Chapter 20 16th century art in italy


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Chapter 20 16th century art in italy

  1. 1. Chapter 20: 16th Century Art in Italy<br />AP Art History<br />Magister Ricard<br />
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  3. 3. The High Renaissance<br />
  4. 4. The High Renaissance<br />Venice and Florence remain important centers but Rome dominates the 16th Century<br />One of the major building projects of the era was the construction of the new St. Peter’s Cathedral<br />Most influential artists of the period are Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Bramante, and Titian<br />They elevated the prestige of artists from mere artisans to creative, unique, geniuses (Durer’s dream realized)<br />
  5. 5. The High Renaissance<br />Art in Italy in the Early 16th Century<br />
  6. 6. Leonardo da Vinci<br />Born in 1452 in Vinci, a small village near Florence<br />Apprentice to Verocchio<br />Left Florence in 1482 to work for Duke of Milan<br />1495 painted Last Supper in refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie<br />Painting was meant to be extension of dining room<br />Linear perspective converges on Jesus<br />Three windows extend space, symbolize Holy Trinity<br />Depicts moment Jesus reveals “One of you shall betray me”<br />Judas is cloaked in the shadows<br />Used an experimental medium of oil; preferred to work using a slower method than normal fresco painting; medium was a failure with much deteriation<br />
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  9. 9. Leonardo da Vinci<br />When the French claim Milan, Leonardo returns to Florence (1500)<br />Produces a large drawing (cartoon) which was never painted<br />Features Mary sitting on knee of her mother, Anne, while Christ child reaches out toward cousin John the Baptist<br />Uses strong contrast of light and dark (chiaroscuro)<br />
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  11. 11. Leonardo da Vinci<br />The Mona Lisa’s identity is much debated<br />May have been Lisa Gherardini, La Gioconda<br />Pyramidal form does not stop at upper torso but extends to half figure<br />No jewelry, plain, silhouetted against desolate, mysterious landscape<br />Applied a smoky haze using a thin varnish creating sfumato (“smokiness”)<br />Utilized the medium of oil to its full potential, build on chiaroscuro for voluminous modeling<br />One of first works intended to be framed and hung<br />Used entertainment to amuse subject and create the enigmatic smile and gaze captured in image<br />
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  13. 13. Leonardo da Vinci<br />Inspired by the writings and theories of Roman architect Vitruvius<br />Was an applied theory of man represented by way of geometry<br />Vitruvius – man is proportional, harmonious, 8 heads high<br />Adapted these ideas into a diagram for the ideal male figure<br />Man is as wide as he is tall (square)<br />The circumference measuring from his navel outward will be the extent of his arms and legs (circle)<br />
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  15. 15. Raphael<br />Arrived in Florence from Urbino in 1505<br />Studied in Perugia under Perugino<br />Early work has tilt of heads in paintings, even-keeled mood found in his subjects<br />Uses clear even light in his work to imitate outside light<br />In background is a church from Urbino which may have been designed by Bramante<br />
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  17. 17. Raphael<br />Commissioned by Pope Julius II to paint several rooms (stanze)<br />In Stanza dellaSegnatura painted 4 branches of knowledge – Religion, Philosophy, Poetry, and Law<br />Uses a trompel’oeil – a trick of the eye – to create the two dimensional illusion<br />Linear perspective converges on Plato (Ideals) and Aristotle (Empiricism/Materialism)<br />Included are other artists as the models for the subjects: Leonardo (Plato), Michelangelo (Heraclitus), Raphael stares out at the viewer<br />
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  20. 20. Michelangelo Buonarroti<br />Favored sculpture as the best medium for expression of the natural world (Leonardo favored painting); considered himself always a sculptor first<br />Art was an inner calling, not a profession<br />Worked in the workshop of Ghirlandaio<br />Studied Massacio’sBrancacci Chapel<br />Studied the Medici’s private sculpture collection<br />In 1497 was commissioned to sculpt a marble pieta which was hailed as the first great sculpture of the High Renaissance<br />Selected the marble from the famous quarry in Carrara; form needed to be set free from the marble medium<br />When returned to Florence in 1501, would receive the commission to sculpt “ilmostro” into David<br />
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  23. 23. Michelangelo Buonarroti<br />“I’m not a painter”<br />Although contracts in Florence remained, was brought to Rome by Pope Julius II to create his tomb<br />Tomb was stopped in 1508 so that work on Sistine Chapel could begin<br />Considered himself a sculptor, but was commanded by pope to paint the ceiling<br />Used trompel’oeilfor ceiling, short pilasters supported by putti<br />Within the frame are figures from the Old Testament - featuring heroes of nude men (ignudi) – and sibyls<br />
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  28. 28. Michelangelo Buonarroti<br />As the building project for St. Peter’s went on, Pope Julius II diverted funds from not only the Sistine Chapel, but also the original commission for his tomb<br />Planned by Michelangelo was a massive freestanding structure with more than 40 statues<br />Reductions lead to a scaled down “tomb” which never saw the pope buried and plagued Michelangelo for over 40 years<br />Moses is one of the original designs for the tomb and features many characteristics typical of Michelangelo’s sculpture<br />
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  30. 30. Michelangelo Buonarroti<br />Leo X (Giovanni di Medici, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent) succeeded as pope in 1513<br />Selected Michelangelo to design many projects including New Sacristry in San Lorenzo, Florence<br />(Left) tomb of Giulianode’Medici seated on sarcophagus with personifications of Night and Day – Active Life<br />(Right) tomb of Lorenzo with personifications of Dawn and Dusk – Contemplative Life<br />
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  32. 32. Bramante<br />Like Brunelleschi and Alberti, carefully studied ancient Roman architecture<br />Left Milan in 1499 (like Leonardo) and headed for Rome<br />The Tempietto (little temple) constructed in concentric circles (compare to a tholos temple or central-plan)<br />Math was used to create harmony, distance between columns is four times their diameter<br />A drum supports a hemispheric dome, inspiring the New St. Peter’s construction (compare to Washington, DC Capitol Building)<br />
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  34. 34. Antonio da Sangallo and Michelangelo<br />Started by da Sangallo, the Palazzo Farnese (Rome) was constructed using Renaissance architectural principals<br />Heavy rustication of blocks on first floor around central entrance<br />Piano nobile (2nd floor) featured a balcony where the public could be addressed; had cartouche above the balcony; contains alternates of arched and triangular pediments with Corinthian columns<br />3rd floor completed by Michelangelo; features triangular pediments and a cornice was added<br />
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  36. 36. St. Peter’s Cathedral, Rome<br />Old St. Peter’s constructed by Constantine to honor the apostle St. Peter – the first bishop of Rome (and first pope)<br />Pope Julius II (1506) decided to renovate the cathedral due to disrepair<br />Originally, Bramante was commissioned, who sought to use a central-plan to replace the basilica-plan with a dome<br />Pope Julius II dies in 1513, Bramante in 1514<br />Raphael, Antonio da Sangallo move towards a Latin cross design<br />Michelangelo (1546) returns design to Greek cross, central plan, which was completed after his death in 1590 by GiocomodellaPorta (see soon)<br />
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  38. 38. Giulio Romano<br />In Mantua, architecture was not quite as “serious”<br />Used the classical architectural elements playfully, to create kind of a visual humor with dropping triglyphs<br />Used trompel’oeilto create a “falling room” where the subject matter is the gods defeating the giants (compare to Camera Picta of Andrea Mantegna)<br />Precursor to Mannerism<br />
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  41. 41. Titian<br />The deaths of Giorgione (1510) and Raphael (1520 – only 37!) left a vacuum<br />Worked mostly in and around Venice<br />Painted religious altar pieces, voluptuous female nudes, and portraits of important leaders of the 16th century<br />Defeat of Turks in 1502 lead to a commission for a votive piece dedicated to the victory<br />Masterful use of light and shadow<br />Asymmetrical setting with huge columns<br />St. Peter is central figure (blue and yellow) while Virgin and Child are on a high throne with surrounding saints<br />Composition is built on diagonals, not on vertical and horizontal grid<br />
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  45. 45. Art in the Counter Reformation<br />16th Century Art in Italy<br />
  46. 46. Counter Reformation<br />Shaken by the reforms of Martin Luther (Lutheran) and John Calvin (Calvinism), the Protestant reforms challenged the authority of the pope<br />Counter-Reformation was launched by Catholic Church<br />Michelangelo was brought back to Rome to paint the Last Judgment by Pope Paul III in 1534<br />Michelangelo created a pessimistic view of the Last Judgment; Christ was stern shown condemning souls<br />Demons torture the damned; survivors narrowly escape<br />Salvation must be earned – defiant of Martin Luther’s teaching that salvation can be given by faith alone<br />
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  51. 51. Mannerism<br />16th Century Art in Italy<br />
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  56. 56. Art in Venice and the Veneto<br />16th Century Art in Italy<br />