Overview of Roman History


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This slideshow offers a brief introduction to Roman history and how its geography changed throughout its history.

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  • The major areas in which the Etruscans influenced the Romans were religion, statecraft, and architecture.
  • Federico Barrocci’s Flight from Troy
  • Thus begins the Punic Wars.
  • Overview of Roman History

    1. 1. Geography and History of ancient Rome<br />Magister Ricard<br />Rome: From Village to Empire<br />
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    3. 3. Pre-Roman Italy<br />There are two main populaces on the paeninsula<br />The Greeks (Magna Graecia)<br />The Etruscans (modern day Tuscany, south of the Po Valley)<br />The rest of Italy at this time was a quilt of tribes and their languages and cultures<br />The Latium plain (Lazio, today) is the site of the Romans, who were another Latin tribe<br />Located among the Alban hills with the sea the the West and the Tiber River running through it<br />
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    5. 5. Influences of the etruscanson early Rome<br />The Heritage of the Etruscans<br />
    6. 6. The Etruscans<br />One of the major civilizations found in Italy at this time, during the 700s BC, was the Etruscans<br />Their origins are a mystery<br />Some say they came from the eastern Mediterranean (Herodotus)<br />Some say they came from the north<br />Archaeology points to a native Italian culture that was urbanized through contact with the Greeks during this time<br />
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    8. 8. How much influence did the Etruscans have?<br />There seems to be scant evidence for an Etruscan “empire”<br />The Etruscans were not politically unified<br />They had a league of 12 Cities, often warring with one another<br />Shared common language and religion<br />Main areas of influence were religion, statecraft and architecture<br />Romans learned how to build the arch from the Etruscans<br />
    9. 9. From Myth and Legend to Reality<br />The Founding of Rome<br />
    10. 10. Romulus and Remus<br />According to legend, Rome was founded by Romulus, the grandson of King Numitor<br />King Numitor’s brother, King Amulius, overthrew Numitor , imprisoned him and killed all of his children except a daughter<br />She would have twins born to her by the god Mars <br />Romulus and Remus grew up and freed Numitor<br />But Romulus would eventually kill his brother Remus in an argument over who had the more powerful city<br />
    11. 11. Aeneas and the Founding of Rome<br />There is a second foundation story, from a Hellenized source<br />Aeneas was a prince of Troy who escaped with his father and son to “find a new Troy”<br />Described to us in the poem by Vergil called “The Aenead”<br />United Romulus/Remus myth as descendants of Aeneas<br />
    12. 12. An Agrarian Society<br />For the most part, the area around Rome was advantageous and rich in resources<br />Evidence indicates it was inhabited as early as 1500 BC<br />The early societies and tribes were mostly farmers<br />
    13. 13. A shift in how government works in Italy<br />From Kingdom to Res Publica<br />
    14. 14. Liberation and the Res Publica<br />After being ruled over by the Etruscans for many generations, the Romans finally fight for their freedom in 509 BC<br />Since its founding in 753BC, Roman tradition held that it was ruled by 5 kings<br />The last of which was TarquinusSuperbus or Tarquin the Arrogant, an Etruscan<br />
    15. 15. Res Publica and Brutus<br />TarquinusSuperbus had a son, who raped a woman named Lucretia<br />Lucretia had a kinsman named LuciusJunius Brutus<br />Brutus lead the revolt against the king, and the Romans won their freedom<br />The res publicawas born<br />
    16. 16. Republican Government<br />Not a direct democracy, but a representative form of government<br />Two Consuls<br />Several other magistrate positions (censors, aediles, tribunes, etc.)<br />The Senate (no legal power)<br />Tribal Assemblies (voting blocks)<br />
    17. 17. Social Structure During the Republic<br />Society was stratified<br />Patricians (aristocratic class, wealthy, held power)<br />Plebeians (citizens, but had no real political power – could not vote)<br />Slaves (had no rights, were regarded as property)<br />
    18. 18. The 12 Tables<br />Granted power and rights to the Plebeians<br />Bestowed a special public office, tribunisplebis<br />This office could veto, was sacrosanct<br />Decreed in 450 BC<br />
    19. 19. Expansion of Rome During the Republic<br />Gradually, Rome expanded her power<br />Extending throughout the Italian peninsula<br />
    20. 20. Roman Expansion During the Republic<br />Rome continues to expand into the 3rd century, bringing the islands of Corsica and Sardinia under its control<br />
    21. 21. Competition in the Mediterranean<br />
    22. 22. CarthagoDelendaEst<br />The Romans would defeat the Carthaginians, their greatest rivals<br />Many would debate internally if this was a good thing<br />At the Plain of Zama, the Roman forces would wipe away the Carthaginians, destroy their city and sow the ground with salt <br />so that no one would ever be able to grow crops there again<br />
    23. 23. The death of Julius Caesar and the rise of augustus and the principate<br />The Empire Strikes…Back<br />
    24. 24. Breakdown in the System<br />The Republic begins to breakdown<br />Ambitious young statesmen begin to appeal to the mob to get strong political backing<br />The first time bloodshed is spilled in politics in Rome (Tiberius Gracchus)<br />Some begin to use the army as a means to gain office<br />Marius, Sulla, Cinna, Pompey the Great, and finally Julius Caesar<br />Things get very dark, very fast<br />
    25. 25. The Problem of Caesar<br />Who was Julius Caesar?<br />What was his agenda?<br />Was he for the people? Or did he simply use them to gain power?<br />He was a member of the First Triumvirate (Crassus, Pompey and Caesar)<br />He fought in Gaul and expanded Rome’s territory by almost a third<br />This made him very popular – and dangerous<br />
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    30. 30. Et tu, Brute?<br />Caesar would be murdered on March 15th, 44 BC <br />A group of idealistic conspirators thought they were protecting the Res Publica from dictator perpetuus<br />Lead by Marcus Junius Brutus, whose ancestor is the same LuciusJunius Brutus the started the revolt in 509 BC that began the republic<br />This move ended up creating two factions within Caesar’s coalition<br />One supporting Marc Antony<br />The other supporting Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus<br />
    31. 31. Civil War and Augustus<br />A long civil war erupts and a showdown between Antony’s forces and Octavian’s forces results<br />At the Battle of Actium, and anti-climatic naval battle sees Octavian victorious<br />Antony goes on to die in the Egyptian way, along with Cleopatra<br />Octavian is later named “Augustus” and princeps, making him the first citizen of Rome<br />The Empire is born<br />
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    34. 34. Various maps illustrating important periods in Roman History<br />Touring Rome <br />
    35. 35. The Rise of Christianity<br />
    36. 36. The Spread of Christianity<br />
    37. 37. Roman Control: All Roads Lead to Rome<br />
    38. 38. Crisis At the Borders<br />
    39. 39. Rome Is Split into Two<br />
    40. 40. Interrogationes!<br />Review Questions<br />
    41. 41. Assessment<br />Directions: Take out a sheet of paper and head it correctly. Write down these questions and using your notes, answer the questions.<br />What were the two main civilizations found on the Italian peninsula prior to Roman civilization?<br />Where were these two civilizations located on the peninsula?<br />What are some of the stories and theories associated with the arrival of the Etruscans?<br />List two things the Etruscans developed that influenced the Romans.<br />What was the name of the twin boys, one of whom would go on to create the city of Rome?<br />What was the name of the prince who helped found the Roman people and where did he come from?<br />What is the difference between a monarchy and a republic?<br />What was the name of the rival civilization that Rome destroyed in the Mediterranean? The final battle was fought at the Plain of Zama.<br />What was the name of Julius Caesar’s heir? What is he best known for? Hint: he was the first of something in Rome.<br />