Solutions2008

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Solutions2008

  1. 1. <ul><li>Notes: Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>CW: There’s more than one Solution </li></ul><ul><li>H: Working with Solutions </li></ul>
  2. 2. November 14, 2008 Solutions
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Define solution, solubility, insoluble, solute and solvent </li></ul><ul><li>Name the universal solvent </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between an aqueous solution and a tincture </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the factors that affect rates ofsolubility </li></ul>
  4. 4. Solution <ul><li>A mixture that appears to be a single substance but is made up of 2 or more substances that are evenly distributed throughout the mixture </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Homogeneous </li></ul><ul><li>Best mixed of the mixtures </li></ul><ul><li>Particles are dissolved </li></ul>
  6. 6. Solutions are made up of <ul><li>Solutes – the substance that is dissolved </li></ul><ul><li>Solvents – the substance that does the dissolving. It is always present in greater amount. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Can be more than 2 substances <ul><li>Soda – carbon dioxide gas, sugar, flavorings, food coloring are dissolved in water. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually solutions are substances dissolved in a liquid but solutions may also be gasses and solids. </li></ul>
  8. 8. How Does a Solution Form? <ul><li>Solvent molecules attracted to surface ions. </li></ul><ul><li>Each ion is surrounded by solvent molecules. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Solubility – the physical property of being able to dissolve </li></ul><ul><li>Insoluble – a substance that can not be dissolved </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Water is the universal solvent. Most things will dissolve in water. It is called an aqueous solution . </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes the solvent is alcohol. In this case it is called a tincture . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Solution rates vary <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Surface area </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure </li></ul>
  12. 12. Temperature <ul><li>The solubility of solid solutes in liquid solvents increases with increasing temperature. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Temperature <ul><li>The opposite is true of gases. Higher temperature drives gases out of solution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbonated soft drinks are more “bubbly” if stored in the refrigerator. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm lakes have less O 2 dissolved in them than cool lakes. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Surface area <ul><li>The larger the surface area of a solid, the faster the rate of dissolving. The surface area of an object increases when it is broken down into smaller pieces. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Movement <ul><li>When a substance dissolves, it fills the available spaces between the closest water molecules. Stirring increases the rate the empty spaces can be filled. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pressure <ul><li>The solubility of liquids and solids does not change with pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased pressure increases the solubility of gases. </li></ul>

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