Professor Trevor Gale Keynote Lecture at the Widening Participation Conference 2012 'Discourses of Inclusion in Higher Education'
Desire and possibility in higher education:What do expanded systems have to offer the masses? Trevor Gale, Deakin University, Australia email@example.com
Three challenges for HE• to expand HE provision and low Volume 52 Number 2 June 2011 SES participation in a context of low unmet student demand• To develop (much earlier) new relationships with prospective students Special Issue: New Capacities for Student Equity and• to rethink student aspirations Widening Participation and how institutions and in Higher Education governments contribute to their realisation
Australian higher education policy cycles• University of Sydney founded in 1850• Expansion periods: Menzies (1950s / 1960s); Whitlam (1970s); Dawkins (late 1980s / early 1990s).• Rudd/Gillard 2009 – proposed new expansion
The 20/40 targetsTargets “integral to achieving the Government’s vision of a stronger and fairer Australia” (Australian Government 2009: 5)• by 2020, 20% of all • stronger in terms of “a undergraduate students highly educated in higher education will workforce … to advance come from low the growth of a dynamic socioeconomic status knowledge economy” (SES) backgrounds; • fairer by “ensuring that• by 2025, 40% of all 25- Australians of all 34 year olds will hold a backgrounds who have Bachelor’s degree. the ability to study at university get the opportunity to do so”
The company that Australia wants to keep Source: Bradley et al. 2008: 20Australia Attainment 25 to 34 years By 2025 40% 32% in 2008Australia Participation low SES students By 2020 20% 15% in 2008
Conditions of entry to higher education• the availability of Aspiration Achievement places,• students’ academic achievement, Accessibility Availability• the accessibility of higher education to qualified aspirants, and• students’ aspirations Entry to higher for higher education. education Source: Anderson et al. 1980
Current and target bachelor degree attainment rate, 25-34 year olds, Australia, 2010-2025 4,000,000 3,677,393 25-34 year olds 3,600,000 3,200,000 40% of 25-34 year olds with 2,800,000 degree 2,400,000 Number 32-34% 25-34 year olds 2,000,000 with degree 1,600,000 Shortfall = Shortfall = Shortfall 1,200,000 220,643 220,643 = 220,643 800,000 400,000 Target = 25,000 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 new annual Year enrolmentsDerived from ABS data 3222.0 – Population Projections, Australia, 2006 to 2101, Using Series B projected population growth
Projected student demand for HE 18.0% 16.0% 14.0% 12.0% 10.0% 8.0% 6.0% 4.0% Unmet student 2.0% demand 0.0% -2.0% 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 -4.0% -6.0% Insufficient -8.0% student demand-10.0%-12.0%-14.0%-16.0%-18.0%Conditions apply! Rate of increase of supply (20,000 places per year for 4 years from 2010-2013); the retentionrate of Year 12 students (currently 75%); the rate of application to university by school students (currently 40%);the completion rate of university students (currently 72%); the rate of immigration of people with bachelordegrees; etc.Sources: derived from ABS 2008a, 2008b; DEEWR 2009: 33, 68, 75; Wheelahan 2009: 265
25,000 (plus) extra commencing students needed every year, from 2010 to 2021180,000 7,835 2,274 24,498160,000140,000120,000100,000 Increase 80,000 on previous 60,000 year 40,000 Elligble 20,000 accepting offer 0 2008 2009 2010 2011Source: DEEWR 2011: 77
Final year of school: increasing numbers but decreasing proportion Number of Year 12 students, Australia, 2000-2008 210,000 206,630 205,000Number of students 200,000 195,000 190,000 191, 602 185,000 180,000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: Derived from ABS Cat. 4221.0 – Schools, Australia, 2008, Table 43a Secondary school apparent retention rate, Year 10-Year 12, Australia, 2000-2008 78.0% Retention rate 76.0% 75.6% 74.0% 74.4% 72.0% 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: Derived from ABS Cat. 4221.0 – Schools, Australia, 2008, Table 64a
Increasing final year students … decreasing eligibility for university entry Student retention to final year of school and eligibility to obtain a university entry score Year Cohort Entry score % Entry score % eligible ineligible 2000 38211 27839 73 10372 27 2002 38820 27749 71 11071 29 2004 38451 27235 71 11216 29 2006 39579 26233 66 13346 34 2009 43191 25305 59 17886 41Trend Data: University Entry Score eligible and ineligible students, 2000-2009
Increasing numbers in further education VET students by age group, Australia, 2004-2008 Age group 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 % % % % % 15-19 26.5 27.3 30.2 29.9 30.2 20-24 19.0 19.0 18.8 18.3 18.2 25-44 10.2 10.2 9.9 9.7 9.7 45-64 6.1 6.3 5.9 5.9 5.9 65 and older 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 15-64 11.3 11.4 11.4 11.3 11.3 Source: NCVER 2009: 8 Number of students in VET, Australia, 2000-2008 Number of students 1,750,000 1,721,400 1,696,400 1,700,000 1,650,000 1,600,000 1,550,000 1,500,000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008Source: NCVER 2009: 8
Australian 15 to 19 year olds have higher than average rates of non-participation in education and employment Proportion of persons not in education and 2006 unemployed Country 15-19 years % Australia 3.7 Canada 2.9 Denmark 1.9 Finland 1.7 Source: Australian Social Netherlands 1.1 Inclusion Board 2009: 55 New Zealand 3.7 Sweden 2.0 Switzerland 2.8 United Kingdom 5.3 United States 2.1 OECD average 3.0 EU 19 average 2.9
Designing university outreach programs• Increased program activity by universities to encourage and enable school students to continue on to university study• Significant government funding: $14 million in 2010 rising to $42 million in 2013• Targeting under-represented groups and focusing on students earlier in their schooling See: www.equity101.info
Early interventions:• Year 10 students• building student aspirations• low SES backgrounds, Indigenous, rural and remote• one-off events, on- campus visits, school visits by university staff
Effective programs have at least ...• 4 (from 10) design characteristics• 3 (from 4) implementation strategies• 2 (from 3) equity perspectivesGale et al. (2010) http://www.equity101.info/content/Interventions-early-school-means-improve-higher-education-outcomes-disadvantaged-students
4 strategies & 10 characteristics Assembling resources Engaging learners Working together Building confidence Communication and People-rich Recognition of difference Collaboration information Financial support and/or Enhanced academic Familiarisation/site Cohort-based incentives curriculum experiences Early, long-term, sustained Research driven Assembling resources involves committing human resources, financial resources and time resources. Engaging learners involves learning and teaching of various orders: learning about programs; student learning; and learning from others. Working together involves cooperation and partnership during program design and implementation and through engaging student cohorts rather than simply targeting individuals. Building confidence involves strengthening students awareness of and increasing their familiarity with university.
strength of program composition• Strength of program composition is assessed in terms of a balance between the total number of program characteristics (depth) and the number of program strategies from which they are drawn (breadth).
composition & equity orientation A program’s strength of composition provides one criterion used in the Design and Evaluation Matrix. The second criterion is a program’s equity orientation. The overall likely effectiveness of a program depends on its strength of composition and the degree to which it is supported by an equity orientation toward policy and practice. The research identified 3 equity perspectives comprised by this orientation. Equity or Social Inclusion Orientation Researching ‘local knowledge’ Building capacity inUnsettling deficit views and negotiating local communities, schools and interventions universities
W = weakM = moderateS = strongVS = very strongGale et al. 2010U = unlikelyL = likelyQL = quite likelyVL = very likely
Towards a theory of student aspiration• Doxic aspirations: informed by populist and ideological conceptions of the good life; the out-workings of beliefs and assumptions of the dominant that circulate as natural and commonsense• Habituated aspirations: derived from students’ biological and historical conditions; informed by and re-assert individuals’ social- structural positions in society.
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That’s not how they want to be measured “Maybe some of them don’t want to [go to university] . . . Maybe that’s the issue, maybe what’s happening is that because we are such middle class people, and the way that we measure success is materialistic, you know, you’ve got a nice big house, you drive a fancy car, you’ve got a massive mortgage, ‘Well you’re doing really well there!’ Maybe it’s just that. Maybe it’s that they’re choosing that that’s not how they want to be measured, and that’s not as important to them as it is to us. Maybe we are just saying ‘This is what’s important because that’s how we live’, but it’s not how they feel they need to live.”Sellar, S. (2009). Visceral Pedagogies and Other Ways of Knowing: Exploring Ethical Responsibility inRelationships at the Periphery of Institutional Schooling, PhD Thesis, Adelaide, Australia: University of SouthAustralia.
Research study 12006/2007 survey of over 2000 Y9-12 students in the western suburbs of Melbourne “... interest in tertiary education among students in the western region of Melbourne is strong overall. Approximately 70% of respondents aspire to attend university and about 85% aspire to some form of tertiary education (university and TAFE). Only 8.2% opt explicitly for an apprenticeship. Given the low socio-economic status and culturally diverse nature of the western region, this is an important finding in itself.” (Bowden & Doughney 2010: 118)Bowden, M.P., & Doughney, J. (2010). Socio-economic status, cultural diversity and the aspirations of secondarystudents in the Western Suburbs of Melbourne, Australia. Higher Education, 59(1), 115-129.
Research study 2 What would you like to do when you leave school? lawyer hairdresser/beautician vet professional sportsperson marine biologist electrician/plumber/labourer child psychologist mechanic/truck driver/wrecker interior designer/architect police/army/SWAT/fireman doctor/social worker/dentist secretary Egyptologist chef engineer/geologist author/illustrator/graphic designer teacher (little kids/ business/shop owner PE/English/Japanese) radio/news reporter/ cameraman forensic scientist cabinetmaker zookeeper/park ranger/animal carer racing driver ‘further studies’ (not sure what) shop assistant army nurse/midwife/paramedic farmer computer/game designer musician/dancer/performerProsser, B., McCallum, F., Milroy, P., Comber, B. & Nixon, H. (2008) ‘I am smart and I am not joking’: Aiming high in themiddle years of schooling. Australian Educational Researcher, 35 (2), 15-36.
What do you need to do to make this happen? • get a good education • get good marks • get good grades • study and work hard • stay at school • study hard in school and after school • study, study, study and help from the teachers • try my best in school and try my hardest • focus on school • pass Year 12 • get my SACE • complete my SACE • concentrate on my work • concentrate with no distractions • don’t give up • work hard • study hard for testsProsser, B., McCallum, F., Milroy, P., Comber, B. & Nixon, H. (2008) ‘I am smart and I am not joking’: Aiming high in themiddle years of schooling. Australian Educational Researcher, 35 (2), 15-36.
A tale of two students navigating between desire and possibility When it came time to accept the offer ofWhen I found out that I didn’t get into university places I had to make a decisionmedicine I was really upset. Being a between courses at UniSA and Flindersdoctor is all I ever wanted to do. Dad is an University. There was a combination ofarchitect and mum is a judge but both of reasons why I chose a teaching degree atmy grandparents were doctors. So Mum Mawson Lakes campus and not arang up the Dean to find out what we Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics atcould do. I found out I could do a Flinders. First, getting to Flinders fromBachelor’s degree in Bioscience at north of the city would require two hoursMelbourne Uni and then do a test travelling time each day. I needed to[GAMSAT] that would give me graduate reduce this so that I could increase myentrance, particularly if I was willing to go work hours. Second, I had heard thatto country. The government is trying to there were not as many jobs available onget more people to be country doctors. the completion of the Nutrition course.So I went to Melbourne and did Honours And finally, I felt more comfortable goingand now I’m studying medicine at to Mawson Lakes because it was an areaMonash Gippsland, which is awesome. that I was familiar with.
different experience distant capacities to aspireThe disadvantaged have a…‘smaller number of aspirational nodes’(Appadurai 2004: 69)‘thinner, weaker sense experience nearof pathways fromconcrete wants tointermediate contexts togeneral norms and backagain’ (Appadurai 2004:69)
Aspirations expressed in terms of… The advantaged: The disadvantaged:• “concrete, individual • “specific goods and wishes and wants … [but outcomes, often material more often along with] and proximate … [which justifications, narratives, often appear as] just metaphors … [that connect bundles of [loosely these wishes and wants connected] individual and with] wider social scenes idiosyncratic wants.” and contexts.” Appadurai (2004: 68)
“the relatively rich and powerful invariably have a more fully developed capacity to aspire• … because the better off, by definition, have a more complex experience of the relation between a wide range of ends and means• because they have a bigger stock of available experiences of the relationship of aspirations and outcomes• because they are in a better position to explore and harvest diverse experiences of exploration and trial• because of their many opportunities to link material goods and immediate opportunities to more general and generic possibilities and options” (Appadurai 2004: 68)
You gotta have a back-up planIt’d be nice to play AFL [football] but you’ve always got to haveanother… you gotta have a back-up plan … I don’t know … I’d liketo be like, work in medicine, or something … interesting. Yeah, goto Uni … AIS, Australian Institute of Sport. [It] would be [nice tobe] a coach or something. (Bok 2010: 174)Bok, J. (2010). The capacity to aspire to higher education: ‘It’s like making them do a play without a script’.Critical Studies in Education, 51(2), 163-178.
Poverty is partly a matter of operating with extremelyweak resources where the terms of recognition areconcerned . . . the poor are frequently in a position wherethey are encouraged to subscribe to norms whose socialeffect is to further diminish their dignity, exacerbate theirinequality, and deepen their lack of access to materialgoods and services. (Appadurai 2004: 66)
Three levels of aspiration Individual Institutional NationalEconomic (ownership, Economic (finance, Economic (growth,mobility) security) competition)Socio-Cultural Symbolic (distinction, Socio-Political (social(learning, agency) influence) inclusion, widening participation) Source: Sellar & Gale 2012
Conclusion• Previous policy and practice conflated desire and possibility. These are now decoupled in the current policy environment although without recognition of this decoupling by policy and much practice• Making higher education possible requires more than a supportive policy environment. Required is an approach designed and evaluated by research• Higher education policy and practice tend towards manipulating aspiration (what is desirable and possible). While continuing to work to increase access we also need to work to change what is accessed.
Recent related publications firstname.lastname@example.org• Mills, C. & Gale, T. (2010) Schooling in Disadvantaged Communities: Playing the game from the back of the field. Springer. ISBN: 978-90-481-3343-7 (hbk) 9789048133444 (ebk)• Gale, T., Hattam, R., Comber, B., Tranter, D., Bills, D., Sellar, S. & Parker, S. (2010) Interventions early in school as a means to improve higher education outcomes for disadvantaged (particularly low SES) students. Adelaide: National Centre Student Equity in Higher Education. 208 pp. (paperback), ISBN: 978-0-980798-30-2.• Sellar, S. & Gale, T. (2011) Mobility, aspiration, voice: A new structure of feeling for student equity in higher education. Special Issue: “New capacities for student equity and widening participation in higher education”. Critical Studies in Education, 52(2), pp. 115-134.• Sellar, S., Gale, T. & Parker, S. (2011) Appreciating aspirations in Australian higher education. Special Issue: “Globalisation and student equity in higher education”. Cambridge Journal of Education, 41(1), pp. 37-52.• Gale, T. (2011) Student equity’s starring role in Australian higher education: Not yet centre field. Special Issue: “Confronting perceptions of student equity in higher education”. Australian Educational Researcher, 38(1), pp. 5-23.• Gale, T. (2011) Expansion and equity in Australian higher education: Three propositions for new relations. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 32(5), pp. 669-685.• Gale, T. & Tranter, D. (2011) Social justice in Australian higher education policy: An historical and conceptual account of student participation. Critical Studies in Education, 52(1), pp. 29-46.• Mills, C. & Gale, T. (2011) Re-asserting the place of context in explaining student (under) achievement. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 32(2), pp. 239-256.• Gale, T. & Parker, S. (2011) Student Transition into Higher Education. Good Practice Report. Canberra: Australian Learning and Teaching Council.• Gale, T. & Tranter, D. (2012) ‘Social inclusion as a matter of policy: Australian higher education for the masses’ in T. Basit & S. Tomlinson (eds) Social Inclusion and Higher Education. Bristol, UK: Policy Press, pp. 149-169.• Sellar, S. & Gale, T. (2012) ‘Aspiration and education: Toward new terms of engagement for marginalised students’ in B. McMahon & J. Portelli (eds) Student Engagement in Urban Schools: Beyond Neoliberal Discourses. North Carolina, USA: Information Age Publishers, pp. 91-109.