Chapter 20: 16th Century Art in Italy<br />AP Art History<br />Magister Ricard<br />
The High Renaissance<br />
The High Renaissance<br />Venice and Florence remain important centers but Rome dominates the 16th Century<br />One of the...
The High Renaissance<br />Art in Italy in the Early 16th Century<br />
Leonardo da Vinci<br />Born in 1452 in Vinci, a small village near Florence<br />Apprentice to Verocchio<br />Left Florenc...
Leonardo da Vinci<br />When the French claim Milan, Leonardo returns to Florence (1500)<br />Produces a large drawing (car...
Leonardo da Vinci<br />The Mona Lisa’s identity is much debated<br />May have been Lisa Gherardini, La Gioconda<br />Pyram...
Leonardo da Vinci<br />Inspired by the writings and theories of Roman architect Vitruvius<br />Was an applied theory of ma...
Raphael<br />Arrived in Florence from Urbino in 1505<br />Studied in Perugia under Perugino<br />Early work has tilt of he...
Raphael<br />Commissioned by Pope Julius II to paint several rooms (stanze)<br />In Stanza dellaSegnatura painted 4 branch...
Michelangelo Buonarroti<br />Favored sculpture as the best medium for expression of the natural world (Leonardo favored pa...
Michelangelo Buonarroti<br />“I’m not a painter”<br />Although contracts in Florence remained, was brought to Rome by Pope...
Michelangelo Buonarroti<br />As the building project for St. Peter’s went on, Pope Julius II diverted funds from not only ...
Michelangelo Buonarroti<br />Leo X (Giovanni di Medici, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent) succeeded as pope in 1513<br />Sel...
Bramante<br />Like Brunelleschi and Alberti, carefully studied ancient Roman architecture<br />Left Milan in 1499 (like Le...
Antonio da Sangallo and Michelangelo<br />Started by da Sangallo, the Palazzo Farnese (Rome) was constructed using Renaiss...
St. Peter’s Cathedral, Rome<br />Old St. Peter’s constructed by Constantine to honor the apostle St. Peter – the first bis...
Giulio Romano<br />In Mantua, architecture was not quite as “serious”<br />Used the classical architectural elements playf...
Titian<br />The deaths of Giorgione (1510) and Raphael (1520 – only 37!) left a vacuum<br />Worked mostly in and around Ve...
Art in the Counter Reformation<br />16th Century Art in Italy<br />
Counter Reformation<br />Shaken by the reforms of Martin Luther (Lutheran) and John Calvin (Calvinism), the Protestant ref...
Mannerism<br />16th Century Art in Italy<br />
Art in Venice and the Veneto<br />16th Century Art in Italy<br />
Chapter 20 16th century art in italy
Chapter 20 16th century art in italy
Chapter 20 16th century art in italy
Chapter 20 16th century art in italy
Chapter 20 16th century art in italy
Chapter 20 16th century art in italy
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Chapter 20 16th century art in italy

8,056

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
8,056
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
125
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 20 16th century art in italy

  1. 1. Chapter 20: 16th Century Art in Italy<br />AP Art History<br />Magister Ricard<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. The High Renaissance<br />
  4. 4. The High Renaissance<br />Venice and Florence remain important centers but Rome dominates the 16th Century<br />One of the major building projects of the era was the construction of the new St. Peter’s Cathedral<br />Most influential artists of the period are Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Bramante, and Titian<br />They elevated the prestige of artists from mere artisans to creative, unique, geniuses (Durer’s dream realized)<br />
  5. 5. The High Renaissance<br />Art in Italy in the Early 16th Century<br />
  6. 6. Leonardo da Vinci<br />Born in 1452 in Vinci, a small village near Florence<br />Apprentice to Verocchio<br />Left Florence in 1482 to work for Duke of Milan<br />1495 painted Last Supper in refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie<br />Painting was meant to be extension of dining room<br />Linear perspective converges on Jesus<br />Three windows extend space, symbolize Holy Trinity<br />Depicts moment Jesus reveals “One of you shall betray me”<br />Judas is cloaked in the shadows<br />Used an experimental medium of oil; preferred to work using a slower method than normal fresco painting; medium was a failure with much deteriation<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Leonardo da Vinci<br />When the French claim Milan, Leonardo returns to Florence (1500)<br />Produces a large drawing (cartoon) which was never painted<br />Features Mary sitting on knee of her mother, Anne, while Christ child reaches out toward cousin John the Baptist<br />Uses strong contrast of light and dark (chiaroscuro)<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11. Leonardo da Vinci<br />The Mona Lisa’s identity is much debated<br />May have been Lisa Gherardini, La Gioconda<br />Pyramidal form does not stop at upper torso but extends to half figure<br />No jewelry, plain, silhouetted against desolate, mysterious landscape<br />Applied a smoky haze using a thin varnish creating sfumato (“smokiness”)<br />Utilized the medium of oil to its full potential, build on chiaroscuro for voluminous modeling<br />One of first works intended to be framed and hung<br />Used entertainment to amuse subject and create the enigmatic smile and gaze captured in image<br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13. Leonardo da Vinci<br />Inspired by the writings and theories of Roman architect Vitruvius<br />Was an applied theory of man represented by way of geometry<br />Vitruvius – man is proportional, harmonious, 8 heads high<br />Adapted these ideas into a diagram for the ideal male figure<br />Man is as wide as he is tall (square)<br />The circumference measuring from his navel outward will be the extent of his arms and legs (circle)<br />
  14. 14.
  15. 15. Raphael<br />Arrived in Florence from Urbino in 1505<br />Studied in Perugia under Perugino<br />Early work has tilt of heads in paintings, even-keeled mood found in his subjects<br />Uses clear even light in his work to imitate outside light<br />In background is a church from Urbino which may have been designed by Bramante<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Raphael<br />Commissioned by Pope Julius II to paint several rooms (stanze)<br />In Stanza dellaSegnatura painted 4 branches of knowledge – Religion, Philosophy, Poetry, and Law<br />Uses a trompel’oeil – a trick of the eye – to create the two dimensional illusion<br />Linear perspective converges on Plato (Ideals) and Aristotle (Empiricism/Materialism)<br />Included are other artists as the models for the subjects: Leonardo (Plato), Michelangelo (Heraclitus), Raphael stares out at the viewer<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Michelangelo Buonarroti<br />Favored sculpture as the best medium for expression of the natural world (Leonardo favored painting); considered himself always a sculptor first<br />Art was an inner calling, not a profession<br />Worked in the workshop of Ghirlandaio<br />Studied Massacio’sBrancacci Chapel<br />Studied the Medici’s private sculpture collection<br />In 1497 was commissioned to sculpt a marble pieta which was hailed as the first great sculpture of the High Renaissance<br />Selected the marble from the famous quarry in Carrara; form needed to be set free from the marble medium<br />When returned to Florence in 1501, would receive the commission to sculpt “ilmostro” into David<br />
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
  23. 23. Michelangelo Buonarroti<br />“I’m not a painter”<br />Although contracts in Florence remained, was brought to Rome by Pope Julius II to create his tomb<br />Tomb was stopped in 1508 so that work on Sistine Chapel could begin<br />Considered himself a sculptor, but was commanded by pope to paint the ceiling<br />Used trompel’oeilfor ceiling, short pilasters supported by putti<br />Within the frame are figures from the Old Testament - featuring heroes of nude men (ignudi) – and sibyls<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25.
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Michelangelo Buonarroti<br />As the building project for St. Peter’s went on, Pope Julius II diverted funds from not only the Sistine Chapel, but also the original commission for his tomb<br />Planned by Michelangelo was a massive freestanding structure with more than 40 statues<br />Reductions lead to a scaled down “tomb” which never saw the pope buried and plagued Michelangelo for over 40 years<br />Moses is one of the original designs for the tomb and features many characteristics typical of Michelangelo’s sculpture<br />
  29. 29.
  30. 30. Michelangelo Buonarroti<br />Leo X (Giovanni di Medici, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent) succeeded as pope in 1513<br />Selected Michelangelo to design many projects including New Sacristry in San Lorenzo, Florence<br />(Left) tomb of Giulianode’Medici seated on sarcophagus with personifications of Night and Day – Active Life<br />(Right) tomb of Lorenzo with personifications of Dawn and Dusk – Contemplative Life<br />
  31. 31.
  32. 32. Bramante<br />Like Brunelleschi and Alberti, carefully studied ancient Roman architecture<br />Left Milan in 1499 (like Leonardo) and headed for Rome<br />The Tempietto (little temple) constructed in concentric circles (compare to a tholos temple or central-plan)<br />Math was used to create harmony, distance between columns is four times their diameter<br />A drum supports a hemispheric dome, inspiring the New St. Peter’s construction (compare to Washington, DC Capitol Building)<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Antonio da Sangallo and Michelangelo<br />Started by da Sangallo, the Palazzo Farnese (Rome) was constructed using Renaissance architectural principals<br />Heavy rustication of blocks on first floor around central entrance<br />Piano nobile (2nd floor) featured a balcony where the public could be addressed; had cartouche above the balcony; contains alternates of arched and triangular pediments with Corinthian columns<br />3rd floor completed by Michelangelo; features triangular pediments and a cornice was added<br />
  35. 35.
  36. 36. St. Peter’s Cathedral, Rome<br />Old St. Peter’s constructed by Constantine to honor the apostle St. Peter – the first bishop of Rome (and first pope)<br />Pope Julius II (1506) decided to renovate the cathedral due to disrepair<br />Originally, Bramante was commissioned, who sought to use a central-plan to replace the basilica-plan with a dome<br />Pope Julius II dies in 1513, Bramante in 1514<br />Raphael, Antonio da Sangallo move towards a Latin cross design<br />Michelangelo (1546) returns design to Greek cross, central plan, which was completed after his death in 1590 by GiocomodellaPorta (see soon)<br />
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Giulio Romano<br />In Mantua, architecture was not quite as “serious”<br />Used the classical architectural elements playfully, to create kind of a visual humor with dropping triglyphs<br />Used trompel’oeilto create a “falling room” where the subject matter is the gods defeating the giants (compare to Camera Picta of Andrea Mantegna)<br />Precursor to Mannerism<br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40.
  41. 41. Titian<br />The deaths of Giorgione (1510) and Raphael (1520 – only 37!) left a vacuum<br />Worked mostly in and around Venice<br />Painted religious altar pieces, voluptuous female nudes, and portraits of important leaders of the 16th century<br />Defeat of Turks in 1502 lead to a commission for a votive piece dedicated to the victory<br />Masterful use of light and shadow<br />Asymmetrical setting with huge columns<br />St. Peter is central figure (blue and yellow) while Virgin and Child are on a high throne with surrounding saints<br />Composition is built on diagonals, not on vertical and horizontal grid<br />
  42. 42.
  43. 43.
  44. 44.
  45. 45. Art in the Counter Reformation<br />16th Century Art in Italy<br />
  46. 46. Counter Reformation<br />Shaken by the reforms of Martin Luther (Lutheran) and John Calvin (Calvinism), the Protestant reforms challenged the authority of the pope<br />Counter-Reformation was launched by Catholic Church<br />Michelangelo was brought back to Rome to paint the Last Judgment by Pope Paul III in 1534<br />Michelangelo created a pessimistic view of the Last Judgment; Christ was stern shown condemning souls<br />Demons torture the damned; survivors narrowly escape<br />Salvation must be earned – defiant of Martin Luther’s teaching that salvation can be given by faith alone<br />
  47. 47.
  48. 48.
  49. 49.
  50. 50.
  51. 51. Mannerism<br />16th Century Art in Italy<br />
  52. 52.
  53. 53.
  54. 54.
  55. 55.
  56. 56. Art in Venice and the Veneto<br />16th Century Art in Italy<br />
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×