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classification of elements

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  • 1. Classification of Elements January 13, 2011
  • 2. Objectives
    • Describe characteristics of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
    • Define period, periodic law, family, malleable, ductile. valence electrons
    • Describe how elements are arranged on the periodic table
  • 3.  
  • 4. Henry Mosley (1914)
    • Determined that each atom has a unique number of positive charges.
    • Discovered isotopes
    • Rearranged Mendeleyev’s table by their atomic number
  • 5.  
  • 6. Periodic Law
    • Because properties of elements repeated in an orderly way, it was called periodic .
    • Properties of elements are a function of their atomic numbers. 
  • 7. Elements are arranged: Vertically into Groups or Families Horizontally Into Periods
  • 8. Valence Electrons
      • Number of electrons an element has in its outermost orbital
      • Families have the same number of valence electrons
      • Group number tells how many valence electrons each family will have
  • 9. The group 2 atoms all have 2 electrons in their outer shells Be (Beryllium) Atom Mg (Magnesium) Atom
  • 10. If you looked at an atom from each element in a period Each atom has the same number of electron shells .
  • 11. The period 4 atoms each have 4 electron containing shells K (Potassium) Atom Fe (Iron) Atom Kr (Krypton) Atom 4 th Shell
  • 12. Metals
    • shiny (they have luster)
    • solids at room temperature
    • good conductors
    • malleable - capable of being hammered out into thin sheets
    • ductile - drawn out into wire or threads
  • 13.
    • Located to the left of the zigzag line
    • Most elements are metals
    • Usually have few valence electrons
  • 14. Non-metals
    • Can be found as solids, liquids, or gases at room temperature
    • Typically dull and brittle
    • Poor conductors
    • All non-metals except hydrogen are found on the right side of the zigzag line
    • Many valance electrons
  • 15. Metalloids
    • Border both sides of the zigzag line
    • each has some of the properties of a metal and non metal
    • can become good conductors under certain conditions such as high temperatures
    • Also called semiconductors