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Louise Morley - Imagining the Inclusive University of the Future

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A keynote speech delivered to the Widening Participation Conference 2012 'Discourses of Inclusion in Higher Education' 24-25 April 2012 www.open.ac.uk/disourses-of-inclusion

A keynote speech delivered to the Widening Participation Conference 2012 'Discourses of Inclusion in Higher Education' 24-25 April 2012 www.open.ac.uk/disourses-of-inclusion

Published in: Education, News & Politics

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  • 1. Centre for Higher Educationand Equity Research (CHEER) Imagining the Inclusive University of the Future Professor Louise Morley University of Sussex, UK (http://www.sussex.ac.uk/cheer/). 26 April, 2012
  • 2. The University of the Past •Elitism •Exclusion •Inequalities 26 April, 2012
  • 3. The University of Today • Diversified • Liquified • Expanded • Globalised • Borderless/ Edgeless • Marketised • Technologised • Neo-liberalised • Privatised? 26 April, 2012
  • 4. Turbulence and Torpor Caught between:  Archaism  Hyper-modernisation Negotiating:  Nostalgia  Frenzy  Inertia Tensions between:  Desire  Desiccation  Distributive justice 26 April, 2012
  • 5. Do These Discourses Exciteand Delight You?  Quality Assurance  Excellence  Knowledge Economy  Innovation and Enterprise  Knowledge Transfer  Teaching and Learning  Lifelong Learning  Employability  Globalisation  Internationalisation  Civic Engagement  Digitisation  Economic Impact  League Tables 26 April, 2012
  • 6. Futurology Are current HE policy discourses: Limiting or generating creative thinking about the future of universities? Commensurate with aspirations/ desires of students/ staff? Reducing universities to delivery agencies for government-decreed outcomes? (Young, 2004) 26 April, 2012
  • 7. Technology or Ideology? • Quality is frequently invoked when equality is raised. • Is equality invoked in quality discourses? • Top Universities in League Tables have lowest numbers of women professors. UK = 20% Oxford = 9.4% 26 April, 2012
  • 8. Whose Imaginary? • Neo-liberalism/ austerity rather than academic imaginaries or social movements? • Who/what is currently informing policy? (Ball and Exley, 2009) • What new vocabularies can be marshalled to consider the morphology of the university of the future? 26 April, 2012
  • 9. What Type of Future? •Probable •Possible •Desirable (Appadurai, 2010) 26 April, 2012
  • 10. Imagining the Future 26 April, 2012
  • 11. Dystopian Futures and Cultures ofClosure • Callousness of prestige • Decline in academic freedom • Employees permanently temporary • Job training, not education • Teacherless classrooms • Increased political, cultural and economic assault • Corporatisation/ academic-capitalist values • Countercultures and opposition crushed. 26 April, 2012 (Bousquet, 2008)
  • 12. The Edgeless University (Bradwell,2009) • Open Access Publishing • Flexible learning outside the university • Social media • Progressive Austerity (Reeves, 2009) • Strategic technological investment • New providers • Collaborative research/ open research communities • Universities as partners, not sole providers of learning, research • Engaging stakeholders in course design • New forms of accreditation. 26 April, 2012
  • 13. Absences and Silences • Learning Landscapes/ Aesthetics/ Spatial Justice/ (Lambert, 2010; Neary, 2010) • Affective Domain (Hey, 2009, 2011) • Environment and Sustainability (Sterling, 2004) • Global North/ South Power Geometries and Cognitive Justice (Robinson, 2009; Santos, 2007) • Equalities and Intersectionality of Social Identities (Morley et al, 2010) 26 April, 2012
  • 14. Equalities and Identities 26 April, 2012
  • 15. Desiring Higher Education • Aligning personal aspirations with needs of economy (Appadurai, 2003; Morley et al. 2010; Walkerdine, 2003, 2011). Globally: 1960 - 13 million 2005 - 137.8 million 2025 - 262 million? (UNESCO, 2009). • Multiversities (Fallis, 2007) or • Multiple providers (Ball, 2008). 26 April, 2012
  • 16. Global Expansion Asia China enrolment is now 20% (Marginson et al., 2011) India (world’s third largest HE system) plans 15% by 2012 Sub-Saharan Africa 8.7% annual expansion 5.1% for the world as a whole. Regional Variations in Participation Iceland 65.6% Austria 60.7% (UNESCO, 2009) Tanzania 1% (DFID, 2008) 26 April, 2012
  • 17. Toxic Correlations/ Access andSocial Identities • 4% of UK poorer young people enter higher education. (David et al, 2009; Hills Report, 2009). • 5% of this group enter UK’s top 7 universities (HESA, 2010). • More black young men in prison in UK and US than in HE. • Attainment gap in UK HE highest between black and white students (Ruebain, 2012). • Universities = hereditary domain of financially advantaged (Gopal, 2010). 26 April, 2012
  • 18. Why Does This Matter? The university • generates social, educational and cultural opportunities • plays a major role in social mobility • produces workers for other influential institutions. (Holmwood, 2011) 26 April, 2012
  • 19. Reproducing Power and Privilege? Graduates from elite universities control: the media politics the civil service the arts the City law medicine big business the armed forces the judiciary think tanks (Monbiot, 2010) 26 April, 2012
  • 20. Closing the Gender Gap? • Global Gender Parity Index of 1.08 (UNESCO, 2009). • The number of male students globally quadrupled from 17.7 to 75.1 million between 1970-2007. • The number of female students rose sixfold from 10.8 to 77.4 million. • UK ranked 16 the Global Gender Gap Index (13 in 2008) (World Economic Forum, 2011). In UK, women are: • 57.1% of students • 42.6% of academic staff • 20% of professoriate • 13% of Vice-Chancellors (ECU, 2009). 26 April, 2012
  • 21. Inclusion = Representational Space • Gender = access, smart economics, disadvantage and remediation. • Women’s increased access = feminisation. • Gender not intersected with other structures of inequality. • HE products and processes = gender neutral. • Power and privilege = under- theorisation. • Redistributive measures = social engineering. • Equity / Affirmative Action = threat to 26 April, 2012 excellence.
  • 22. Gender Mainstreaming? • Sexual harassment (Morley, 2011, NUS, 2010); • Gender insensitive pedagogy (Welch, 2006); • Women and Technology (Clegg, 2011); • Promotion, professional development and tenure (Acker, 2009; Knights and Richards, 2003); • Knowledge production and dissemination (Hughes, 2002); • Curricula and subject choices (Morley et al, 2006). • Inequalities and gender mainstreaming (Morley, 2010; Rees, 2006). 26 April, 2012
  • 23. Gender…  is a demographic variable (noun), not something that is in continual production (verb).  continues to be relayed via everyday practices that elude quality audits.  is ignored when women suffer discrimination/under-representation.  is amplified in crisis form when women are ‘over-represented’.  inequalities resistant to hypermodernisation forces? 26 April, 2012
  • 24. Sociology of Absences(De Sousa Santos) 26 April, 2012
  • 25. Widening Participation in HigherEducation in Ghana and Tanzania Measuring: • Sociological variables of gender, age, socio-economic status (SES) In Relation to: • Educational Outcomes: access, retention and achievement. In Relation to: • 4 Programmes of Study in each HEI. • 2 Public and 2 private HEIs. • Intersectionality (Morley et al. 2010 http://www.sussex.ac.uk/wphegt 26 April, 2012
  • 26. Equity Scorecard: Access to Level 200 on 4 Programmes at a Public University in Tanzania According to Age, Gender and Socio Economic Status % of Students on the Programme Mature Programme Women Women Poor Low Age 30 and Women and low 30 or Mature SES or over Low SES over Women SESB. Commerce 32.41 8.59 1.13 0.16 0.32 0.0 0.0 LLB. Law 56.18 13.48 0.0 0.0 5.06 0.0 0.0 B.Sc. 25.05 11.65 1.36 0.0 1.36 1.17 0.0 EngineeringB. Science with 11.20 28.00 4.80 1.6 0.80 0.0 0.0 Education 26 April, 2012
  • 27. Equity Scorecard: Access to Level 200 on 4Programmes at a Public University in GhanaAccording to Age, Gender and Socio Economic Status(SES) % of Students on the Programme Mature Women Programme Age 30 Women Poor Low and and Women or 30 Mature SES Low low over or over Women SES SES B.Commerce 29.92 1.66 5.82 0.00 1.11 0.28 0.00 B. Management 47.06 2.94 6.30 0.00 1.68 3.36 0.00 Studies B.Education 36.36 8.08 65.66 8.08 2.02 21.21 2.02 (Primary) B.Sc. 30.77 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Optometry 26 April, 2012
  • 28. Steep Social Gradients • Opportunity hording by privileged social groups? • Middle class capture of affirmative action? • Are we now educating ‘doctors daughters rather than doctors sons’? (Williams/ Eagleton 2008) 26 April, 2012
  • 29. ‘Now’ (Inclusive) Universities Built on Yesterday’s (Exclusive) FoundationsHyper-modernisation of: Archaism of:• Liquified globalisation • Male dominance of leadership• Entrepreneurial, corporate, commercialised universities • Gender inequalities and feminisation fears• Digitisation • Unequal participation• Turbo-charged consuming, rates for different multitasking students. social groups. 26 April, 2012
  • 30. The (Inclusive) University of theFuture Needs to... • Recover critical knowledge and be a think tank and policy driver. • Discover new conceptual grammars to include equalities, identities and affective domains. • Consider the collective/ public as well as the private benefits of knowledge/ HE. • Include more accountability on social inequalities. • Contribute to wealth/ opportunity distribution as well as to wealth creation. 26 April, 2012
  • 31. CHEER ESRC Seminar Series:‘Imagining the University of the Future’http://www.sussex.ac.uk/cheer/esrcseminars Special issue of Contemporary Social Science (Volume 6:2, 2011) entitled: ‘Challenge, Change or Crisis in Global Higher Education?’ 26 April, 2012