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### concentration

1. 1. <ul><li>Notes: Concentration </li></ul><ul><li>CW: Concentration Problems </li></ul><ul><li>H: Solubility and Concentration </li></ul>
2. 2. Concentration November 19, 2008
3. 3. <ul><li>The physical property of being able to dissolve a substance is called </li></ul><ul><li>a. solvency </li></ul><ul><li>b. disturbing </li></ul><ul><li>c. solubility </li></ul><ul><li>d. insolubility </li></ul>
4. 4. <ul><li>Which of the following would NOT increase the rate at which a solid dissolves in a liquid? </li></ul><ul><li>a. stir the solution </li></ul><ul><li>b. increase the pressure on the solution </li></ul><ul><li>c. grind up the solid </li></ul><ul><li>d. heat the solution </li></ul>
5. 5. Objectives <ul><li>Compare and contrast saturated, unsaturated and supersaturated </li></ul><ul><li>Define concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate concentration by mass and volume </li></ul>
6. 6. Parts of a Solution <ul><li>SOLUTE – the part of a solution that is being dissolved (usually the lesser amount) </li></ul><ul><li>SOLVENT – the part of a solution that dissolves the solute (usually the greater amount) </li></ul><ul><li>Solute + Solvent = Solution </li></ul>Air Gas Gas Soda pop Liquid Gas Antifreeze Liquid Liquid Opal Solid Gas Sugar water Liquid Solid Brass Solid Solid Example Solvent Solute
7. 7. Saturation <ul><li>Solutions can be classified as saturated or un saturated . </li></ul><ul><li>Saturation is dependant on temperature. </li></ul>
8. 8. <ul><li>A saturated solution contains the maximum amount of solute that dissolves at a given temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>An unsaturated solution contains less than the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve at a given temperature. </li></ul>
9. 9. SUPERSATURATED SOLUTIONS <ul><li>This condition is only temporary, and happens in one of two ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Warm the solvent so that it will dissolve more, then cool the solution </li></ul><ul><li>Evaporate some of the solvent carefully so that the solute does not solidify and come out of solution. </li></ul>Supersaturated solutions contain more solute than is possible to be dissolved and are unstable.
10. 10. <ul><li>If the solution is not disturbed, all the solute will stay dissolved. If the smallest amount of solute is added to the supersaturated solution, the excess solute comes out of the solution and settles to the bottom. </li></ul>
11. 11. Supersaturated examples <ul><li>sodium acetate “heat pack” </li></ul><ul><li>Rock candy </li></ul><ul><li>Carbonated water </li></ul><ul><li>Scuba divers blood </li></ul>
12. 12. Concentration <ul><li>A measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a solvent </li></ul>
13. 13. <ul><li>The relationship between the amount of solute and the amount of solvent is </li></ul><ul><li>a. concentration </li></ul><ul><li>b. solvent ratio </li></ul><ul><li>c. specific gravity </li></ul><ul><li>d. dilution factor </li></ul>
14. 14. <ul><li>A substance that contains all of the solute that it can hold for that temperature is called </li></ul><ul><li>a. ideal </li></ul><ul><li>b. supersaturated </li></ul><ul><li>c. saturated </li></ul><ul><li>d. hydrated </li></ul>
15. 15. % by volume = volume of solute volume of solution X 100 % by mass = mass of solute mass of solution X 100