Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Module 12vs9 final
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Module 12vs9 final

712
views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
712
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Module 12 Remembering & Forgetting
  • 2. INTRODUCTION
    • Recall
      • Retrieving previously learned information without the aid of, or with very few, external cues
    • Recognition
      • Identifying previously learned information with the help of more external cues
  • 3. ORGANIZATION OF MEMORIES
    • Network theory of memory organization
      • We store related ideas in separate categories, or files, called nodes and create links among them
      • A gigantic interconnected network of files for storing and retrieving information
    • Associations
      • Linking of nodes or categories together by making associations between new and old, previously stored information
    • Network
      • Thousands of interconnected nodes form a huge cognitive network for arranging and storing files
  • 4. ORGANIZATION OF MEMORIES (CONT’D)
  • 5. ORGANIZATION OF MEMORIES (CONT’D)
    • Organization of network hierarchy
      • Nodes
        • memory files that contain related information organized around a specific topic or category
      • Network hierarchy refers to the arrangement of nodes or memory files in a certain order
      • Bottom of hierarchy made up of nodes with very concrete information connected to nodes with somewhat more specific information, which in turn are connected to nodes with general or abstract information
  • 6. ORGANIZATION OF MEMORIES (CONT’D)
  • 7. FORGETTING CURVES
    • Early memories
      • Earliest that people in different cultures can recall personal memories averages 3.5 years old
    • Unfamiliar and uninteresting
      • Forgetting curve measures the amount of previously learned information that subjects can recall or recognize
    • Familiar and interesting
      • Remembering is partly related to how familiar or interesting the information is
  • 8. REASONS FOR FORGETTING
    • Overview: forgetting
      • Inability to retrieve, recall, or recognize information that was stored or is still stored in long-term memory
      • Repression
        • according to Sigmund Freud, repression is a mental process that automatically hides emotionally threatening or anxiety-producing information in the unconscious (from which repressed memories can’t be recalled voluntarily, but something may cause them to enter consciousness at a later time)
  • 9. REASONS FOR FORGETTING (CONT’D)
      • Poor retrieval cues/poor encoding
      • Retrieval cues
        • mental reminders that we create by forming vivid mental images or associations between new information and information we already know
  • 10. REASONS FOR FORGETTING (CONT’D)
      • Interference
        • common reason for forgetting
        • recall of some particular memory is blocked or prevented by other related memories
        • proactive interference
          • occurs when old information (learned earlier) blocks or disrupts the remembering of related new information (learned later)
        • retroactive interference
          • occurs when new information (learned later) blocks or disrupts the retrieval of related old information (learned earlier)
  • 11. REASONS FOR FORGETTING (CONT’D)
      • Amnesia
        • may be temporary or permanent loss of memory that may occur after a blow or damage to the brain or after disease, general anesthesia, certain drugs, or severe psychological trauma
      • Distortion
        • misremembering something due to memory distortions caused by bias or suggestibility
  • 12. REASONS FOR FORGETTING (CONT’D)
    • Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
      • Having a strong feeling that a particular word can be recalled, but despite making a great effort, being temporarily unable to recall it
    • State-dependent learning
      • Finding it easier to recall information when in the same emotional state as when originally encoding it
  • 13. BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF MEMORY
    • Location of memories in the brain
      • Cortex
        • short-term memories
          • ability to hold words, facts, and events in short-term memory depends on activity in the cortex
        • long-term memory
          • ability to remember or recall songs, words, facts, and events for days, months, or years depends on areas widely spread throughout the cortex
  • 14. BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF MEMORY (CONT’D)
  • 15. BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF MEMORY (CONT’D)
    • Location of memories in the brain
      • Amygdala: emotional memories
        • the amygdala, located in the tip of the temporal lobe, receives input from all the senses and is associated with emotional memory
      • Hippocampus: transferring memories
        • transfers words, facts, and personal events from short-term memory into permanent long-term memory
  • 16. BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF MEMORY (CONT’D)
    • Making a short-term memory
      • Neural assemblies
        • groups of interconnected neurons whose activation allows information or stimuli to be recognized and held briefly and temporarily in short-term memory
  • 17. BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF MEMORY (CONT’D)
  • 18. BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF MEMORY (CONT’D)
    • Making a long-term memory
      • Long-term potentiation (LTP)
        • refers to change in the structure and function of neurons after they’ve been repeatedly stimulated
        • neuroscientists believe that the LTP process, which changes the structure and function of neurons, is the most likely basis for learning and memory in animals and humans
  • 19. MNEMONICS: MEMORIZATION METHODS
    • Improving your memory
      • Mnemonic methods
        • improve encoding and create better retrieval cues by forming vivid associations/images to improve recall
      • Method of loci
        • create visual associations between already memorized places and new items to be memorized
      • Peg method
        • create associations between number-word rhymes and items to be memorized
  • 20. APPLICATIONS
    • Eyewitness testimony
      • Refers to recalling or recognizing a suspect observed during a potentially very disruptive and distracting emotional situation that may have interfered with accurate remembering
  • 21. APPLICATIONS