columbia to southern California. Morphology: Compound opposite leaves, with 5-7 bright green, tapered leaflets. Golden yellow fall leaf color. Fruits winged. Adaptation: An excellent native for wetland areas and restoration sites. Grows best where summers are generally cool and humid and winters are usually mild. Thursday, February 20, 2014
  16. 16. Oregon Grape Scientific name: Mahonia aquifolium Taxonomy Plant Requirements Family: Berberidaceae Zone: 5 to 9 Type: Sun: Partial shade Evergreen shrubs Native: YES Moisture: Dry Plant Characteristics Height: 10 ft Bloom: Showy flowers Width: 5 ft Bloom Time: April to May Bloom Color: Yellow Additional Characteristics Trees Leaves Small lot suitable Good Fall color Flowering tree Leaves fragrant Safe for beneath power lines Fruit Showy Edible Gold foliage Evergreen Bark Showy Wildlife value Attract hummingbirds Attract butterflies Attract birds Poisonous Foliage Fruit Description Oregon Grape is the state flower of Oregon, best known for its production of blue-black berries which somewhat resemble clusters of grapes. Morphology: Oregon Grape is an evergreen shrub which can grow to a height of 7’-10’ and up to 5’ wide. It does not have a well defined shape and often forms scraggly clumps. Leaves are arranged in an alternate fashion and are pinnately compound. Leaves can be up to 12” long, each consisting of 7-13 leaflets. They are stiff and leathery in texture, with a dark green upper surface during the summer and a bright red-purplish color in the winter. With the spines on the edges of the leaves they resemble holly. In April yellow flowers form followed by clusters of blue, grape-like fruit. While the berries are edible, they are very sour. This plant is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds. Adaptation: In the garden Oregon Grape is widely adapted to a multitude of soil conditions. It can be grown in either full sun or shade with partial shade being the best. While the leaves will turn redder in the winter with more sun exposure, the foliage will retain its best appearance with partial shade. Thursday, February 20, 2014 Pests:
  17. 17. Nootka Rose Scientific name: Rosa nutkana Taxonomy Plant Requirements Family: Rosaceae Zone: 5 to 8 Type: Sun: Full to partial sun Deciduous shrubs Native: YES Moisture: Dry Plant Characteristics Height: 8 ft Bloom: Fragrant flowers Width: 6 ft Bloom Time: May to July Bloom Color: Pink Additional Characteristics Trees Leaves Small lot suitable Good Fall color Flowering tree Leaves fragrant Safe for beneath power lines Fruit Showy Edible Gold foliage Evergreen Bark Showy Wildlife value Attract hummingbirds Attract butterflies Attract birds Poisonous Foliage Fruit Description Nooka Rose is a Northwest native extending from northern California into Alaska. It is best known for its attractive pink blooms, and red rose hips that persist in the winter. Morphology: Nootka Rose is a fast-growing, deciduous, erect shrub that can attain a height of 6’ with an equal spread. New plants arise from the mother plant via underground runners. Leaves are pinnately compound, with five to nine ovate and serrated leaflets. At the base of the leaves is a pair of thorns. Leaflets are arranged in an alternate fashion. Flowers appear from May through July. They are pink, about 2” across and subtle but sweet smelling. Each flower has five petals and five sepals. Stems have varying numbers of thorns. Flowers give rise to red fruit known as hips and are large (!” - "” long) and round. Adaptation: Nootka Rose grows in both full sun and partial shade. It can tolerate flooding and can grow well on a host of different soil types. Summer drought does not have a real effect on this species. Thursday, February 20, Pests: 2014
  18. 18. Red Elderberry Scientific name: Sambucus racemosa Taxonomy Plant Requirements Family: Caprifoliaceae Zone: 4 to 8 Type: Sun: Full to partial sun Deciduous shrubs Native: YES Moisture: Medium Plant Characteristics Height: 20 ft Bloom: Spring flowers Width: 6 ft Bloom Time: April to May Bloom Color: White Additional Characteristics Trees Leaves Small lot suitable Good Fall color Flowering tree Leaves fragrant Safe for beneath power lines Fruit Showy Gold foliage Evergreen Bark Showy Edible Wildlife value Attract hummingbirds Attract butterflies Attract birds Poisonous Foliage Fruit Description With its lacy foliage, large white flower clusters and brilliant red berry clusters, Red Elderberry is a showy shrub that makes a wonderful addition to the native plant garden. Morphology: This deciduous shrub grows up to 20’ tall and 6’ in width. It has arching stems that give this species a vase shape form. Leaves are pinnately compound with individual leaflets set in an opposite arrangement. Each leaf is 6”-12” long with 5 to 7 lanceolate leaflets, with a pointed apex and pointed and serrated margins. The foliage is dark green and smooth above and paler below. In the fall the leaves turn red before being shed for the winter. Flowers are monoecious (both male and female parts together). The flowers are white and small and appear in April through May. They form in large dome shaped clusters (umbels). They have a rather unpleasant, skunk smell. Butterflies enjoy the nectar of the flowers, while birds will feast on the ripe berries. In mid summer the flowers morph to small (1/16 to 1/8 inch) red, berry like fruits. The stems are hollow. Early Americans made them into pipe-stems and flutes or toy whistles. Adaptation: Red Elderberry thrives in both full sun as well as partial shade. It will put on more growth with wetter site conditions. The clusters of drupes are generally considered toxic for human consumption. When ripe however they can be cooked and made into processed products, or fermented into wine. The rest of the plant (flowers, leaves, seeds, roots) is toxic as it contains cyanideproducing glycosides. Thursday, February 20, 2014
  19. 19. Western Spirea Scientific name: Spiraea douglassi Taxonomy Plant Requirements Family: Rosaceae Zone: Type: 1 to 9 Deciduous shrubs Native: YES Plant Characteristics Height: 6 ft Bloom: Summer flowers Width: 5 ft Bloom Time: June to September Bloom Color: Pink Additional Characteristics Trees Leaves Small lot suitable Good Fall color Flowering tree Leaves fragrant Safe for beneath power lines Fruit Showy Edible Gold foliage Evergreen Bark Showy Wildlife value Attract hummingbirds Attract butterflies Attract birds Poisonous Foliage Fruit Description As a fast growing Northwest native deciduous shrub, western or Douglas spiraea (also referred to as hardhack or steeplebush) grows 5'-6' tall and nearly as wide. Western spiraea is best known for its towering rose colored flowers, resembling cotton candy cones, which appear from June through September. Home gardeners should consider this species for their native landscape designs. Morphology: Leaves alternate, simple, oblong, and 1”-3” long. Leaves have irregular serrate or toothed margins, and are dark green above, and whitish beneath. Flowers are deep pink, 2 to 8” long, and are arranged in conical plumes. The beautiful flowers of this plant attract butterflies, bees and other insects. Spent flower clusters are dark brown, and are retained as dried out forms over the winter. When Douglas spiraea forms dense thickets, it is a perfect hiding spot for small mammals, amphibians, and birds. Adaptation: It is native to low, moist places, from northern California north to Alaska, at lower elevations. It likes sun to part shade. It will tolerate a lot of water. It can become very drought tolerant. Extensively used for wetland restorations. Thursday, February 20, 2014 Pests:
  20. 20. Cascara Scientific name: Rhamnus purshiana Taxonomy Plant Requirements Family: Rhamnaceae Zone: 3 to 9 Type: Sun: Full to partial sun Deciduous tree Native: YES Moisture: Medium Plant Characteristics Height: 30 ft Bloom: Spring flowers Width: 15 ft Bloom Time: May Bloom Color: White Additional Characteristics Trees Leaves Small lot suitable Good Fall color Flowering tree Leaves fragrant Safe for beneath power lines Fruit Showy Edible Gold foliage Evergreen Bark Showy Wildlife value Attract hummingbirds Attract butterflies Attract birds Poisonous Foliage Fruit Description Cascara is known in both the native plant as well as the medical trade. In the late 1800’s it was discovered that the bark from the Cascara tree could be used as a mild cathartic, helping the symptoms of habitual constipation. Also knonwn as Chittam, or Cascara Buckthorn. Morphology: Cascara is a deciduous tree that can attain a mature height of 30’ and width of 15’. In the southern portion of its range (California) it often becomes a small shrub. Leaves are borne in an alternate fashion at the ends of the limbs. Leaves are simple and elliptic to oblong in shape. Mature leaves can be up to 6” long. They have 10-15 parallel veins and a pointed tip. During the growing season the leaves are dark green on their upper surfaces and lighter below. Fall foliage can become a very intense yellow, with shades of orange and red possible. In May small green-white flowers appear. Flowers have sepals, petals, and stamens in clusters. Flowers are classified as umbels. Flowers morph to small black berries (known as drupes). They are obtusely 3-angled, about the size of a large pea, and contain 3 black, shining seeds. Immature berries are red but mature to deep purple to black. Adaptation: The Cascara tree can grow in both sun or shade. It prefers moist, well drained sites. This native tree grows from northern British Columbia south into California and east into Idaho and Montana. Thursday, February 20, 2014 Pests:
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