What is Romanesque?<br />Roman Catholic Church is firmly established in Europe<br />Refers to period between 1050-1200 AD<br />Architectural elements are heavily borrowed from Rome<br />Pilgrimages (tourism!) were big business, influenced architecture<br />Sculpture taught religious ideas (due to illiteracy)<br />
What Should You Know?<br />What is the main reason or cause for the rise of churches during the 11th and 12th centuries?<br />What are the architectural elements of this period? <br />How are they different than the following Gothic period?<br />
Age of Pilgrimages<br />Artist: n/a<br />Title:Christ and Disciples on the Road to Emmaus<br />Medium: Pier relief<br />Size: figures nearly life-size<br />Date: c. 1100<br />Source/ Museum: Cloister of the Abbey of Santo Domingo, Silos, Castile, Spain<br />
Apocalypse NOW!<br />Many believed the apocalypse was coming in the year 1000<br />This created more devout Christians<br />In 711, the Muslims invaded western Europe (Spain)<br />With the Viking threat also being a thing of the past, more unemployed soldiers<br />Crusades were devised to take back Holy Land from Muslims<br />Pilgrimages were undertaken to show piety<br />
Here come them pilgrims!<br />Romanesque Architecture<br />
Traits of Romanesque Architecture<br />Used the basilica-plan as the model <br />Following Carolingian and Ottonian architects<br />Did not use concrete, instead used cut stone and mortar<br />Buildings before 11th century used timber roofs, Romanesque use stone vaulting<br />Barrel and groin vaults resting on piers to create large openings<br />Arcades in side aisles allowed for pilgrims to walk around without disturbing ceremonies<br />Cruciform layout (long nave traversed by short transept)<br />Round arches!<br />
Santiago de Compostela<br />Artist:n/a<br />Title:Transept, Cathedral of Saint James, Santiago de Compostela. View toward the crossing<br />Medium: n/a<br />Size: n/a<br />Date:1078–1122<br />Source/ Museum: Galicia, Spain<br />Held body of St. James, apostle to Iberian peninsula<br />
Relics and Reliquaries<br />One of the main attractions for pilgrims were the relics<br />Eastern Orthodox (Byzantine) used icons<br />Western Christians (Roman Catholic) venerated relics<br />Every altar was to have a relic, these items become subdivided – even stolen<br />Relics generated tourism, income for these churches and towns<br />
Reliquary Statue of Sainte Foy<br />Remains of a child martyr<br />Stolen from original shrine in Agent, France<br />Head made from Roman statue<br />Medium: Silver gilt over a wood core, with added gems and cameos of various dates<br />Size: Height 33" (85 cm)<br />Date:Late 9th or 10th century with later additions<br />
Religious Orders: Cistercian Monks<br />Advocated strict mental and physical discipline<br />Life devoted to prayer<br />Intellectual pursuits combined with manual labor<br />Founded in 1098 with the Abbey of Citeaux<br />
Saint-Etienne, Caen<br />Vertical element follows Carolingian architects, precedes Gothic designs<br />Spires built in 13th century<br />Was converted from timber roof to stone masonry vault after 1120<br />William the Conqueror was buried there in 1087<br />
Messages for the Masses<br />Romanesque sculpture<br />
Sculptural Features<br />Architecture dominated the arts due to its demand of manpower<br />Facades usually were didactic and symbolic<br />Most important images were located in tympanum – semicircle above the door<br />Archivolts frame the tympanum<br />Trumeau – sculpted supports of door and central pier<br />
The Bayeux Tapestry<br />Not really a tapestry, but an embroidery<br />Tapestry is woven<br />Embroidery is applied to woven ground<br />Harold, Anglo-Saxon nobleman, betrays his oath to William, Duke of Normandy<br />With the Normans victory in 1066, William the Conqueror emerges as king of England<br />
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