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Chapter 20 16th century art in italy
 

Chapter 20 16th century art in italy

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    Chapter 20 16th century art in italy Chapter 20 16th century art in italy Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 20: 16th Century Art in Italy
      AP Art History
      Magister Ricard
    • The High Renaissance
    • The High Renaissance
      Venice and Florence remain important centers but Rome dominates the 16th Century
      One of the major building projects of the era was the construction of the new St. Peter’s Cathedral
      Most influential artists of the period are Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Bramante, and Titian
      They elevated the prestige of artists from mere artisans to creative, unique, geniuses (Durer’s dream realized)
    • The High Renaissance
      Art in Italy in the Early 16th Century
    • Leonardo da Vinci
      Born in 1452 in Vinci, a small village near Florence
      Apprentice to Verocchio
      Left Florence in 1482 to work for Duke of Milan
      1495 painted Last Supper in refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie
      Painting was meant to be extension of dining room
      Linear perspective converges on Jesus
      Three windows extend space, symbolize Holy Trinity
      Depicts moment Jesus reveals “One of you shall betray me”
      Judas is cloaked in the shadows
      Used an experimental medium of oil; preferred to work using a slower method than normal fresco painting; medium was a failure with much deteriation
    • Leonardo da Vinci
      When the French claim Milan, Leonardo returns to Florence (1500)
      Produces a large drawing (cartoon) which was never painted
      Features Mary sitting on knee of her mother, Anne, while Christ child reaches out toward cousin John the Baptist
      Uses strong contrast of light and dark (chiaroscuro)
    • Leonardo da Vinci
      The Mona Lisa’s identity is much debated
      May have been Lisa Gherardini, La Gioconda
      Pyramidal form does not stop at upper torso but extends to half figure
      No jewelry, plain, silhouetted against desolate, mysterious landscape
      Applied a smoky haze using a thin varnish creating sfumato (“smokiness”)
      Utilized the medium of oil to its full potential, build on chiaroscuro for voluminous modeling
      One of first works intended to be framed and hung
      Used entertainment to amuse subject and create the enigmatic smile and gaze captured in image
    • Leonardo da Vinci
      Inspired by the writings and theories of Roman architect Vitruvius
      Was an applied theory of man represented by way of geometry
      Vitruvius – man is proportional, harmonious, 8 heads high
      Adapted these ideas into a diagram for the ideal male figure
      Man is as wide as he is tall (square)
      The circumference measuring from his navel outward will be the extent of his arms and legs (circle)
    • Raphael
      Arrived in Florence from Urbino in 1505
      Studied in Perugia under Perugino
      Early work has tilt of heads in paintings, even-keeled mood found in his subjects
      Uses clear even light in his work to imitate outside light
      In background is a church from Urbino which may have been designed by Bramante
    • Raphael
      Commissioned by Pope Julius II to paint several rooms (stanze)
      In Stanza dellaSegnatura painted 4 branches of knowledge – Religion, Philosophy, Poetry, and Law
      Uses a trompel’oeil – a trick of the eye – to create the two dimensional illusion
      Linear perspective converges on Plato (Ideals) and Aristotle (Empiricism/Materialism)
      Included are other artists as the models for the subjects: Leonardo (Plato), Michelangelo (Heraclitus), Raphael stares out at the viewer
    • Michelangelo Buonarroti
      Favored sculpture as the best medium for expression of the natural world (Leonardo favored painting); considered himself always a sculptor first
      Art was an inner calling, not a profession
      Worked in the workshop of Ghirlandaio
      Studied Massacio’sBrancacci Chapel
      Studied the Medici’s private sculpture collection
      In 1497 was commissioned to sculpt a marble pieta which was hailed as the first great sculpture of the High Renaissance
      Selected the marble from the famous quarry in Carrara; form needed to be set free from the marble medium
      When returned to Florence in 1501, would receive the commission to sculpt “ilmostro” into David
    • Michelangelo Buonarroti
      “I’m not a painter”
      Although contracts in Florence remained, was brought to Rome by Pope Julius II to create his tomb
      Tomb was stopped in 1508 so that work on Sistine Chapel could begin
      Considered himself a sculptor, but was commanded by pope to paint the ceiling
      Used trompel’oeilfor ceiling, short pilasters supported by putti
      Within the frame are figures from the Old Testament - featuring heroes of nude men (ignudi) – and sibyls
    • Michelangelo Buonarroti
      As the building project for St. Peter’s went on, Pope Julius II diverted funds from not only the Sistine Chapel, but also the original commission for his tomb
      Planned by Michelangelo was a massive freestanding structure with more than 40 statues
      Reductions lead to a scaled down “tomb” which never saw the pope buried and plagued Michelangelo for over 40 years
      Moses is one of the original designs for the tomb and features many characteristics typical of Michelangelo’s sculpture
    • Michelangelo Buonarroti
      Leo X (Giovanni di Medici, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent) succeeded as pope in 1513
      Selected Michelangelo to design many projects including New Sacristry in San Lorenzo, Florence
      (Left) tomb of Giulianode’Medici seated on sarcophagus with personifications of Night and Day – Active Life
      (Right) tomb of Lorenzo with personifications of Dawn and Dusk – Contemplative Life
    • Bramante
      Like Brunelleschi and Alberti, carefully studied ancient Roman architecture
      Left Milan in 1499 (like Leonardo) and headed for Rome
      The Tempietto (little temple) constructed in concentric circles (compare to a tholos temple or central-plan)
      Math was used to create harmony, distance between columns is four times their diameter
      A drum supports a hemispheric dome, inspiring the New St. Peter’s construction (compare to Washington, DC Capitol Building)
    • Antonio da Sangallo and Michelangelo
      Started by da Sangallo, the Palazzo Farnese (Rome) was constructed using Renaissance architectural principals
      Heavy rustication of blocks on first floor around central entrance
      Piano nobile (2nd floor) featured a balcony where the public could be addressed; had cartouche above the balcony; contains alternates of arched and triangular pediments with Corinthian columns
      3rd floor completed by Michelangelo; features triangular pediments and a cornice was added
    • St. Peter’s Cathedral, Rome
      Old St. Peter’s constructed by Constantine to honor the apostle St. Peter – the first bishop of Rome (and first pope)
      Pope Julius II (1506) decided to renovate the cathedral due to disrepair
      Originally, Bramante was commissioned, who sought to use a central-plan to replace the basilica-plan with a dome
      Pope Julius II dies in 1513, Bramante in 1514
      Raphael, Antonio da Sangallo move towards a Latin cross design
      Michelangelo (1546) returns design to Greek cross, central plan, which was completed after his death in 1590 by GiocomodellaPorta (see soon)
    • Giulio Romano
      In Mantua, architecture was not quite as “serious”
      Used the classical architectural elements playfully, to create kind of a visual humor with dropping triglyphs
      Used trompel’oeilto create a “falling room” where the subject matter is the gods defeating the giants (compare to Camera Picta of Andrea Mantegna)
      Precursor to Mannerism
    • Titian
      The deaths of Giorgione (1510) and Raphael (1520 – only 37!) left a vacuum
      Worked mostly in and around Venice
      Painted religious altar pieces, voluptuous female nudes, and portraits of important leaders of the 16th century
      Defeat of Turks in 1502 lead to a commission for a votive piece dedicated to the victory
      Masterful use of light and shadow
      Asymmetrical setting with huge columns
      St. Peter is central figure (blue and yellow) while Virgin and Child are on a high throne with surrounding saints
      Composition is built on diagonals, not on vertical and horizontal grid
    • Art in the Counter Reformation
      16th Century Art in Italy
    • Counter Reformation
      Shaken by the reforms of Martin Luther (Lutheran) and John Calvin (Calvinism), the Protestant reforms challenged the authority of the pope
      Counter-Reformation was launched by Catholic Church
      Michelangelo was brought back to Rome to paint the Last Judgment by Pope Paul III in 1534
      Michelangelo created a pessimistic view of the Last Judgment; Christ was stern shown condemning souls
      Demons torture the damned; survivors narrowly escape
      Salvation must be earned – defiant of Martin Luther’s teaching that salvation can be given by faith alone
    • Mannerism
      16th Century Art in Italy
    • Art in Venice and the Veneto
      16th Century Art in Italy