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Adventures in boating wa 2009
 

Adventures in boating wa 2009

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    Adventures in boating wa 2009 Adventures in boating wa 2009 Presentation Transcript

    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Copyright © 2009 by Boat Ed. All rights reserved. No part of this ADVENTURES IN BOATING WASHINGTON PowerPoint® presentation may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any process without permission in writing from Boat Ed.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Class PlanClass Plan Chapter One: Know Your Boat Chapter Two: Before You Get Underway Chapter Three: Operating Your Boat Safely Chapter Four: Legal Requirements of Boating Chapter Five: Boating Emergencies Chapter Six: Enjoying Water Sports
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Chapter One Know Your Boat
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Key TopicsKey Topics Parts of a Boat Types of Boat Hulls Length of a Vessel Types of Engines Personal Watercraft (PWC) Sailboats
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ObjectivesObjectives You should …You should … ► be able to identify the basic parts of a boat, a PWC, and a sailboat. ► be able to identify the different types of hulls and their performance characteristics. ► be able to identify the different kinds of engines commonly found in recreational vessels and their uses.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed The Many Parts of a BoatThe Many Parts of a Boat
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed The Many Parts of a BoatThe Many Parts of a Boat (cont.)(cont.) Transom: Vertical surface at the back of the hull
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Types of Boat HullsTypes of Boat Hulls Displacement hulls are designed to cut through water with very little propulsion. Planing hulls rise up and glide on top of the water when enough power is supplied.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Types of Boat HullsTypes of Boat Hulls (cont.)(cont.) How Planing Hulls OperateHow Planing Hulls Operate Displacement Mode  A planing hull, when operated at very slow speeds, will cut through water like a displacement hull.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Types of Boat HullsTypes of Boat Hulls (cont.)(cont.) Plowing Mode  As speed increases, planing hull will have raised bow, reducing operator’s vision and throwing very large wake. Planing Mode  Boat is in planing mode when enough power is applied so that hull glides on top of the water.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Types of Boat HullsTypes of Boat Hulls (cont.)(cont.) Hull Shapes Advantages Disadvantages Flat Bottom Hull Planing hull with shallow draft—good for fishing in small lakes and rivers Rides roughly in choppy waters Deep Vee Hull Planing hull gives smoother ride in rough water Takes more power to move than a flat bottom hull—may roll or bank in sharp turns There are four basic hull shapes:There are four basic hull shapes:
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Types of Boat HullsTypes of Boat Hulls (cont.)(cont.) Hull Shapes Advantages Disadvantages Round Bottom Hull Typical displacement hull that moves easily through water even at slow speeds Has a tendency to roll unless it has a deep keel or stabilizers Multi-Hull Another displacement hull— has greater stability because of wide beam Needs large area when turning
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Length of a VesselLength of a Vessel Vessels are divided into classes by length which dictates equipment necessary to comply with federal and state laws.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Length of a VesselLength of a Vessel (cont.)(cont.) Four most common length classes are:Four most common length classes are:  Less than 16 feet (Class A)  16 feet to less than 26 feet (Class 1)  26 feet to less than 40 feet (Class 2)  40 feet to less than 65 feet (Class 3)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Engine Types—OutboardsEngine Types—Outboards  Portable, self-contained unit consisting of an engine, gear case, and propeller that is attached to the transom.  May be four-stroke design, or conventional two- stroke engine.  Steering controlled by tiller or steering wheel.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Engine Types—InboardsEngine Types—Inboards  Mounted inside hull’s midsection or in front of transom  Four-stroke automotive engine adapted for marine use  Two-stroke engine on PWC  Steering is controlled by rudder behind the propeller (except PWC and jet drive boats)  PWC steering controlled by jet flow of water
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Engine Types—Stern DrivesEngine Types—Stern Drives  Known as inboard/outboards (I/O)  Mounted inside vessel and attached through transom to drive unit  Four-cycle automotive engines adapted for marine use  Steering controlled by the outdrive, which swivels like an outboard engine to direct propeller thrust
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Engine Types—Jet DrivesEngine Types—Jet Drives  Jet drives propel vessel by jet of water forced out back of vessel. Directing jet steers vessel.  PWC are most common type of vessels using jet drive.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Engine Types—Jet DrivesEngine Types—Jet Drives (cont.)(cont.)  May power larger vessels—commonly used for vessels designed for shallow water conditions. Jet boats can have inboard or outboard jet drives.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal Watercraft (PWC)Personal Watercraft (PWC)  PWC are small vessels that use an inboard jet drive as primary source of propulsion.  U.S. Coast Guard includes PWC in group of inboard vessels less than 16 feet in length.  PWC are subject to same laws and requirements of any other vessel plus some specific to PWC.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal WatercraftPersonal Watercraft (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal WatercraftPersonal Watercraft (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed SailboatsSailboats Sailboats basicallySailboats basically consist of fourconsist of four components:components:  Hull  Rigging  Keel or centerboard  Rudder
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Chapter Two Before You Get Underway
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Key TopicsKey Topics  Boat’s Capacity  Float Plans  Fuel Your Vessel … Safely  Fueling a PWC  Trailering  Courtesy on the Boat Ramp  Vessel Maintenance  Engine Maintenance  Lines and Knots  Preventing Theft
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ObjectivesObjectives You should …You should … ►be able to locate and understand a boat’s capacity plate. ►know how to file a proper float plan. ►be able to fuel a vessel safely. ►be able to launch and retrieve a vessel from a trailer safely and courteously. ►know the basics of vessel and engine maintenance.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Boat CapacityBoat Capacity  Capacity plate is located near the operator’s position or on the transom.  Indicates maximum weight capacity and/or maximum number of people boat can carry safely in good weather.  Federal law requires single- hull boats have capacity plate if less than 20 feet in length.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Boat CapacityBoat Capacity (cont.)(cont.)  Recommended capacity for PWC and sailboats is found in the owner’s manual and on manufacturer’s warning decal.  Vessels with no capacity plate Number of people = vessel length (ft.) X vessel width (ft.) 15  On outboard powerboats capacity plate also displays recommended maximum horsepower rating.  To be certified by National Marine Manufacturers Association, must have capacity plate on all boats less than 26 feet.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Float PlanFloat Plan For short outings, at minimum you should:For short outings, at minimum you should:  Inform a responsible person of: ● Where you are boating and when you are returning ● Telephone number of local authorities to call if you are overdue  Contact this person when you return or if you decide to extend your trip.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Float PlanFloat Plan (cont.)(cont.) For extended outings, leave floatFor extended outings, leave float plan with someone that:plan with someone that:  Describes vessel, its number, size, make, horsepower, and engine type.  Includes description and license plate of tow vehicle and trailer.  Gives passenger names, addresses, and an emergency contact.  Lists destination, route, departure time, and expected return time.  Gives phone number of local authorities.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Fueling Your Vessel … SafelyFueling Your Vessel … Safely Before beginning to fuel:Before beginning to fuel:  Tie the boat securely to fuel dock.  Ask passengers to leave boat and go onto dock.  Don’t allow anyone to smoke or strike a match.  Check to see that fuel lines, connections, and fuel vents are in good condition.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Fueling Your VesselFueling Your Vessel (cont.)(cont.)  Turn off anything that might cause a spark— engines, fans, or electrical equipment.  Shut off fuel valves and extinguish all open flames.  Close all windows, ports, doors, and openings.  Remove portable fuel tanks from boat and fill them on dock.  Make sure that fire extinguisher is within reach.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed While filling the fuel tank:While filling the fuel tank:  Keep nozzle of fuel-pump hose in solid contact with tank opening to prevent producing static spark.  Use caution and fill tank slowly to avoid spilling fuel into boat’s bilge or into water.  Never fill tank to brim—leave room for fuel to expand. Fueling Your VesselFueling Your Vessel (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Fueling Your VesselFueling Your Vessel (cont.)(cont.) After fueling:After fueling:  Put fill cap on tightly to prevent vapors from escaping.  Wipe up any spilled fuel and properly dispose of used paper towels or rags on shore.  Open all windows, ports, doors, and other openings.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Fueling Your VesselFueling Your Vessel (cont.)(cont.)  If boat is equipped with a power ventilation system, turn it on for at least four minutes before starting your engine to help eliminate fuel vapors in the bilge.  Before starting engine, sniff bilge and engine compartment for fuel vapors.  Start engine and reload passengers.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Fueling A PWCFueling A PWC  Check entire fuel system for leaks and inspect fuel system connections frequently.  Avoid spills when fueling in or near the water.  Do not tip PWC to fill all the way up.  After fueling, sniff engine compartment for any evidence of gas fumes.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed PWC Fuel Selector SwitchPWC Fuel Selector Switch  Off position used when PWC’s engine is turned off.  On position used while you are underway.  Reserve position used if you run out of fuel while underway.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Trailering Your VesselTrailering Your Vessel Choose the Right Trailer & Vehicle To Tow VesselChoose the Right Trailer & Vehicle To Tow Vessel  Trailer and towing vehicle should be designed to fit vessel. ● Use size of vessel to determine dimensions of trailer needed. ● Weight of vessel, engine, and gear should not exceed 90% of trailer’s recommended load capacity. ● Make sure towing vehicle is rated to tow combined weight of vessel, motor, and trailer.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Trailering Your VesselTrailering Your Vessel (cont.)(cont.)  Towing hitch must be appropriate for loaded trailer. ● The coupler on a trailer connects to ball hitch on towing vehicle. If using vehicle bumper-mounted hitch, do not exceed weight rating of bumper. ● Coupler size must match the size of the ball hitch.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Trailering Your VesselTrailering Your Vessel (cont.)(cont.) ● Tongue weight is the weight a loaded trailer places on the towing hitch. Should be about 10% of combined weight of vessel and trailer.  Two strong safety chains should be crisscrossed to support trailer’s coupler if it becomes disconnected from towing vehicle.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Trailering Your VesselTrailering Your Vessel (cont.)(cont.) Before Leaving HomeBefore Leaving Home  Secure vessel and gear. ● Secure all gear in vessel firmly and arrange it so that weight is evenly distributed. ● Secure vessel to trailer with several tie-down straps and/or safety lines. Use extra straps. ● Put engine or drive unit in raised position and secure it. ● Attach safety chains between trailer and towing vehicle, crisscrossing them under trailer tongue.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Trailering Your VesselTrailering Your Vessel (cont.)(cont.)  Inspect and maintain trailering equipment. ● Check pressure of tires on towing vehicle and trailer. Make sure you have good spares for both. ● Tighten the lug bolts/bolts on wheels of towing vehicle and trailer and grease wheel bearings. ● Make sure all lights and brakes on towing vehicle and trailer work properly. ● Examine tie-down straps, lines, winch, safety chains, and hitch for signs of wear.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Trailering Your VesselTrailering Your Vessel (cont.)(cont.) On the Road With a TrailerOn the Road With a Trailer  Drive cautiously. ● Drive at moderate speeds and avoid sudden maneuvers. ● On long trips, pull over every hour or so to check vehicle, trailer, tires, trailer coupling, and gear.  Allow for added length and weight of trailer. ● Make wider turns at corners and curves. ● Allow extra time and distance for stopping and for passing other vehicles.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Trailering Your VesselTrailering Your Vessel (cont.)(cont.) Launching Your Vessel from a TrailerLaunching Your Vessel from a Trailer  Prepare to launch well away from the boat ramp. ● Transfer all equipment and supplies to vessel. ● Disconnect trailer lights from towing vehicle. ● Remove all tie-down straps before backing down ramp but leave trailer winch line securely attached to vessel. ● Make sure vessel’s drain plug is in place. ● Tie a rope to vessel’s bow to use to control vessel if necessary during launching.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Trailering Your VesselTrailering Your Vessel (cont.)(cont.)  Back trailered vessel into water far enough so that lower unit of engine can be lowered and submerged while vessel is still on trailer. ● Set parking brake on towing vehicle. ● Lower engine or outdrive, and start engine. If vessel is still on trailer and you have engine trouble, you can retrieve vessel easily. ● Once engine is warmed up, back trailer into water until vessel floats—undo winch line, put vessel engine in reverse, and back slowly off trailer.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Trailering Your VesselTrailering Your Vessel (cont.)(cont.) Retrieving Your VesselRetrieving Your Vessel  Back trailer into water so that ⅔ of rollers or bunks are submerged. Set parking brake of towing vehicle, put it in park or first gear. ● Move vessel onto trailer far enough so winch line can be attached to bow eye of vessel. ● Shut off engine, raise engine or outdrive. ● Pull vessel out of water.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Trailering Your VesselTrailering Your Vessel (cont.)(cont.)  Prepare for the drive home well away from boat ramp. ● While at ramp area, remove and dispose of all weeds from vessel and trailer. Remove drain plug to release bilge water, drain live wells. ● Secure vessel on trailer and gear within vessel. ● Repeat instructions in “Before Leaving Home.”
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Trailering Your VesselTrailering Your Vessel (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Trailering Your VesselTrailering Your Vessel (cont.)(cont.) Courtesy on theCourtesy on the Boat RampBoat Ramp  Prepare vessel for launching well away from ramp.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Trailering Your VesselTrailering Your Vessel (cont.)(cont.)  Use at least two experienced people to launch and retrieve vessel.  Never block ramp with an unattended vessel or vehicle.  When retrieving, do not pull vessel into a launch lane until towing vehicle is at ramp.  After retrieving vessel from water, pull it well away from ramp before preparing it for drive home.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Vessel MaintenanceVessel Maintenance  Examine interior and exterior of hull. ● Check for oxidation ● Use only environmentally-safe, non-phosphate detergents ● Check through-hull fittings for cracks and leaks ● Remove all puddles from interior before and after outings  Store vessels in dry area out of the sun.  Clean all lines. Keep lines out of sun.  Clean sails—examine for tears or open seams.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Engine Maintenance Follow a regular maintenance program.Follow a regular maintenance program.  Keep engine clean and well tuned.  Check oil and fluid levels before every outing according to the owner’s manual.  Tighten battery connections. Clean battery terminals.  Inspect engine for anything that show signs of wear or requires tightening.  Use marine parts only.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Lines and KnotsLines and Knots
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Preventing TheftPreventing Theft  Store vessel so it is not easily seen and trailer cannot be moved.  Chain and lock outboard motor and fuel tanks to vessel.  Mark or engrave all equipment with identifier.  Photograph or video tape interior and exterior of vessel. Make complete inventory of equipment, vessel, and trailer.  Remove expensive electronics or other valuables.  Cover vessel—always remove keys and registration.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Chapter Three Operating Your Boat Safely
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Key TopicsKey Topics  Casting Off and Docking  Navigation Rules  Navigation Lights  Night Navigation  Sound Signals  Navigational Aids  Anchoring  Dams, Locks, and Bridges  Compasses and Charts  PWC Operation  Ignition Safety Switches  Avoiding Propeller Strike Injuries
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ObjectivesObjectives You should …You should … ►be able to cast off and dock under different wind and current conditions. ►know three major responsibilities of a vessel operator. ►know what to do when encountering another vessel. ►know types of night navigation lights and how to interpret them.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ObjectivesObjectives (cont.)(cont.) ►be able to use and interpret sound signals. ►know what to do when encountering buoys and markers. ►be able to anchor vessel correctly. ►understand dangers inherent in boating near dams, locks, and bridges and effects of tides and currents on vessels.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ObjectivesObjectives (cont.)(cont.) ►know how to use a compass and read a nautical chart ►be able to operate PWC safely and courteously. ►be strongly aware that power is required for steering control of PWC. ►understand how ignition safety switches work. ►know how to avoid propeller strike injuries.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Casting OffCasting Off Before casting off:Before casting off:  Keep boat tied to dock while you warm up engine.  Make sure everyone on board is seated and wearing a life jacket.  Check that engine is running properly and departure area is clear of traffic. Then begin to cast off. If there is no wind or current:If there is no wind or current:  Cast off bow and stern lines.  Shift to forward and slowly move forward, gradually turning boat away from dock.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Casting OffCasting Off (cont.)(cont.) Click Start to begin animation
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Casting OffCasting Off (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed DockingDocking Before docking:Before docking:  Reduce speed to minimum required to maintain steerage. Use reverse gear to bring boat to a stop well away from dock.  Determine wind and/or current direction—make your approach into wind or current, whichever is stronger.  Have bow and stern lines ready—put fenders in place. Never stop moving boat with arms or legs.  When area is clear of traffic, continue approach.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed DockingDocking (cont.)(cont.) Click Start to begin animation
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed DockingDocking (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed DockingDocking (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation RulesNavigation Rules Three basic rules of navigationThree basic rules of navigation  Practice good seamanship.  Keep a proper lookout.  Maintain a safe speed.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation RulesNavigation Rules (cont.)(cont.) There are two terms to help explain what to doThere are two terms to help explain what to do when encountering other vessels.when encountering other vessels.  Give-way vesselGive-way vessel—vessel that is required to take early and substantial action to keep well away from other vessels
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation RulesNavigation Rules (cont.)(cont.)  Stand-on vesselStand-on vessel—vessel that should maintain its course and speed unless it becomes apparent that give-way vessel is not taking appropriate action
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation RulesNavigation Rules (cont.)(cont.) The action a vessel operator should take whenThe action a vessel operator should take when encountering another vessel depends on:encountering another vessel depends on: How the two vessels are propelled How the two vessels are approaching one another The following rules cover most situations. ThereThe following rules cover most situations. There are exceptions. For example:are exceptions. For example: If you approach a vessel that has less maneuverability than your vessel, the other vessel is usually the stand-on vessel.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation RulesNavigation Rules (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation RulesNavigation Rules (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation RulesNavigation Rules (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation RulesNavigation Rules (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation RulesNavigation Rules (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation RulesNavigation Rules (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation RulesNavigation Rules (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation RulesNavigation Rules (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation RulesNavigation Rules (cont.)(cont.) If operating power-driven vessel, you must giveIf operating power-driven vessel, you must give way to:way to:  Vessel not under command  Vessel restricted in its ability to maneuver or a vessel constrained by its draft, such as large ship in channel  Vessel engaged in commercial fishing  Sailing vessel unless it is overtaking
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation RulesNavigation Rules (cont.)(cont.) If operating a sailing vessel, must give way to:If operating a sailing vessel, must give way to:  Vessel not under command  Vessel restricted in ability to maneuver  Vessel engaged in commercial fishing
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation RulesNavigation Rules (cont.)(cont.) Operating During Restricted VisibilityOperating During Restricted Visibility  All operators should navigate with extreme caution if visibility is restricted.  Vessels not in sight of one another should: ● Proceed at a safe speed given the conditions of restricted visibility. ● Reduce speed to the minimum if an operator hears a fog signal of another vessel ahead, is in a close-quarters situation with another vessel ahead, or detects the presence of another vessel by radar.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation LightsNavigation Lights  Navigation lights help you and other boaters determine which is the give-way vessel when encountering each other at night.  These lights must be displayed from sunset to sunrise and during periods of restricted visibility.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation LightsNavigation Lights (cont.)(cont.) Sidelights (or combination lights) ● RedRed light indicates vessel’s port (left) side. ● GreenGreen light indicates vessel’s starboard (right) side.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation LightsNavigation Lights (cont.)(cont.)  Sternlight ● White light seen only from behind or nearly behind the vessel.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation LightsNavigation Lights (cont.)(cont.) Masthead Light ● White light shines forward and to both sides— required on all power- driven vessels. ● Must be used by all vessels when under engine power. ● Absence of this light identifies sailboat under sail.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation LightsNavigation Lights (cont.)(cont.)  All-Round White Light ●May be used to combine masthead and stern light on power-vessels less than 39.4 feet in length. ●Serves as anchor light when sidelights are extinguished.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Night NavigationNight Navigation  Lights of other vessels help you determine: ● If operating under power or sail ● Their direction of travel  Apply same navigational rules used in daytime.  Never assume lights of other vessels are working properly.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Night NavigationNight Navigation (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Night NavigationNight Navigation (cont.)(cont.) Lights – green, white
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Night NavigationNight Navigation (cont.)(cont.) Lights – green, whiteLights – green, white Lights – red, white
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Night NavigationNight Navigation (cont.)(cont.) Lights – white
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Night NavigationNight Navigation (cont.)(cont.) Lights – red, green, white
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Night NavigationNight Navigation (cont.)(cont.) Lights – red, green
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Night NavigationNight Navigation (cont.)(cont.) Lights – red
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Night NavigationNight Navigation (cont.)(cont.) Towing Lights  When commercial vessels are towing, they display one or more yellow lights in place of sternlight. May be unlit space of several hundred yards between lights on bow and stern.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Night NavigationNight Navigation (cont.)(cont.) Precautions at NightPrecautions at Night  Make sure navigations lights are working.  Use an all-round white light whenever vessel is at anchor.  Reduce speed and proceed with caution.  Be alert for everything in front of you.  Avoid traveling alone at night.  Stop if visibility is severely restricted. Use sound signals to alert others in the area.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Sound SignalsSound Signals Sound signals composed of short andSound signals composed of short and prolonged blasts and must be audible for atprolonged blasts and must be audible for at least one-half mile.least one-half mile.  Short blastShort blast—about one second in duration.  Prolonged blastProlonged blast—4-6 seconds in duration.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Sound SignalsSound Signals (cont.)(cont.) Sound signals can communicate a change inSound signals can communicate a change in direction to other boaters.direction to other boaters.  One short blastOne short blast tells other boaters “I intend to pass you on my port (left) side.”  Two short blastsTwo short blasts tells other boaters “I intend to pass you on my starboard (right) side.”  Three short blastsThree short blasts tells other boaters “I am backing up.”
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Sound SignalsSound Signals (cont.)(cont.) Sound signals let other boaters know whereSound signals let other boaters know where you are located during periods of restrictedyou are located during periods of restricted visibility.visibility.  One prolonged blast at intervals of not moreOne prolonged blast at intervals of not more than two minutesthan two minutes is the signal used by power- driven vessels when underway.  One prolonged blast plus two short blasts atOne prolonged blast plus two short blasts at intervals of not more than two minutesintervals of not more than two minutes is the signal used by sailing vessels.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Sound SignalsSound Signals (cont.)(cont.) Sound signals are used to warn other boatersSound signals are used to warn other boaters or alert them to danger.or alert them to danger.  One prolonged blastOne prolonged blast is a warning signal.  Five (or more) short, rapid blastsFive (or more) short, rapid blasts are used to signal danger or that you do not understand or disagree with the other boater’s intentions.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed U.S. Aids To Navigation SystemU.S. Aids To Navigation System Lateral MarkersLateral Markers  Red Colors, Red Lights, and Even NumbersRed Colors, Red Lights, and Even Numbers mark edge of channel on right side as boater enters from open sea or heads upstream.  Green Colors, Green Lights, and OddGreen Colors, Green Lights, and Odd NumbersNumbers mark edge of channel on left side as boater enters from open sea or heads upstream. (ATON)(ATON)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed U.S. Aids To Navigation SystemU.S. Aids To Navigation System (cont.)(cont.)  RedRed and GreenGreen Colors and/or Lights indicates preferred (primary channel). ● If greengreen on top, preferred channel is to right. ● If redred on top, preferred channel is to left.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed U.S. Aids To Navigation SystemU.S. Aids To Navigation System (cont.)(cont.)  Nuns and Cans—red cone-shaped (nuns) or green cylindrical-shaped (cans)  Lighted Buoys— same as Lateral System but with matching colored light  Daymarks—red triangles or green squares permanently attached to structures; may be lighted
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed U.S. Aids To Navigation SystemU.S. Aids To Navigation System (cont.)(cont.) Use this phrase as a reminder of the correct course when returning from open waters or heading upstream: ““Red Right Returning”Red Right Returning”
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed U.S. Aids To Navigation SystemU.S. Aids To Navigation System (cont.)(cont.) Lateral MarkersLateral Markers——Intracoastal Waterway (ICW)Intracoastal Waterway (ICW)  Variation on U.S. Aids to Navigation System  Chain of local channels linked together along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts  Marked with yellow symbols on channel buoys and markers
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed U.S. Aids To Navigation SystemU.S. Aids To Navigation System (cont.)(cont.)  Following the ICW in a clockwise direction from New Jersey to Brownsville, TX, these rules apply: ● Any marker with a yellow triangle should be passed by keeping it on the starboard (right) side of the vessel. ● Any marker with a yellow square should be passed by keeping it on the port (left). ● These rules are true regardless of shape or color of channel markers or buoy on which ICW symbols are displayed.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed U.S. Aids To Navigation SystemU.S. Aids To Navigation System (cont.)(cont.) Lateral MarkersLateral Markers——Western Rivers SystemWestern Rivers System  Variation on U.S. Aids to Navigation System  Used on the Mississippi River and tributaries above Baton Rouge, LA and on some other rivers that flow toward the Gulf of Mexico
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed U.S. Aids To Navigation SystemU.S. Aids To Navigation System (cont.)(cont.)  Differs from ATON lateral markers in that navigation markers on Western Rivers System are not numbered. ● Numbers displayed below daymarks along Western Rivers System are not associated with right or left side of channel. ● These numbers indicate distance from river’s mouth. Indicates 73.5 miles from the river mouth
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed U.S. Aids To Navigation SystemU.S. Aids To Navigation System (cont.)(cont.) Non-Lateral MarkersNon-Lateral Markers  Squares provide information indicating directions, distances, places to find food, supplies, and repairs, etc.  Diamonds warn of dangers such as rocks, dams, shoals, construction, or stumps.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed U.S. Aids To Navigation SystemU.S. Aids To Navigation System (cont.)(cont.)  Circles indicate controlled areas such as no wake, idle speed, speed limit, or ski zone.  Crossed Diamonds indicate areas off-limits (exclusion area) to all vessels such as swimming areas, dams, and spillways.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed U.S. Aids To Navigation SystemU.S. Aids To Navigation System (cont.)(cont.) Other Non-Lateral MarkersOther Non-Lateral Markers  Safe Water Markers indicate unobstructed water on all sides—mark mid-channels or fairways and may be passed on either side.  Inland Waters Obstruction Markers indicate an obstruction to navigation— should not pass between these buoys and the shore.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed U.S. Aids To Navigation SystemU.S. Aids To Navigation System (cont.)(cont.)  Mooring Buoys found in marinas and other areas where vessels are allowed to anchor —these are only buoys you may tie up to legally.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed U.S. Aids To Navigation SystemU.S. Aids To Navigation System (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed AnchoringAnchoring
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Dams, Locks, and BridgesDams, Locks, and Bridges
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Dams, Locks, and BridgesDams, Locks, and Bridges (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Dams, Locks, and BridgesDams, Locks, and Bridges (cont.)(cont.)  Should always reduce speed and proceed with caution near any bridge.  Many bridges high enough to allow normal passage.  Some bridges provide only low clearance during normal conditions or periods of high water.  Many drawbridges open and close when a boat arrives.  Debris can collect around pilings of bridges and create dangerous obstructions.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Changing Water LevelsChanging Water Levels  Boat operators in coastal waters need to be mindful of effect of tides.  Rise and fall of tides can cause water levels to fluctuate by several feet and also can generate strong currents.  Tides can cause boats to run aground in areas where earlier navigation may have been safe.  Change in tides also can affect docking to a fixed pier.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Compasses and ChartsCompasses and Charts Compass shows magnetic north to which youCompass shows magnetic north to which you apply a correction to determine the direction ofapply a correction to determine the direction of true north.true north.  Useful if land is out of sight, visibility is reduced, or boat operator is disoriented.  Compass should be mounted away from iron, magnets, and electrical wiring and equipment.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Compasses and ChartsCompasses and Charts (cont.)(cont.) Nautical charts helpful when boating in bays orNautical charts helpful when boating in bays or in large lakesin large lakes——charts give:charts give:  Water depths  Locations of channels, sand bars, rocks, and vegetation  Most direct course possible
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Compasses and ChartsCompasses and Charts (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal Watercraft (PWC)Personal Watercraft (PWC)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal WatercraftPersonal Watercraft (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal WatercraftPersonal Watercraft (cont.)(cont.) Other PWC ConsiderationsOther PWC Considerations  PWC regulations vary from state to state.  Most states require everyone on board PWC wear a PFD (life jacket).  Any passenger on PWC should be able to securely hold on to person in front of them or to the handholds, while keeping both feet firmly on footrests. Children may be too small to do this and shouldn’t ride.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal WatercraftPersonal Watercraft (cont.)(cont.)  Passenger on PWC should never be seated in front of operator.  Keep hands, feet, loose clothing, and hair away from pump intake area.  Jet of water exiting steering nozzle at rear of PWC can cause severe internal injuries. Anyone riding on PWC should wear a wetsuit or other clothing that provides similar protection. Keep everyone clear of steering nozzle unless PWC is shut off.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal WatercraftPersonal Watercraft (cont.)(cont.)  Frequently inspect your PWC’s electrical systems and perform “sniff test” after fueling.  Never exceed the load capacity of PWC.  Know your limits and ride according to your abilities.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Ignition Safety SwitchesIgnition Safety Switches  Lanyard connects safety switch to operator’s wrist or PFD. If lanyard is pulled from switch, engine shuts off.  Most states require operators to attach lanyard.  PWC may have a self- circling feature if the operator falls off.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Ignition Safety SwitchesIgnition Safety Switches (cont.)(cont.) Safety Lanyards Prevent Self-Inflicted PropellerSafety Lanyards Prevent Self-Inflicted Propeller StrikesStrikes Wearing an ignition safety switch lanyard ensures that your boat or PWC stays close by if you fall overboard and prevents you from being run over by your own boat. Wearing lanyard reduces the risk of a propeller injury and makes it easier to reboard.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Avoid Propeller Strike InjuriesAvoid Propeller Strike Injuries  Turn off engine when passengers are boarding or disembarking.  Prevent passengers from being thrown overboard accidentally. ● Never start a boat with engine in gear. ● Never ride on seat back, gunwale, transom, or bow. ● Make sure all passengers are properly seated before getting underway. ● Assign a responsible adult to watch any children in boat and sound alarm if child falls overboard.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Avoid Propeller Strike InjuriesAvoid Propeller Strike Injuries (cont.)(cont.)  Maintain proper lookout for people in water. ● Slow down when approaching congested areas and anchorages. Be alert for swimmers and divers. ● Learn to recognize warning buoys. ● Keep boat away from marked swimming and diving areas. Become familiar with the two types of diver-down flags.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Avoid Propeller Strike InjuriesAvoid Propeller Strike Injuries (cont.)(cont.) Devices that Reduce Propeller StrikesDevices that Reduce Propeller Strikes Several new technologies are available to reduce propeller strikes. The devices fall into the following categories.  Guards: Devices that provide some type of physical barrier around the propeller.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Avoid Propeller Strike InjuriesAvoid Propeller Strike Injuries (cont.)(cont.)  Propulsion: Devices such as jet drives and pump jets.  Interlocks: Devices that automatically turn off the engine or sound an alarm.  Sensors: Wireless sensors or other devices worn by boaters that shut off the boat’s engine or trigger an alarm if the wearer falls overboard.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Circle of DeathCircle of Death
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Chapter Four Legal Requirements
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Key TopicsKey Topics  Numbering and Documentation  Hull Identification Number  Age/Education Requirements  Unlawful Operation  Alcohol and Drugs  Obstructing Navigation  Homeland Security  Personal Flotation Devices  Fire Extinguishers  Flame Arrestors, Ventilation, and Mufflers
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Key TopicsKey Topics (cont.)(cont.)  Navigation Lights  Sound-Producing Devices & Visual Distress Signals  Other Equipment and Regulations  PWC Laws  Laws Relating to Towing Person(s)  Waste, Oil, and Trash Disposal  Protecting the Environment  Reporting Accidents  Penalties and Enforcement
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ObjectivesObjectives You should … ►know which vessels need to be registered and how to do so. ►be able to correctly place Certificate of Number and validation decal on vessel. ►know where to find HIN number. ►know the age and education restrictions for vessel operation.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ObjectivesObjectives (cont.)(cont.) ►be able to list reckless and illegal behaviors that should be avoided when operating a vessel. ►be able to explain dangers of consuming alcohol or drugs while boating, and penalties for doing so. ►know the laws pertaining to obstructing navigation. ►know you role in keeping waterways safe and secure.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ObjectivesObjectives (cont.)(cont.) ►be able to identify classifications and uses of personal flotation devices and state legal requirements. ►know legal requirements for fire extinguishers, flame arrestors, ventilation systems, and mufflers. ►know legal navigation light requirements. ►know legal requirements for visual distress signals and sound producing devices.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ObjectivesObjectives (cont.)(cont.) ►know requirements for other equipment such as diver-down flags. ►understand legal requirements specific to PWC. ►know legal requirements for towing a skier with a vessel. ►understand how to properly dispose of waste, oil, and trash and properly use MSDs. ►know when and how to report a boating accident.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Registration and DecalRegistration and Decal You must have a Washington title, registration card, and registration decals to navigate, operate, employ, or moor a vessel on Washington’s waters.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Registration and DecalRegistration and Decal (cont.)(cont.) Exceptions are:  Vessels not propelled by motor and sailboats under 16 feet long without a motor.  Vessels less than 16 feet in length and with motor of 10 hp or less and are used on federal waters.  Properly registered vessels owned by residents of another state or country that use Washington waters for 60 days or less.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Registration and DecalRegistration and Decal (cont.)(cont.) Title, registration card, and registration decals obtained by presenting proper application form, fees, and proof of ownership. Registration card must be on board and available for inspection by an enforcement officer whenever vessel is operated on the water. If your vessel requires registration, illegal to operate it or allow others to operate it unless it is registered and numbered.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Registration and DecalRegistration and Decal (cont.)(cont.) Display number and decals as follows: Number must be painted, decaled, or otherwise affixed to forward half of each side of vessel. Number must read from left to right on both sides of vessel. Number must be at least 3" high, BOLD, vertical block characters.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Registration and DecalRegistration and Decal (cont.)(cont.)  Number’s color must contrast with its background.  Letters must be separated from the numbers by spaces or hyphens.  No other numbers may be displayed on either side of bow.  Decals must be affixed on each side of vessel, toward stern of registration number and in line with number.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Registration and DecalRegistration and Decal (cont.)(cont.)  Vessel’s registration valid through June 30—must be renewed beginning July 1 of each year.  All vessels requiring registration must be titled also. Titles obtained through Washington Department of Licensing or county auditor.  Owner of registered vessel must notify Department of Licensing within 15 days of: ● Vessel is abandoned, destroyed, lost, or stolen or … ● Owner’s address changes or … ● Registration card is lost or destroyed.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Registration and DecalRegistration and Decal (cont.)(cont.)  Owner of registered vessel must notify Department of Licensing in writing on appropriate form within five business days of date of sale or transfer of vessel.  Larger recreational vessels owned by U.S. citizens may be documented by the USCG. Documented vessels must also be registered in Washington but not required to display registration number.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Hull Identification NumberHull Identification Number Hull Identification Number (HIN) is a unique, 12- digit number, assigned by manufacturer, to vessels built after 1972.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Hull Identification NumberHull Identification Number (cont.)(cont.) Hull Identification Numbers:  Distinguish one vessel from another.  Are engraved in the fiberglass or on a metal plate attached to the transom.  Are required when applying for Washington registration.  Should be recorded and put in a safe place other than the vessel.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Who May Operate A VesselWho May Operate A Vessel Current requirements are as follows and will remain in effect. You must be at least 14 to operate a personal watercraft (PWC) legally. Illegal to lease, hire, or rent a PWC to anyone under 16. Future requirements set by a Washington boating safety education law that was passed in 2005. This new law will be phased in so that all boaters, unless exempted, must obtain a Washington boater education card by January 1, 2016.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Who May Operate A VesselWho May Operate A Vessel (cont.)(cont.) The new law also requires the following.  No one may operate or permit the operation of a power-driven vessel with an engine that is 15 hp or more, including PWC, unless the operator: ● Is at least 12 if the vessel is not a PWC or is at least 14 if the vessel is a PWC and … ● Has in his or her possession a boater education card (if required) or is accompanied by and is under the direct supervision of a person at least 16 who has a boater education card or who is not yet required to have the card.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Who May Operate A VesselWho May Operate A Vessel (cont.)(cont.)  The phase-in schedule by age group for completing the mandatory boater safety education to obtain a card is as follows:
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Who May Operate A VesselWho May Operate A Vessel (cont.)(cont.)  Persons exempted from the phased-in mandatory boater safety education requirement include: ● Any person born before January 1, 1955 ● Any person who is renting, chartering, or leasing a power-driven vessel with an engine that is 15 hp or more other than a PWC and who completes an approved motor vessel safety operating and equipment checklist
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Who May Operate A VesselWho May Operate A Vessel (cont.)(cont.) ● Any person at least 16 who is renting, chartering, or leasing a PWC and who completes an approved motor vessel safety operating and equipment checklist ● Any person who is a non-resident and who either operates on Washington waters for 60 consecutive days or less ● Any person who is a non-resident and holds a current, approved out-of-state or out-of-country boater safety education certificate or card
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Who May Operate A VesselWho May Operate A Vessel (cont.)(cont.) ● Any person who has purchased the vessel within the last 60 days and has a bill of sale in his or her possession ● Operators of commercial, law enforcement, or government vessels and persons with a USCG captain’s license ● Operators involved in practicing for or participating in a permitted marine event
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Unlawful OperationUnlawful Operation The following dangerous operating practices as illegal in Washington. Negligent Operation is operating a vessel in a manner that causes danger to the life, limb, property, or rights of any person. This includes:  Not paying attention to operation of vessel  Failing to keep proper lookout  Failing to follow the navigation rules
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Unlawful OperationUnlawful Operation (cont.)(cont.)  Causing danger from effects of vessel’s wake  Allowing passengers to ride on bow, gunwales, or transom of vessel not equipped with adequate railing to prevent falls overboard
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Unlawful OperationUnlawful Operation (cont.)(cont.) Reckless Operation is operating carelessly in a willful and wanton disregard of the rights, safety, or property of another person. It includes: Weaving in and out of other vessels, docks, or buoys Playing “chicken” with another vessel Operating in marked “No Boats” area
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Unlawful OperationUnlawful Operation (cont.)(cont.) Teak Surfing (or Platform Dragging) is holding onto any portion of the exterior of the transom of a vessel for any amount of time while a power-driven vessel is underway or the engine is idling. Bodysurfing is swimming or floating on or in the wake directly behind a power-driven vessel that is underway or idling.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Unlawful OperationUnlawful Operation (cont.)(cont.)  The law does not apply to persons who are briefly on a swim platform, swim deck, swim step, or swim ladder while exiting or entering a vessel.  This law has been passed to aid in the prevention of carbon monoxide poisoning.  All new and used power-driven vessels that are sold within Washington must display an approved carbon monoxide warning sticker on the interior of the vessel.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Unlawful OperationUnlawful Operation (cont.)(cont.) Overloading or Overpowering a Vessel is putting too much equipment on a vessel or equipping it with an engine too large and powerful, either of which can cause the vessel to capsize or swamp and put people into cold water.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Unlawful OperationUnlawful Operation (cont.)(cont.)  If it appears to an enforcement officer that the vessel is overloaded or overpowered, the officer may direct the operator to return to shore and correct the condition before continuing the voyage.  It is unsafe and a violation to: ●Load vessel with passengers or cargo beyond its safe carrying ability or to carry passengers in an unsafe manner, taking into consideration the weather and other existing conditions. ●Operate vessel equipped with motor powered beyond vessel’s ability to be operated safely.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Unlawful OperationUnlawful Operation (cont.)(cont.) Assault by Watercraft is operating vessel in a reckless manner or while under influence of alcohol or drugs and injuring another person with serious disfigurement or loss of a body part or organ. Homicide by Watercraft is operating vessel in a reckless manner or while under influence of alcohol or drugs and causing death of another person.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Alcohol and DrugsAlcohol and Drugs Washington law prohibits anyone from operating under the influence (OUI). This means operating any vessel while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or any drug. Alcohol and drugs cause impaired balance, and blurred vision, poor coordination, impaired judgment, and slower reaction time. Alcohol is a major contributor to boating accidents and fatalities.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Alcohol and DrugsAlcohol and Drugs (cont.)(cont.) Washington law states that a person is operating under the influence if he or she: Has blood or breath alcohol concentration of 0.08 grams or greater or … Is under influence of or affected by alcohol and/or any drug.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Alcohol and DrugsAlcohol and Drugs (cont.)(cont.) Washington law establishes the following penalties for operating under the influence (OUI): Person convicted of OUI may be imprisoned in county jail for up to 90 days, or be fined up to $1,000, or be penalized with both imprisonment and a fine. Court may also order defendant to pay restitution for any damages or injuries resulting from the offense. If someone dies or is seriously injured, convicted person may also be charged with a felony, punishable by imprisonment and a substantial fine.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Obstructing NavigationObstructing Navigation It is illegal to:  Operate in such a way that will interfere with safe navigation of other vessels.  Anchor in traveled portion of river or channel preventing or interfering with any vessel passing through area.  Moor or attach vessel to buoy, beacon, light, or any other navigational aid.  Move, displace, tamper with, damage, or destroy any navigational aid.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Homeland SecurityHomeland Security  Do not approach within 100 yards and slow to minimum speed within 500 yards of any U.S. Naval vessel. If you need to pass within 100 yards of a U.S. Naval vessel for safe passage, must contact the U.S. Naval vessel or USCG escort vessel on VHF-FM channel 16.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Homeland SecurityHomeland Security (cont.)(cont.)  Observe and avoid all security zones. Avoid commercial port operation areas.  Observe and avoid other restricted areas near dams, power plants, etc.  Do not stop or anchor beneath bridges or in channels.  Watch for anything that looks peculiar or unusual.  Report suspicious activities.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal Flotation DevicesPersonal Flotation Devices (PFDs)(PFDs) All vessels must be equipped with USCG–approved life jackets called personal flotation devices or PFDs.  Quantity and type depends on: ● Length of vessel ● Number of people on board and/or being towed  Each PFD must be: ● In good condition and readily accessible ● Proper size for the intended wearer  Boat operators should ask everyone to wear a PFD.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal Flotation DevicesPersonal Flotation Devices (cont.)(cont.) Type I: Offshore Life JacketsType I: Offshore Life Jackets  For rough or remote waters where rescue may take awhile.  Excellent for flotation—will turn most unconscious persons face up in water.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal Flotation DevicesPersonal Flotation Devices (cont.)(cont.) Type II: Near-Shore VestsType II: Near-Shore Vests  Good for calm waters and fast rescues.  May lack capacity to turn unconscious wearers face up.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal Flotation DevicesPersonal Flotation Devices (cont.)(cont.) Type III: Flotation AidsType III: Flotation Aids  Good for calm waters and fast rescues.  Will not turn most unconscious persons face up.  Some designed to inflate when you enter water.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal Flotation DevicesPersonal Flotation Devices (cont.)(cont.) Type IV: Throwable DevicesType IV: Throwable Devices  Cushions or ring buoys designed to be thrown to someone in trouble.  Not for long hours in rough waters, non-swimmers or the unconscious.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal Flotation DevicesPersonal Flotation Devices (cont.)(cont.) Type V: Special-Use DevicesType V: Special-Use Devices  Designed for specific activities.  Some designed to inflate when you enter water.  To be acceptable, Type V PFDs must be used in accordance with their label.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed PFD RequirementsPFD Requirements  All vessels must carry one USCG– approved Type I, II, or III PFD for each person on board.  Vessels 16 feet or longer must also have one USCG–approved Type IV PFD on board and immediately accessible.  PFDs must be in good and serviceable condition, must be readily accessible, and must be of proper size for the intended wearer.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed PFD RequirementsPFD Requirements (cont.)(cont.)  Children 12 and younger must wear a USCG– approved PFD at all times when underway when in a vessel less than 19 feet in length unless in a fully enclosed area.  Each person on board a PWC must wear a USCG– approved PFD.  Each person being towed behind a vessel must wear a USCG–approved PFD.  A Type V PFD may be substituted for other required PFDs if the Type V PFD is approved for the type of vessel and the activity for which the PFD is being used and is being worn.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed PFD RequirementsPFD Requirements (cont.)(cont.)  An emergency situation (rough water, rapid onset of bad weather, or dangerous boating traffic) can occur suddenly—leaving little or no time to put on life jackets.  Life jackets are very difficult to put on once you are in the water. Be a smart boater, and have everyone on board your vessel wear their life jackets at all times.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Fire ExtinguishersFire Extinguishers  Extinguishers are classified by a letter and number symbol.  Number indicates the relative size of the extinguisher.  Letter indicates type of fire it will extinguish. Type A:Type A: fires of combustiblefires of combustible solids like woodsolids like wood Type B:Type B: fires of flammablefires of flammable liquids like gasoline or oilliquids like gasoline or oil Type C:Type C: electrical fireselectrical fires
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Fire ExtinguishersFire Extinguishers (cont.)(cont.)  All vessels required to have a Type B USCG– approved fire extinguisher(s) on board if one or more of the following conditions exist: ● Inboard engine ● Vessel length of 26 feet or longer ● Closed compartments where portable fuel tanks may be stored ● Double-bottoms not sealed to hull or which are not completely filled with flotation material ● Enclosed living spaces ● Closed storage compartments in which flammable or combustible materials may be stored ● Permanently installed fuel tanks
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Fire ExtinguishersFire Extinguishers (cont.)(cont.)  Approved fire extinguishers identified by “Marine Type USCG Approved” on the label, followed by size and type symbols and approval number.  Inspect extinguishers regularly.  Extinguishers should be readily accessible.  Know how to operate them.  On PWC, fire extinguisher may not be easily accessible—should swim away quickly and use another operator’s extinguisher. Should not open engine compartment to put out the fire.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Fire ExtinguishersFire Extinguishers (cont.)(cont.) Fire Extinguisher RequirementsFire Extinguisher Requirements  Vessels less than 26 feet: without fixed system: one B-I with fixed system: none  Vessels 26 feet to less than 40 feet: without fixed system: two B-I or one B-II with fixed system: one B-I  Vessels 40 feet to less than 65 feet: without fixed system: three B-I or one B-II and one B-I with fixed system: two B-I or one B-II
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Backfire Flame ArrestorsBackfire Flame Arrestors Backfire flame arrestors must be:  In good and serviceable condition  U.S. Coast Guard–approved (must comply with SAE J-1928 or UL 1111 standards) Periodically clean and check for damage.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Proper VentilationProper Ventilation Purpose of ventilation systems is to avoid explosions by removing flammable gases. Properly installed ventilation systems greatly reduce the chance of a life-threatening explosion.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Ventilation SystemsVentilation Systems (cont.)(cont.)  All gas-powered vessels that would entrap fumes must have at least two ventilation ducts fitted with cowls to remove the fumes.  If vessel is equipped with power ventilation system, turn on for at least 4 minutes after fueling, prior to starting engine.  If vessel not equipped with power ventilation system, open engine compartment and sniff for gasoline fumes before starting engine.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed MufflersMufflers  Every vessel with an engine must be equipped with muffler system that is in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive noise.  Vessel must not exceed these noise levels: ● Measured using stationary test: for engines manufactured before January 1, 1993, noise level of 90 decibels; engines manufactured on or after January 1, 1993, noise le el of 88 decibels. ● Measured from shoreline: for all vessels, an operational noise level of 75 decibels.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed MufflersMufflers (cont.)(cont.)  You may not remove or modify muffler or muffling system if it results in increased noise level.  Use of muffler cutout or muffler bypass system is prohibited except while engaged in organized racing events in area designated for that purpose.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation LightsNavigation Lights Vessel operators must make sure vessels are equipped with proper navigation lights and use them:  When away from dock between sunset and sunrise  During periods of restricted visibility No other lights that may be mistaken for required navigation lights may be exhibited. Blue or red flashing lights restricted to use by law enforcement vessels. The requirements for navigation lights differ depending on type and size of vessel.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation LightsNavigation Lights (cont.)(cont.) Power-driven VesselsPower-driven Vessels (including sailboats operating under power) less than 65.6 feet long when underway must exhibit: Red and green sidelights visible from a distance of at least two miles away—or if less than 39.4 feet long, at least one mile away—on a dark, clear night. An all-round white light or both a masthead light and a sternlight visible from a distance of at least two miles away on a dark, clear night. The all-round white light (or masthead light) must be at least 3.3 feet higher than the sidelights.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation LightsNavigation Lights (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation LightsNavigation Lights (cont.)(cont.) Unpowered VesselsUnpowered Vessels less than 65.6 feet long must exhibit when underway:  Red and green sidelights visible from a distance of at least two miles away—or if less than 39.4 feet long, at least one mile away— on dark, clear night.  Sternlight visible from at least two miles away.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation LightsNavigation Lights (cont.)(cont.) When underway, unpowered vesselsunpowered vessels less than 23 feet long should exhibit:  If practical, same lights as required for unpowered vessels less than 65.6 feet in length.  If not practical, at least one lantern or flashlight shining a white light.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Navigation LightsNavigation Lights (cont.)(cont.) When not underway, all vesselsall vessels required to exhibit a white light visible from all directions whenever moored or anchored away from dock between sunset and sunrise.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Visual Distress SignalsVisual Distress Signals Visual Distress Signals (VDSs) allow vessel operators to signal for help in the event of an emergency. VDSs are classified as:  Day signals (visible in bright sunlight)  Night signals (visible at night)  Both day and night signals VDSs are either:  Pyrotechnic (smoke and flames)  Non-pyrotechnic (non-combustible)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Visual Distress SignalsVisual Distress Signals (cont.)(cont.) If on federally controlled waters, vessel must be equipped with USCG–approved VDSs. All vessels required to carry night signals when operating between sunset and sunrise. Most vessels must carry day signals also; exceptions are:  Recreational vessels less than 16 feet in length  Non-motorized open sailboats less than 26 feet in length  Manually propelled vessels VDSs must be USCG–approved, in serviceable condition, and readily accessible.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Visual Distress SignalsVisual Distress Signals (cont.)(cont.) If pyrotechnic VDSs are used, minimum of three must be on board—must be dated and not used past expiration date. Examples that satisfy USCG requirements are:  Three hand-held red flares  One hand-held red flare and two red meteors  One hand-held orange smoke signal, two floating orange smoke signals, and one electric light Prohibited to display visual distress signals except when assistance is required to prevent immediate or potential danger to persons on board.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Visual Distress SignalsVisual Distress Signals (cont.)(cont.) Non-Pyrotechnic Visual Distress SignalsNon-Pyrotechnic Visual Distress Signals Pyrotechnic Visual Distress SignalsPyrotechnic Visual Distress Signals Day Signal Day & Night Signal Day & Night Signal Night Signal Day Signal
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Sound Producing DevicesSound Producing Devices  Sound producing device is essential in periods of reduced visibility or whenever vessel operator needs to signal intentions or position. Sound- producing device requirements are: ● Vessels less than 65.6 feet in length, including PWC, required to carry on board a mouth-, hand-, or power-operated whistle or horn or some other means to make an efficient sound signal. ● Vessels 65.6 feet or more in length required to carry on board a whistle or horn and a bell.  No vessel may be equipped with a siren except vessels used by law enforcement officers.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Diver-Down Flags: Any vessel involved in diving operations where persons are scuba diving, skin diving, or snorkeling from a vessel must display a rigid replica of the Alfa flag to mark its diving operation. Between sunset and sunrise flag should be lighted. Vessels not engaged in diving operations should remain at least 200 feet from a displayed flag. Other Equipment & RegulationsOther Equipment & Regulations
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Other Equipment & RegulationsOther Equipment & Regulations (cont.)(cont.) Two types of diver-down flags are available.  A blue and white International Code Flag A (or Alfa flag), at least 3.3 feet high and visible from all directions, must be displayed on vessels engaged in diving operation.  A rectangular red flag with a white diagonal stripe may be used to indicate presence of submerged diver, but does not meet state and federal requirements for display.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Other Equipment & RegulationsOther Equipment & Regulations (cont.)(cont.) Skier-Down Flag: Washington law requires vessels towing person(s) on water skis or similar devices must carry and use bright red or brilliant orange skier-down flag whenever towed person(s) is preparing to ski or has fallen into the water. Remote-operated PWC must have skier-down flag attached to the PWC.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Other Equipment & RegulationsOther Equipment & Regulations (cont.)(cont.) Local Regulations: Many Washington waterways have special equipment and operational restrictions. Be sure to check with sheriff’s office or police department for local regulations before you go boating.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Requirements Specific to PWCRequirements Specific to PWC PWC operators must obey these laws in addition to all other boating laws: Every person on board a PWC must wear a USCG– approved personal flotation device (PFD). Inflatable PFDs not recommended for persons riding on PWC. If PWC is equipped with ignition safety switch, the lanyard must be attached to person, clothing, or PFD of the operator.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Requirements Specific to PWCRequirements Specific to PWC (cont.)(cont.)  PWC may be operated during hours between sunrise and sunset only.  You must be at least 14 years old to operate PWC legally.  It is illegal to lease, hire, or rent a PWC to anyone under 16.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Requirements Specific to PWCRequirements Specific to PWC (cont.)(cont.)  PWC must be operated in a reasonable and prudent manner. Illegal to: ● Weave PWC recklessly through congested waterway traffic. ● Jump wake of another vessel unreasonably close to that vessel or when visibility around the vessel is obstructed. ● Maneuver PWC such that you must swerve at last possible moment to avoid collision. ● Operate PWC while under the influence of alcohol or drugs. ● Chase, harass, or disturb wildlife, birds, or marine mammals.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Towing a Person LegallyTowing a Person Legally Vessel operators towing person(s) on water skis, aquaplane, surfboards, inner tubes or any other similar devices must also obey these laws also:
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Towing a Person LegallyTowing a Person Legally (cont.)(cont.)  Every vessel towing person(s) on water skis or other devices must have on board, in addition to operator, a person capable of observing towed person(s) and reporting their progress to the operator.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Towing a Person LegallyTowing a Person Legally (cont.)(cont.)  Observer must observe person(s) under tow continuously and display a skier-down flag whenever person is in the water after falling or while preparing to ski. Flag must be visible from all directions.  Every person being towed behind a vessel on water skis or other devices must wear a USCG– approved PFD. Inflatable PFDs not recommended for persons being towed.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Towing a Person LegallyTowing a Person Legally (cont.)(cont.)  Everyone engaged in water skiing—operator, observer, and towed person(s)—must conduct themselves in a safe manner not endangering other persons or property.  Illegal for vessels to tow a person(s) on water skis or any other device during period from one hour after sunset until one hour before sunrise.  If towing a person on skis or other devices, vessel must be rated to carry at least the number of persons on board plus those being towed. You may not exceed vessel’s safe carrying capacity.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Waste, Oil, and Trash DisposalWaste, Oil, and Trash Disposal Illegal to discharge untreated waste, oil, or trashIllegal to discharge untreated waste, oil, or trash into any federally controlled or state waters.into any federally controlled or state waters.  Sewage carries disease and is harmful to people, aquatic plants, and animals.  Trash thrown into water can injure swimmers and wildlife and plug engine cooling water intakes.  Pollution is unsightly and takes away from enjoyment of the water. The Refuse Act prohibits throwing, discharging, or depositing any refuse matter of any kind into U.S. waters.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Waste, Oil, and Trash DisposalWaste, Oil, and Trash Disposal (cont.)(cont.) Discharge of Sewage and WasteDischarge of Sewage and Waste  If you have a recreational vessel with installed toilet facilities, it should have an operable marine sanitation device (MSD) on board.  Vessels 65 feet or less in length may use a Type I, II, or III MSD. Vessels over 65 feet in length must install a Type II or III MSD.  All installed devices must be USCG–certified.  If you have treated sewage, flush in deep water and avoid flushing in small bays, in marinas, or near shellfish beds.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Waste, Oil, and Trash DisposalWaste, Oil, and Trash Disposal (cont.)(cont.) Types I and II MSDs:  Usually found on large vessels.  Waste treated with special chemicals to kill bacteria before waste is discharged.  Have “Y” valves that direct waste overboard which must be secured so valve cannot be opened.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Waste, Oil, and Trash DisposalWaste, Oil, and Trash Disposal (cont.)(cont.) Type III MSDs:  Provide no treatment and are either holding tanks or portable toilets.  Collected waste should be taken ashore and disposed of in a pump-out station or onshore toilet.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Waste, Oil, and Trash DisposalWaste, Oil, and Trash Disposal (cont.)(cont.) Discharge of TrashDischarge of Trash It is illegal to dump garbage and plastics into federally controlled or state waters—litter can kill birds, fish, and marine mammals.  Store trash in container on board, then place in proper receptacle after returning to shore.  On federal waters, must display 4"x 9" Garbage Disposal Placard on any vessel 26 feet or longer— notifies passengers/crew about pollution restrictions.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Waste, Oil, and Trash DisposalWaste, Oil, and Trash Disposal (cont.)(cont.) Discharge of Oil and Other Hazardous SubstancesDischarge of Oil and Other Hazardous Substances  It is illegal to discharge oil or hazardous substances. Penalty may be a fine up to $10,000.  It is Illegal to dump oil into bilge of vessel without means for proper disposal.  You must discharge oil waste to a reception facility.  On recreational vessels, bucket or bailer is adequate for temporary storage.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Waste, Oil, and Trash DisposalWaste, Oil, and Trash Disposal (cont.)(cont.)  Must immediately notify USCG if your vessel discharges oil or hazardous substances in water.  Must also call Washington State Department of Emergency Management and report the discharge.  On federal waters, vessels 26 feet or longer must display 5"x 8" placard near bilge pump control station stating Federal Water Pollution Control Act’s law.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Waste, Oil, and Trash DisposalWaste, Oil, and Trash Disposal (cont.)(cont.) Waste Management PlanWaste Management Plan  Ocean-going vessels 40 feet or longer with cooking and sleeping facilities must have written Waste Management Plan.  Captain of vessel is responsible for implementing plan.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Waste, Oil, and Trash DisposalWaste, Oil, and Trash Disposal (cont.)(cont.)  Waste Management Plan should be posted and include directives to all persons on board about: ●Discharge of sewage and hazardous substances ●Discharge of garbage and other food waste ●Disposal of plastics, bottles, and cans ●Reading applicable placards for additional information ●Advising captain in case of oily discharges or diesel spills
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Protecting the EnvironmentProtecting the Environment Introducing non-native species into Washington waters can upset the balance of the ecosystem, harming the environment. Aquatic nuisance species like aquatic weeds and New Zealand mud snails most often spread between waterways by hitching a ride on vessels and trailers. When implanted into new waters, these species rapidly multiply, displacing native species and damaging the water resource. The Lower Columbia river and the waters of the Long Beach Peninsula are infested with New Zealand mud snails.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Protecting the EnvironmentProtecting the Environment (cont.)(cont.) To prevent spreading aquatic pests:  Inspect vessel and trailer, removing any plants and animals you see before leaving the area.  Drain engine, live well, and bilge on land before leaving the area.  Empty your bait bucket on land. Never release live bait into a body of water or release aquatic animals from one body of water into another.  Rinse vessel, trailer, and equipment.  Air-dry vessel and equipment for as long as possible.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Accidents and CasualtiesAccidents and Casualties Operators involved in a boating accident must:  Stop their vessel immediately at the scene and …  Give assistance to anyone injured in the accident, unless doing so would endanger his or her own vessel or passengers and …  Give in writing his or her name, address, and vessel identification to anyone injured and to the owner of any property damaged by the accident.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Accidents and CasualtiesAccidents and Casualties (cont.)(cont.)  Anyone who renders assistance at the scene of a boating accident will not be held liable for any civil damages as a result of providing reasonable and prudent assistance.  Operator of a vessel involved in an accident or owner of vessel reporting for operator must complete and submit written accident report if: ● A person dies or disappears from vessel under circumstances that indicate death or injury or … ● A person is injured and requires medical treatment beyond first aid or … ● Damage to vessel(s) or other property exceeds $500 or there is complete loss of a vessel.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Accidents and CasualtiesAccidents and Casualties (cont.)(cont.) Boating accident report must be submitted to the law enforcement agency with jurisdiction where accident occurred. It must be submitted:  Within 48 hours of the accident if: ● A person dies within 24 hours of the accident or… ● A person is injured and requires medical treatment beyond first aid or… ● A person disappears from a vessel.  Within 10 days for all other accidents.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed EnforcementEnforcement Washington state parks rangers, Fish and Wildlife agents, city police officers, deputy sheriffs, and all other officers with law enforcement authority enforce boating laws of Washington. USCG officers also patrol and have enforcement authority on federally controlled waters.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed EnforcementEnforcement (cont.)(cont.)  Officers have authority to stop and board your vessel and direct it to suitable pier or anchorage in order to check for compliance with state and federal laws.  Illegal to refuse to follow directive of person with law enforcement authority. An operator who has received a visual or audible signal from law enforcement officer must bring his or her vessel to a stop.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Chapter Five Boating Emergencies
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Key TopicsKey Topics  Risk Management  Boating Accidents  Personal Injuries  Weather Emergencies  Summoning Help
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ObjectivesObjectives You should …You should … ►understand how to practice risk management while boating. ►understand the effects of boating stressors. ►understand how dehydration occurs and how to recognize and prevent it. ►understand the increased effects of alcohol on the water.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ObjectivesObjectives (cont.)(cont.) ►be able to properly size a PFD for a wearer and check a PFDs condition. ►be able to take the proper safety actions if a boat capsizes, is swamped, or someone falls overboard. ►know how to avoid collisions. ►be able to respond properly to a fire emergency. ►know how to prevent or respond to running aground.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ObjectivesObjectives (cont.)(cont.) ►be able to recognize the symptoms of hypothermia, avoid hypothermia if trapped in cold water, and give basic treatment to victims. ►know how to prevent and be able to recognize the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning. ►be able to obtain weather forecasts and recognize weather warnings, and know what to do if caught in foul weather.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Risk ManagementRisk Management Nearly all accidents are preventable. BoatingNearly all accidents are preventable. Boating fatalities are most often characterized by:fatalities are most often characterized by:  PFDs are on board but not in use  Good weather conditions  Involvement of small, open boats with a fiberglass hull  Age of the operator between 26 to 50 years
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Risk ManagementRisk Management (cont.)(cont.) Profile of a Typical U.S. Boating FatalityProfile of a Typical U.S. Boating Fatality  PFDs are on board but not in use  Vessel is small boat of open design ⅓ of time alcohol is involved  Daylight, good weather  Operator is male, 26 to 50, with boating experience  Nearly all accidents are preventable
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Risk ManagementRisk Management (cont.)(cont.) Risk management is practice of:Risk management is practice of:  Recognizing dangerous situations and reducing chance that they will happen  Lessening effects of accidents if they do happen Increased risk due to boating stressors:Increased risk due to boating stressors:  Sun glare and heat, motion, noise vibration make you tire more easily on the water.  Boating stressors increase risk of boating accident.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Risk ManagementRisk Management (cont.)(cont.) Dehydration increases risk of boating accidents:Dehydration increases risk of boating accidents:  Boating causes you to generate more body heat— increases sweating, can cause dehydration if body fluids not replaced.  Dehydration increases fatigue, more likely to be in boating accident.  To prevent dehydration, take a drink of water every 15 – 20 minutes.  Watch for signs of dehydration. If symptoms are observed, drink plenty of water, get out of the sun.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Risk ManagementRisk Management (cont.)(cont.) Minimize Risk of Boating AccidentsMinimize Risk of Boating Accidents—Avoid Alcohol—Avoid Alcohol  Effect of alcohol increased by natural stressors placed on body while boating.  One drink on the water—same effect as three drinks on land.  Alcohol depresses central nervous system, affects judgment, slows reaction time.  Designate non-drinking boater to operate vessel and act as observer if you plan to consume alcohol.  Don’t drink and boat!
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Risk ManagementRisk Management (cont.)(cont.) Minimize Risk of DrowningsMinimize Risk of Drownings——Wear PFDsWear PFDs Drownings are rare when boaters are wearing a PFD. Have everyone on board wear one. Requirements for PFDs include:  Must be readily accessible  Are of proper size for intended wearer  Are in good and serviceable condition If using an inflatable PFD, before each outing, check the status of the inflator and CO2 cylinder.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Risk ManagementRisk Management (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Boating AccidentsBoating Accidents Capsizing is when a boat turns on its side or turns completely over. Swamping occurs when boat stays upright and fills with water. To help prevent and prepare for capsizing, swamping, or someone falling overboard:
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Boating AccidentsBoating Accidents (cont.)(cont.)  Make sure that you and passengers are wearing lifejackets.  Attach ignition safety switch lanyard to your wrist, clothes, or life jacket.  Don’t allow anyone to sit on gunwale, bow, seat backs, motor cover, or any area not designed for seating.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Boating AccidentsBoating Accidents (cont.)(cont.)  Don’t overload boat—balance the load.  Keep center of gravity low. When you must move in a small boat, maintain three points of contact.  Don’t allow anyone to lean a shoulder beyond gunwale in a small boat.  Slow boat when turning.  Do not boat in rough water or bad weather.  Secure anchor line to bow of vessel—never to stern.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Boating AccidentsBoating Accidents (cont.)(cont.) If you capsize or swamp boat, or have fallen outIf you capsize or swamp boat, or have fallen out and can’t get back in, stay with the boat.and can’t get back in, stay with the boat.  Take a headcount. Reach, throw, row, or go to anyone in distress. Signal for help.  If boat remains afloat, try to reboard.  If boat is overturned or swamped, hang onto it. If possible, climb onto the bottom of vessel.  Try to get as much of your body as possible out of cold water.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Boating AccidentsBoating Accidents (cont.)(cont.) If boat sinks or floats away, don’t panic.If boat sinks or floats away, don’t panic.  If you are wearing a life jacket, make sure it is securely fastened, remain calm, and wait for help.  If you aren’t wearing a life jacket, look for one floating in the water or other floating items.  Make sure others are wearing PFDs.  You may have to tread water or simply float.  In cold water, float rather than tread.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Boating AccidentsBoating Accidents (cont.)(cont.) If someone on your vessel falls overboard, youIf someone on your vessel falls overboard, you need to immediately:need to immediately:  Reduce speed and toss the victim a PFD.  Turn boat around and slowly pull alongside victim, approaching from downwind or into the current.  Stop engine. Pull victim on board over stern, keeping weight in boat balanced.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Boating AccidentsBoating Accidents (cont.)(cont.) Preventing CollisionsPreventing Collisions  Follow the rules of navigation.  Pay attention to navigational aids.  Keep a sharp watch and appoint a lookout.  Maintain a safe speed.  Look in all directions before turning.  Use caution when traveling into sun’s glare.  Never operate when fatigued, stressed, or when consuming alcohol.  Watch for floating debris.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Boating AccidentsBoating Accidents (cont.)(cont.) Dealing With Fire EmergenciesDealing With Fire Emergencies To help prevent a fire:  Don’t mix the three ingredients required to ignite a fire.  Make sure ventilation systems have been installed and are used properly.  Maintain fuel system.  Follow safe fueling procedures.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Boating AccidentsBoating Accidents (cont.)(cont.) If fire erupts on your boat:If fire erupts on your boat:  Stop boat and have everyone put on PFD.  If fire breaks out at the back of the boat, keep the bow into the wind.  If the fire is at the front, put the stern into the wind.  If fire is in engine space, immediately shut off fuel supply.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Boating AccidentsBoating Accidents (cont.)(cont.)  Aim extinguisher at base of flames and sweep back and forth.  Never use water on gasoline, oil, grease, or electrical fire.  Summon help.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Boating AccidentsBoating Accidents (cont.)(cont.) Running AgroundRunning Aground Know your environment— best way to prevent running aground.  Become familiar with locations of shallow water and submerged objects before you go out.  Learn to read a chart to determine your position and depth.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Boating AccidentsBoating Accidents (cont.)(cont.) If you run aground, make sure no one is injured andIf you run aground, make sure no one is injured and then check for leaks. If impact did not cause leak:then check for leaks. If impact did not cause leak:  Do not put boat in reverse. Stop the engine and lift outdrive.  Shift weight in boat to area furthest away from point of impact.  Try to shove off from the rock, bottom, or reef with paddle or boathook.  Check to make sure vessel is not taking on water.  If you can’t get loose, summon help.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries Cold Water ImmersionCold Water Immersion and Hypothermiaand Hypothermia kill in several ways. The initial response to cold water can occur in water as warm as 77° F. By understanding how your body reacts to cold water, you can prepare for and be better able to appropriately respond, increasing your chance of survival.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.) There are four stages of cold water immersion.There are four stages of cold water immersion.  Stage 1: Initial “cold shock” ● Occurs first 3 – 5 minutes  Stage 2: Short-term “swim failure” ● Occurs 3 – 30 minutes following immersion  Stage 3: Long-term immersion hypothermia ● Sets in after 30 minutes  Stage 4: Post-Immersion collapse ● Occurs during or after rescue
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.) Your chance of surviving a cold waterYour chance of surviving a cold water immersion depends on:immersion depends on:  Having sufficient flotation to keep your head above water  Controlling your breathing  Timely rescue by yourself or others  Heat retention
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.) Prepare for boating in cold water conditions:Prepare for boating in cold water conditions:  Always wear a secured life jacket.  Wear layered clothing for insulation.  Equip your boat with a means for re-entry to use if you should fall in.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.) The best prevention is to take all measuresThe best prevention is to take all measures necessary to avoid capsizing your boat or fallingnecessary to avoid capsizing your boat or falling into cold water. If you do fall into cold water:into cold water. If you do fall into cold water:  Don’t panic.  Try to get control of your breathing.  Hold on to something or stay as still as possible until your breathing settles down.  Focus on floating with your head above water until the cold shock response abates.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.)  When your breathing is under control, perform the most important functions first before you lose dexterity (10 – 15 minutes after immersion).  If you were not wearing a PFD when entering the water, look to see if one is floating around you and put it on immediately.  Don’t take your clothes off unless absolutely necessary.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.)  Focus on locating and getting everyone out of the water quickly before you lose full use of your hands, arms, and legs.  Try to reboard your boat, even if it is swamped or capsized, or anything else that floats.  Get as much of your body out of the water as possible.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.)  In as little as 10 minutes, you may be unable to self-rescue. Your focus should now be to slow heat loss: ● Stay as motionless as possible. ● Protect the high heat loss areas of your body. ● Keep your head and neck out of the water.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.) ● Stay with the boat rather than swim. ● Adopt a position to reduce heat loss. If alone use the HELP position. If there are others with you in the water, huddle. ● If you must swim, conserve energy and minimize movement.  Be prepared at all times to signal rescuers.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.) H.E.L.P.H.E.L.P. Heat Escape Lessening Postures  This position protects the body’s three major areas of heat loss: ●Groin ●Head/Neck ●Rib cage/Arm pits  Wearing a PFD allows you to draw your knees to your chest and your arms to your sides.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.)  Huddling with other people in the water lessens the loss of body heat and is food for morale.  Rescuers can spot a group more easily than individuals.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.) ● Shivering, slurred speech, blurred vision ● Bluish lips and fingernails ● Loss of feeling in extremities ● Cold, bluish skin ● Confusion ● Dizziness ● Rigidity in extremities ● Unconsciousness ● Coma ● Death Symptoms of hypothermia in order of severity are:Symptoms of hypothermia in order of severity are:
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.) When treating hypothermia:When treating hypothermia:  Get the victim out of the water as soon as possible. Remove the victim gently and in a horizontal position.  Prevent further heat loss.  Treat the hypothermia victim gently, and to your level of training. Be prepared to provide basic life support.  Seek medical help immediately.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.) Carbon monoxide (CO) is an invisible, odorless,Carbon monoxide (CO) is an invisible, odorless, tasteless gas. It can make you sick in seconds. Intasteless gas. It can make you sick in seconds. In high enough concentrations, even a few breathshigh enough concentrations, even a few breaths can be fatal.can be fatal.  Early symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include: ● Irritated eyes ● Headache ● Nausea ● Weakness ● Dizziness
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.)  These symptoms often are confused with seasickness or intoxication.  Anyone with these symptoms should be placed in fresh air immediately and if symptoms persist, seek medical help.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.) Protect yourself and others against carbonProtect yourself and others against carbon monoxide poisoning.monoxide poisoning.  Allow fresh air to circulate throughout the boat at all times.  Know where your exhaust outlets are located and keep everyone away from these areas.  Install and maintain CO detectors.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.)  Never sit on the back deck, “teak surf,” or hang on the swim platform while engines are running.  Never enter areas under swim platforms as air in these areas could be fatal if breathed in.  If exhaust fumes are detected, immediately ventilate.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.) All new and used power- driven vessels that are sold within Washington must display an approved carbon monoxide warning sticker on the interior of the vessel.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.) Before each boating trip:Before each boating trip:  Know where exhaust outlets are located on boat.  Educate passengers about symptoms of CO poisoning.  Confirm that water flows from exhaust outlet when engines and generator are started.  Listen for any change in exhaust sound.  Test operation of each CO detector.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.) At least monthly:At least monthly:  Make sure exhaust clamps are in place and secure.  Look for leaks from exhaust system components.  Inspect rubber exhaust hoses. At least annually, have a qualified marine technician check engine and exhaust system.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.) Some proper responses to other seriousSome proper responses to other serious injuries are:injuries are:  Seriously injured should be treated for shock by keeping victim warm, still, and in a lying-down position until medical attention arrives.  Control bleeding by applying direct pressure to wound.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Personal InjuriesPersonal Injuries (cont.)(cont.)  Immediately place minor burns in cold water, and apply a dry bandage after pain subsides. Seek medical help for major burns.  Seek medical assistance immediately for broken and dislocated bones.  In cases of head, neck, or spinal injuries, never move victim more than is absolutely necessary.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Weather EmergenciesWeather Emergencies How to Avoid Severe WeatherHow to Avoid Severe Weather  Tune a radio to a station that gives weather updates.  Be alert to weather conditions.  Track changes in barometer readings.  Watch for wind shifts, lightning, and rough water.  Be observant of weather from all directions— especially west.  Watch for fog.  If thunderstorm is approaching, head toward nearest safe shore.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Weather EmergenciesWeather Emergencies (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Weather EmergenciesWeather Emergencies (cont.)(cont.) What to Do if Out in Severe WeatherWhat to Do if Out in Severe Weather  Slow down.  Close all hatches, windows, and doors.  Stow any unnecessary gear.  Turn on all navigation lights. If there is fog, sound your fog horn.  Keep bilges free of water.  If there is lightning, disconnect electrical equipment and stay clear of metal objects.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Weather EmergenciesWeather Emergencies (cont.)(cont.) Prepare your passengers for severe weather.Prepare your passengers for severe weather.  Have everyone put on a USCG–approved life jacket (PFD) and make sure they are properly secured.  Have passengers sit on floor close to centerline.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Weather EmergenciesWeather Emergencies (cont.)(cont.) Decide whether to go to shore or ride out the storm.Decide whether to go to shore or ride out the storm.  Head for nearest shore that is safe to approach. If already caught in storm, remain in open water.  Head bow into waves at 45-degree angle. PWCs should head directly into waves.  Keep sharp lookout for other vessels, debris, shoals, or stumps.  If engine stops, drop a “sea anchor” on a line off bow.  Anchor boat if necessary.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Summoning HelpSummoning Help To summon help, you should carry on board andTo summon help, you should carry on board and know how to contact help using:know how to contact help using:  Visual distress signals  VHF marine radio  Mobile phone  Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Chapter Six Enjoying Water Sports With Your Boat!
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Key TopicsKey Topics  Responsibilities of a Vessel Operator  Paddlesports—Canoes, Kayaks, and Rafts  Water-Skiing  Scuba Diving and Snorkeling  Windsurfing  Sailing  Fishing  Hunting
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ObjectivesObjectives You should …You should … ►understand vessel operator’s responsibility to their passengers. ►understand vessel owner’s responsibility when allowing others to use his or her vessel. ►understand boaters’ responsibility to environment. ►be able to properly tow skiers and recognize skier hand signals. ►understand shared responsibilities of all those enjoying the waters.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ResponsibilitiesResponsibilities Operators are responsible for ensuring that their passengers understand basic safety practices and laws. Use a pre-departure checklist to ensure you’ve taken necessary safety precautions. Before departing, have a safety discussion with everyoneeveryone on board. Conduct emergency drills with your passengers so that everyone knows what to do in case of a boating emergency.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ResponsibilitiesResponsibilities (cont.)(cont.) Some things that should be pointed out are:Some things that should be pointed out are:  Location of emergency equipment  Need for wearing PFDs  Laws about reckless operation, required equipment, and waste disposal  Safety procedures  How to summon help  How to anchor the vessel and handle lines (ropes)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ResponsibilitiesResponsibilities (cont.)(cont.) Operators have responsibilities to others theyOperators have responsibilities to others they allow to operate their vesselallow to operate their vessel——make sure he or she:make sure he or she:  Meets minimum age and boater education requirements.  Knows basic boating safety and navigation rules.  Knows how to use lanyard of ignition safety switch.  Understands need for obeying speed restrictions.  Understands need keep proper lookout.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ResponsibilitiesResponsibilities (cont.)(cont.) Before allowing someone to drive your PWC:Before allowing someone to drive your PWC:  Make sure he or she knows they have the same responsibilities as any other vessel operator.  Let beginners take their first rides in an uncrowded area.  While on shore, show proper procedures for starting and reboarding.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ResponsibilitiesResponsibilities (cont.)(cont.)  Make sure he or she understands that power ispower is required for steering control.required for steering control.  Point out that they need to make sure area is clear before making turns.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ResponsibilitiesResponsibilities (cont.)(cont.) Responsibility to the EnvironmentResponsibility to the Environment  Keep waters clean and disease-free by properly disposing of waste and litter.  Practice the three “R’s”— Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle.  Reduce throttle to “no wake” speed when close to a shoreline.  Don’t use toxic substances on your vessel or around water.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed ResponsibilitiesResponsibilities (cont.)(cont.)  You are just one of many who are enjoying the privilege of using the public waterways—it is your responsibility to stay aware of others in or on the water and to respect their use of the waterways. Being a responsible operator includes controlling the noise of your boat or PWC.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Paddlesports—Canoes, Kayaks,Paddlesports—Canoes, Kayaks, RaftsRafts A paddler prepares for safety by:A paddler prepares for safety by:  Always wearing a PFD.  Never paddling alone.  Never overloading boat.  Maintaining low center of gravity. Keeping weight balanced.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed PaddlesportsPaddlesports (cont.)(cont.)  Be alert and aware of surroundings. Be prepared to react to dangerous situations.  Practice reboarding your craft in water.  Dress properly for the weather.  Check your craft for leaks.  Map a general route and timetable when embarking on a long trip.  Know weather conditions before you head out.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed PaddlesportsPaddlesports (cont.)(cont.) A paddle trip down river can include these riverA paddle trip down river can include these river hazards:hazards:  Low-head dams  Rapids  Strainers
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed PaddlesportsPaddlesports (cont.)(cont.) If you capsize, follow these guidelines:If you capsize, follow these guidelines:  Float on upstream side of craft.  Do not try to stand or walk in swift-moving water.  Float on your back with feet and arms extended. Float with feet pointed downstream. Don’t fight current.  If water is cold, take all necessary precautions to avoid hypothermia.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Water-SkiingWater-Skiing Before towing a water-skier, operator should:Before towing a water-skier, operator should:  Have second person on board to act as observer.  Review hand signals with skier.  Make sure skier is wearing USCG–approved PFD.  Be familiar with area and any hazards.  Make sure tow lines are same length for multiple skiers.  Never ski at night—it is hazardous and illegal.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Water-SkiingWater-Skiing (cont.)(cont.) While towing a skier, operator should:While towing a skier, operator should:  Start engine after making sure no one in water is near the propeller.  Start boat slowly until ski rope is tight.  Watch for other vessels and obstructions—let observer watch the skier.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Water-SkiingWater-Skiing (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Water-SkiingWater-Skiing (cont.)(cont.)  Always respond to skier’s signals.  Once the skier has dropped or fallen, circle the skier slowly. Always keep fallen skiers in view and on operator’s side of vessel.  If required, display red or orange flag to alert other boaters that skier is down.  Always shut engine off before allowing skier to board boat.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Water-SkiingWater-Skiing (cont.)(cont.) When in the water, the skier should:When in the water, the skier should:  Wear a PFD.  Learn to use hand signals.  Never ski under influence of drugs or alcohol.  Never spray swimmers, vessels, or other skiers, and never wrap tow rope around your body.  Always hold ski up out of water after falling.  Never approach back of boat unless engine has been shut off.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Water-SkiingWater-Skiing (cont.)(cont.)
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Scuba Diving and SnorkelingScuba Diving and Snorkeling Vessel operators should:Vessel operators should:  Be able to recognize a diver- down flag.  Stay legal distance away from a diver-down flag.  Look for bubbles breaking surface of water.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed Scuba Diving and SnorkelingScuba Diving and Snorkeling (cont.)(cont.) Divers should:Divers should:  Display the diver-down flag and stay close to flag.  Select boat suited for diving.  Avoid overloading vessel.  Never dive or snorkel alone.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed WindsurfingWindsurfing  Dress appropriately.  Tell someone where you are going, when you expect to return, and who to call if overdue.  Do not become fatigued.  Be on lookout for vessels.  Don’t stray too far from shore.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed SailingSailing  Sailboats are usually the stand- on vessel.  Small sailboats are prone to capsizing and swamping.  Falling overboard is common. Always wear a PFD.  Sailors should always be aware of water temperature.  A certified sailing course is recommended.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed SailingSailing (cont.)(cont.) Some tips for safe sailing:Some tips for safe sailing:  Stay off water during storms or periods of high winds.  Carry a flashlight.  Sailboats with an engine must have red, green, and white navigation lights.  Be aware of mast clearance when passing under power lines and bridges.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed FishingFishing Anglers using a vessel to fish should:Anglers using a vessel to fish should:  Know and follow all safe boating laws and requirements.  Not overload vessel.  Always wear a PFD.  Recycle or toss used fishing line into receptacles on shore.  Take care of fishing boat.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed FishingFishing (cont.)(cont.)  Slow down when approaching fishing boats or give them wide berth.  Never run over angler’s lines.  Never disturb fishing boats by making large wake.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed HuntingHunting If using a vessel to hunt you should:If using a vessel to hunt you should:  Obey all boating laws.  Take extra precautions to avoid capsizing or swamping.  Wear PFD at all times while on the water.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed HuntingHunting (cont.)(cont.)  When hunting on cold water, dress in several layers under your PFD.  Always check the weather, and stay close to shore.  Fire no shots nor release any arrows until vessel is stopped, motor off, and vessel secured. Always remain seated when shooting.  Be aware of laws regarding transport of firearms in a vessel.  Firearms should always be unloaded, have safety on, and be secured in gun case when transported in a vessel.
    • Copyright © 2009 Boat Ed