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Chapter 16 Gothic
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Chapter 16 Gothic

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  • ARCHITECTONIC SYSTEM TO OFFERS A SUBLIMINAL FACE OF CHRIST

    In the church of Fraga (Aragon-Spain) were tested vaulted new techniques to suggest the Jesus face. http://webspace.webring.com/people/or/ramonetriu/gotico-enigmatico.html

    SPANISH TEXT BELOW :

    ARQUITECTONICO SISTEMA PARA OFRECER UNA SUBLIMINAL CARA DE CRISTO

    En la iglesia de Fraga (ARAGON-España) se ensayaron nuevas técnicas de abovedado para sugerir un rostro de Jesús. http://webspace.webring.com/people/or/ramonetriu/gotico-enigmatico.html

    ROSTRO SUBLIMINAL: En la iglesia de Fraga (ARAGON-España) ensayaron sugerir un rostro de Jesús. http://webspace.webring.com/people/or/ramonetriu/gotico-enigmatico.html
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  • De administratione, CH. XXVII

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 16: Gothic Art of the 12th and 13th Centuries
    Magister Ricard
    Art History
  • 2. What should you know?
    Be ready to answer questions about Gothic architecture
    Lots of interior images of Gothic cathedrals
    What are the architectural innovations of this period?
    What are the key features of Gothic architecture?
    Think height and light!
  • 3. Gothic: It’s an insult!
    The term “gothic” was coined by Renaissance artist (and art historian) Giorgio Vasari
    Wrote biographies about the Renaissance masters and designed gli Uffizi building
    Proclaimed all of the structures built during the previous period to be the type of work only Goths would produce
    Gothic tribes were blamed for the downfall of Rome and thus, civilization
    Vasari, as a Renaissance thinker, favored classical Greco-Roman culture
  • 4. Gothic art in France
    Chapter 16
  • 5. Abbot Suger: A Real Goth
    Abbot Suger, as abbot of Saint-Denis, wanted to beautify the church
    Desired a significant departure from the Romanesque style
    Church should be a place of beauty and inspiring hope and paradise (heaven)
    Very different from fear-inspiring last judgment scenes found in tympana of Romanesque churches
  • 6. Abbot Suger: A Real Goth
    De administratione, Ch. XXVII
    Bright is the noble work; but being nobly bright the work
    Should lighten the minds, so that they may travel, through the true lights
    To the True Light where Christ is the true door…
    …The dull mind rises to truth through that which is material
    And, in seeing this light, is resurrected from its former subversion
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9. Abbot Suger’s Innovations
    Saint-Denis
    Saint-Etienne, Caen
  • 10. Abbot Suger’s Innovations
    Saint-Denis
    Saint-Lazare, Autun
  • 11. Choir, Abbey Church of-Saint Denis
    Completed 1140-1144
    Stained glass windows demonstrate departure from Romanesque
    Only possible due to high development of vaulting techniques
    Initially used in the Romanesque period, now adapted to allow light in
  • 12. Abbey Church of Saint-Denis
    Aesthetic based on open spaces and not massive, heavy walls
    Suger wanted light and color to help illuminate the soul
    Stained glass imitates shine of gems
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15. Symbolism in Architecture: Notre Dame and Alchemy?
  • 16. Flying Buttresses
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19. Chartres Cathedral
    Mix of Romanesque and Early Gothic
    Stained glass = Gothic elements
    Housed the Tunic of the Virgin
    Given by Byzantine empress Irene to Charlemagne
    Chartres had a pre-Christian virgin goddess cult
  • 20.
  • 21. Chartres Cathedral
    Royal Portal
    Inspired by portals at Saint-Denis
    Built after the fire in 1134
  • 22. Royal Portal
    Christ enthroned
    Ascension of Christ
    Virgin Mary
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25. Ribbed Vaults
    Quadpartite ribbed vault
    Sexpartite ribbed vault
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28. Clerestory
    Triforium/Gallery
    Nave/Arcade
  • 29.
  • 30. Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Reims
    Innovates on Gothic features
    Extends portal sculptural elements, gabled portals
    Places large windows in tympana
    Soaring peaks above tympana, reaching middle of rose window
    Begun in 1211, completed in 1286
    Used to coronate the kings of France
  • 31. Nave, Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Reims
    Great rose window at clerestory level
    Lancets illuminate triforium level
    Window replaces stone in tympanum
    Tracery and sculpture anchor windows
    Mary, not Christ dominates central portal
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34. Nave, Amiens Cathedral
  • 35. Gothic Art in England
    Chapter 16
  • 36. Gothic Elements in England
    Gothic style gets adapted locally
    Originally known as “opus francigeno”
    (English) Decorated style
    Ornate decoration of architectural elements
    Extra ribs to ribbed vaults
    (English) Perpendicular style
    Increased vertical emphasis on architecture
    Windows are taller
    More ornate
  • 37. Gloucester Cathedral, England
    Illustrates emphasis on vertical element
    English Perpendicular style
    Large window in the choir
    Tall lancets unite the choir from floor to ceiling
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40. Nave Comparison: Look ma, no Flying Buttresses!
    Salisbury Cathedral, England80 feet tall (no buttresses)
    Amiens Cathedral, France144 feet tall (flying buttresses)
  • 41. Gothic art in germany
    Chapter 16
  • 42. Shrine of the Three Kings
    Reliquary held relics of three magi
    Shaped like a basilica-plan church
    Shows Germany still inspired by Roman art
    c. 1190-1210
  • 43. Saint Maurice
    Artist:n/a
    Title:Saint Maurice
    Medium: Dark sandstone with traces of polychromy
    Size: n/a
    Date:c. 1240–50
    Source/ Museum: Magdeburg Cathedral, Magdeburg, Germany
    Commander of Egyptian Christian troops in Roman army
    Martyred in 286, favored by Ottonian emperors
  • 44. Ekkehard and Uta
    Figures represent ideal types
    Faces are individualized and lifelike
    Such realism becomes characteristic of German Gothic art
    Painted to add realism
  • 45. Gothic Statuary
    Initially, Gothic architecture followed Romanesque in adorning exterior parts of buildings
    As time progressed, especially during High Gothic, sculpture is freed
    The higher the relief the greater degree of naturalism
    Gothic S-curve emerges, similar to contrapposto
  • 46. Gothic art in italy
    Chapter 16
  • 47. Return to Classically-Inspired Art?
    Frederick II, Holy Roman emperor, was a talented poet, artist, naturalist and patron of the arts
    Mindful of ancient Roman sculpture and how it affects imperial status, he begins to commission artists to follow that style
    Artists like Nicola Pisano who use observation of nature as a source of inspiration
  • 48.
  • 49. Pulpit, Baptistry, Pisa
    Nicola Pisano, 1260
    Panels illustrate several scenes – Annunciation, Nativity, and Adoration of the Shepherds
    Virgin reclines in Annunciation
    Inspiration may have come from Roman sarcophagi found near Baptistry
  • 50. Pulpit, Cathedral, Pisa
    Giovanni Pisano, 1302
    Son of Nicola Pisano
    More emotion
    Higher relief
    More dynamic
  • 51. The Pisano Family
    Nicola Pisano, 1260
    Giovanni Pisano, 1302
  • 52.
  • 53. Crucifix: Gothic Painting
    Artist:CoppodiMarcovaldo
    Title:Crucifix
    Medium: Tempera and gold on wood panel
    Size: 9'7⅜" X 8'1¼" (2.93 X 2.47 m)
    Date:c. 1250–70
    Source/ Museum: Pinacoteca, San Gimignano, Italy
    “Historiated crucifix” – contains narrative of the Passion of Christ