Open UniversityWidening Participation Conference 2012Discourses of Inclusion in Higher EducationCritical pedagogy and its ...
Aims of presentation• To present methodology and methods  used in a pilot study of critical pedagogy• To reflect on method...
Core focus and argumentEvaluation of critical pedagogy and its ‘place’ within aspecific higher education curriculum.Inspir...
StructureAims of pilot study   • Context  and research        • Methodology    question          • Method                 ...
Aim of pilot studySituate the theoretical principles of criticalpedagogy(see Freire, 1985; Giroux, 1985; Freire andMacedo,...
Research QuestionThe main question that guided the design ofpilot study:‘What is the place for a critical pedagogywithin a...
Principles of critical pedagogy               Curiosity               Critical   Creative   Pedagogy   learners           ...
Context. Pilot study: November 2011           and February 2012Explored the principles, conditions, and practices of criti...
Conceptual framework: temporal and spatialNot a ‘description’ of an institution, course ormodule (although these provide a...
Conceptual framework : Iterative –inductive                approach My analysis and interpretation informed by O’Reilly it...
Conceptual framework: Inter-relationships between     performativity, authenticity and modes of timePerformative self is a...
Advance Notice ! Discuss in 40 mins.          Reflections on the pilot study:Qs raised by methodology , methods and findin...
The module that formed basis of           pilot studyThe Politics of Education module is a Level 6module38 students took t...
Aims of the module that formed basis             of pilot study• Develop understanding of the political nature of  educati...
Introduction to a module:Politics : Keywords and images                                 15
Definition of policy (Ball, 2008)big –P policy that is ‘formal’ and usuallylegislated policy…. But we need to remainaware ...
Two issues chosen as starting point:Internet safety and Looked After Children                                            17
Policy texts and questions designedByron Review ( 2008)How does the Byron Review aim to advise schoolsaround making the in...
Methodology and methodsMy reflection on the module, within this specificsetting, draws on Mc Arthur (2010), and herargumen...
Why ethnography with a political             intent?The critical ethnography enabled me to understandand conceptualise the...
Carspecken’s model of critical ethnography   (1996:41-42) in Cohen, Manion and             Morrison (2011)                ...
Methods in design of pilot study• Participant observation and field notes• Survey• Focus Group• My reflexivity as insider ...
O’Reilly’s iterative –inductive approachThe preliminary findings I will present remainpermeable and incomplete (Amsler and...
Stage 1 and monological dataCollected a primary record based on monological data :Described existing situation and engagem...
Extract from scratch notes22 November: Staff Student ConsultativeCommittee  Single student at meeting. Meeting went ahead....
Extracts from survey: How would youdescribe your experiences of the module?One of five open questions 23 studentsresponded...
Extracts from focus group• Contrast between issue each group identified and then their  development of framework for analy...
Stage 2 :Preliminary reconstruction and                     findingsWoods (1996) Critical EventsMethodologically ‘it is di...
Theory: Performativity asa technology, a culture and mode ofregulation that employs judgements,comparisons and displays as...
Performativity and authenticityThe performative self is a fabricated, sociallyconstructed self, created and confined by ou...
Analysis of scratch notes and extracts:            March and AprilThe conditions that research was developedwithin and how...
Interpretation: Grim ?                         32
Or contradictory , permeable and            incomplete?Amsler and Canaan (2008) emphasise thatlinguistic representations o...
Reflections on pilot study‘Voice’ in a restricted form, limited to formalmodule evaluations and staff: studentconsultative...
Conclusion: Reflecting on pilot study on      place of critical pedagogy Used an iterative – inductive approach and Jeffre...
Discussion. Design of the pilot study: Methodology , methods and findingsFirst thoughtsYou and your perspectivesHow does p...
Questions raised by the pilot studyCritical pedagogy, performativity andauthenticityThe complex inter relationships andhow...
References•   Amsler, S. and Canaan, J. (2008) Whither critical pedagogy in the neo-    liberal university today? Two UK p...
References•   Freire, P. (1985) The Politics of Education: Culture, Power and Liberation. New    York: Bergin and Garvey.•...
References•   McArthur, J. (2010) Time to look anew: critical pedagogy and disciplines within higher    education, Studies...
Contact detailsIain Jonesiain.jones@newman.ac.uk                               41
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Critical pedagogy and its place within an Undergraduate Education Studies curriculum

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A conference paper presented at the Widening Participation Conference 2012 'Discourse of Inclusion in Higher Education' 24-25 April 2012, UK

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Critical pedagogy and its place within an Undergraduate Education Studies curriculum

  1. 1. Open UniversityWidening Participation Conference 2012Discourses of Inclusion in Higher EducationCritical pedagogy and its place within anundergraduate Education Studies curriculum Iain Jones Newman University College, Birmingham 24 April 2012
  2. 2. Aims of presentation• To present methodology and methods used in a pilot study of critical pedagogy• To reflect on methodology , methods and initial findings• To summarise questions raised and identify next stage of research 2
  3. 3. Core focus and argumentEvaluation of critical pedagogy and its ‘place’ within aspecific higher education curriculum.Inspired but not fixed by Freire.Debates and practices need to be understood by analysingconditions that such a transformative discourse of highereducation is developed within andHow these conditions work on the concepts and practicesof ‘authentic dialogue’ and ‘creative spaces’ that are centralto critical pedagogy. 3
  4. 4. StructureAims of pilot study • Context and research • Methodology question • Method • Emotion and the affective Findings • Performativity • Questions raised by pilotActivity and study plenary • Your reflections 4
  5. 5. Aim of pilot studySituate the theoretical principles of criticalpedagogy(see Freire, 1985; Giroux, 1985; Freire andMacedo, 1999; Canaan and Singh, 2008)in relation to specific aspects of practice. 5
  6. 6. Research QuestionThe main question that guided the design ofpilot study:‘What is the place for a critical pedagogywithin a specific higher educationcurriculum?’ 6
  7. 7. Principles of critical pedagogy Curiosity Critical Creative Pedagogy learners Voice and and authentic creative dialogue spaces 7
  8. 8. Context. Pilot study: November 2011 and February 2012Explored the principles, conditions, and practices of criticalpedagogy through a small scale ethnographic study withina specific undergraduate moduleThe emerging research problem in the pilot studyconcerned with the experiences of a group of students andtheir teachersThe potential and limitations of a critical pedagogy withinpractices developed in a specific module in a specificcurriculum set in a specific time and place. 8
  9. 9. Conceptual framework: temporal and spatialNot a ‘description’ of an institution, course ormodule (although these provide a context) buthow to capture ‘moments’ within a moduleand across a period of time (the temporaldimension) andhow these experiences shaped by identitieswithin the institution, course and module(the spatial dimension). 9
  10. 10. Conceptual framework : Iterative –inductive approach My analysis and interpretation informed by O’Reilly iterative –inductive approach Moving ‘back and forth iteratively between theory and analysis, data and interpretation’ (2011:105) The preliminary findings I present remain permeable and incomplete (Amsler and Canaan, 2008). 10
  11. 11. Conceptual framework: Inter-relationships between performativity, authenticity and modes of timePerformative self is a fabricated, socially constructed self,created and confined by our respective social and institutionallaws and rulesAuthenticity refers to an inner self that can recognizeperformative demands and act knowingly and mindfullyin response to them (Mac Kenzie et al, 2007:47).Three modes of time and classroom ethnography(Jeffrey and Troman:2004)• Compressed• Selective intermittent• Recurrent. 11
  12. 12. Advance Notice ! Discuss in 40 mins. Reflections on the pilot study:Qs raised by methodology , methods and findingsFirst thoughtsYou and your perspectivesHow does performativity work on ‘authenticdialogue’ and ‘creative spaces’ for you and yourlearning and what is your ‘knowing’ and ‘mindful’response? 12
  13. 13. The module that formed basis of pilot studyThe Politics of Education module is a Level 6module38 students took the moduleTwo modes of assessment• 8-10 minute group documentary on an issue of their choice• 1500 word essay analysing issue 13
  14. 14. Aims of the module that formed basis of pilot study• Develop understanding of the political nature of educational policy and practice.• Analyse the organisational and ideological factors that shape the making of policy.• Use a range of methods to investigate an area of policy and practice relevant to your own personal , academic and professional development. 14
  15. 15. Introduction to a module:Politics : Keywords and images 15
  16. 16. Definition of policy (Ball, 2008)big –P policy that is ‘formal’ and usuallylegislated policy…. But we need to remainaware that policies are made andremade in many sites, and there aremany little-p policies that are formedand enacted within localities andinstitutions(Ball, 2008:7) 16
  17. 17. Two issues chosen as starting point:Internet safety and Looked After Children 17
  18. 18. Policy texts and questions designedByron Review ( 2008)How does the Byron Review aim to advise schoolsaround making the internet safe for pupils and why isthis a political issue?White Paper Care Matters: Time for Change(2007)How have developments in education policy regarding‘parental choice’ impacted on the educationaloutcomes of looked after children? 18
  19. 19. Methodology and methodsMy reflection on the module, within this specificsetting, draws on Mc Arthur (2010), and herargument:To understand critical pedagogy its possibilities andplace, and to then conceptualise how it can be applied, arequestions of• what is meant by diverse forms of knowledge ?• how those forms can be exchanged and developed ? 19
  20. 20. Why ethnography with a political intent?The critical ethnography enabled me to understandand conceptualise the complexity of theexperiences of students and teachers: thetrajectories, contingencies and un-predictabilities marked out in a particulartime and placeCritical ethnography ‘is an inherently politicalenterprise; it is ethnography with a political intent’(Cohen, Manion and Morrison 2011:243). 20
  21. 21. Carspecken’s model of critical ethnography (1996:41-42) in Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2011) Stage 1Compiling the primary record through the collection of monological data Stage 2 Preliminary reconstructive analysis Stage 3 Dialogical data collection Stage 4 Discovering system relations Stage 5 Using system relations to explain findings 21
  22. 22. Methods in design of pilot study• Participant observation and field notes• Survey• Focus Group• My reflexivity as insider researcher 22
  23. 23. O’Reilly’s iterative –inductive approachThe preliminary findings I will present remainpermeable and incomplete (Amsler and Canaan,2008)The analysis and interpretation is informedby O’Reilly’s iterative –inductive approach ofmoving ‘back and forth iteratively betweentheory and analysis, data andinterpretation’ (2011:105). 23
  24. 24. Stage 1 and monological dataCollected a primary record based on monological data :Described existing situation and engagement with students andcolleagues in the module and pilot study.Three methods used to gather monological data:• my field notes• perspectives of the students• those of my two other colleagues who taught module with me.I wanted to capture the mood of the moment using• ‘head’,• ‘scratch’• ‘ full’ fieldnotes (O’Reilly, 2009:72) . 24
  25. 25. Extract from scratch notes22 November: Staff Student ConsultativeCommittee Single student at meeting. Meeting went ahead. She represented her views and claimed they were views of others. This exchange was a precursor to what was then a focus on the module. Yet again she presented her views as if they were representative of the group-when they were not. I felt as if I was being placed in the spotlight (Scratch note recorded on 24 November and emphasis placed on 2 April) 25
  26. 26. Extracts from survey: How would youdescribe your experiences of the module?One of five open questions 23 studentsresponded to anonymously on 24November.Responses included ‘highly helpful’, ‘interesting’,‘extremely interesting’, ‘On a whole positive’(sic),others were ‘confused’ , ‘frustrated’ or ‘Stressfuland confusing over ideologies’ and ‘Some of thelessons were effective as I learnt a lot aroundthe politics of education whilst others were notof as much use as it was used to discuss othersgroups work that doesn’t effect me’ (sic). 26
  27. 27. Extracts from focus group• Contrast between issue each group identified and then their development of framework for analysing why it was a political issue.• We felt disconnection between their experiences and what it is that makes an issue political.• Our dilemma :whether students, particularly at Level 6, should be taking more responsibility for their learning• Our conclusion :re-structuring of sessions within the module. Preliminary ideas to include Greater use of case studies Student diaries: what is a political event 27
  28. 28. Stage 2 :Preliminary reconstruction and findingsWoods (1996) Critical EventsMethodologically ‘it is difficult to study critical events as they are happening’(1996:119) but the meanings and context of an event can be explored andunderstood in retrospect.Mercer (2007) Insider researchBy reflecting on and understanding the significance of critical events the ‘subtleand diffuse links between the situation and events’ (2007:11) can be identified.Jeffrey and Troman (2004) Time and classroomethnography• Compressed• Selective intermittent• RecurrentO’Reilly (2009) Iterative-inductive approach 28
  29. 29. Theory: Performativity asa technology, a culture and mode ofregulation that employs judgements,comparisons and displays as means ofincentive, control, attrition and changebased on rewards and sanctions (bothmaterial and symbolic) (Ball, 2003: 216). 29
  30. 30. Performativity and authenticityThe performative self is a fabricated, sociallyconstructed self, created and confined by ourrespective social and institutional laws andrules.Authenticity refers to an inner self that canrecognize performative demands and actknowingly and mindfully in response to them(MacKenzie, 2007:47). 30
  31. 31. Analysis of scratch notes and extracts: March and AprilThe conditions that research was developedwithin and how those conditions worked on principlesand practices of student voice that is a principle ofcritical pedagogy.Restricted practices and extended possibilities of‘voice’ were suffused with emotion and the‘affective’ (see Leathwood and Hey, 2009). However,they not in binary opposition but were inter-related. These relationships were mediated, in turn,by performativity 31
  32. 32. Interpretation: Grim ? 32
  33. 33. Or contradictory , permeable and incomplete?Amsler and Canaan (2008) emphasise thatlinguistic representations of a process orcondition as a totalising, inevitable andcompleted script have a performative function: they potentially depict as ‘complete’ processes that are often incomplete, contradictory and more permeable to other forces and practices than their representation suggests (2008:4, my emphasis). 33
  34. 34. Reflections on pilot study‘Voice’ in a restricted form, limited to formalmodule evaluations and staff: studentconsultative meetings, may act on andmarginalise the capacity for an alternative andextended forms of voice and authenticdialogue within creative spaces in highereducation 34
  35. 35. Conclusion: Reflecting on pilot study on place of critical pedagogy Used an iterative – inductive approach and Jeffrey and Troman’s work (2004) on time and classroom ethnography as basis for analysing how conditions work on a critical pedagogy. Preliminary findings suggest contradictory, permeable and incomplete practices (Amsler and Canaan,2008). Exploratory pilot study forms basis of an understanding, and further research, on inter- relationships between performativity and authenticity (MacKenzie et al, 2007) and modes of time. 35
  36. 36. Discussion. Design of the pilot study: Methodology , methods and findingsFirst thoughtsYou and your perspectivesHow does performativity work on ‘authenticdialogue’ and ‘creative spaces’, for you and yourlearning, and what is your ‘knowing’ and ‘mindful’response? 36
  37. 37. Questions raised by the pilot studyCritical pedagogy, performativity andauthenticityThe complex inter relationships andhow can they be understood 37
  38. 38. References• Amsler, S. and Canaan, J. (2008) Whither critical pedagogy in the neo- liberal university today? Two UK practitioners’ reflections on constraints and possibilities, ELiSS, 1 (2), November 2008.• Ball, S.J. (2003) ‘The teacher’s soul and the terrors of performativity’, Journal of Education Policy, 18(2), 215-228.• Canaan, J and Singh, G. (2008) The Neoliberal University, Critical Pedagogy and Popular Education Part 1 (Podcast) Available at: http://criticalpedagogywm.wordpress.com/resources/podcasts-and- videos/(Accessed: 26 July 2010).• Carspecken, P. (1996) Critical Ethnography in Educational Research: A Theoretical and Practical Guide, Routledge: London.• Cohen, L, Manion , L, and Morrison, K. (2011) Research Methods in Education, Seventh edition, Abingdon: Routledge. 38
  39. 39. References• Freire, P. (1985) The Politics of Education: Culture, Power and Liberation. New York: Bergin and Garvey.• Freire, P. and Macedo , D. (1999) Pedagogy, Culture, Language, and Race: A Dialogue in J.Leach and B.Moon (eds) Learners and Pedagogy. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.• Giroux, H. (1985) Introduction in P.Freire, The Politics of Education: Culture, Power and Liberation. New York: Bergin and Garvey.• Jeffrey, B. and Troman, G. (2004) Time for ethnography, British Educational Research Journal , 30(4), 535-548.• Leathwood, C. and Hey , V.(2009) Gendered discourses and emotional sub- texts: theorising emotion in UK higher education, Teaching in Higher Education,14(4), 429-440. 39
  40. 40. References• McArthur, J. (2010) Time to look anew: critical pedagogy and disciplines within higher education, Studies in Higher Education, 35(3),301-315.• MacKenzie, H, McShane, K, and Wilcox, S. (2007) Challenging Performative Fabrication: Seeking authenticity in academic development practice International Journal for Academic Development Vol. 12, No. 1, May 2007, pp. 45–54.• Mercer, J. (2007) The Challenges of Insider Research in Educational Institutions: Wielding a double-edged sword and resolving delicate dilemmas. https://lra.le.ac.uk/bitstream/2381/4677/1/Justine_Mercer_Final_Draft_Insider_Resea rch_Paper.pdf (Accessed: 9 February 2012).• O’Reilly, K. (2009) Key Concepts in Ethnography, London: Sage.• Woods, P. (1996) Researching the Art of Teaching: Ethnography for Educational Use. London :Routledge. 40
  41. 41. Contact detailsIain Jonesiain.jones@newman.ac.uk 41

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