Ch 7 Arh
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Ch 7 Arh

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Chapter 7 based on Stokstad's Art History book.

Chapter 7 based on Stokstad's Art History book.

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  • Artist:n/aTitle:Cubiculum of Leonis, Catacomb of CommodillaMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate:Late 4th centurySource/ Museum: Near Rome
  • Artist:n/aTitle:Synagogue FloorMedium: MosaicSize: n/aDate:c. 530Source/ Museum: Maon (ancient Menois) / The Israel Museum, Jerusalem
  • Artist:n/aTitle:Good Shepherd, Orants, and Story of JonahMedium: Painted ceilingSize: n/aDate:Late 3rd–early 4th centurySource/ Museum: Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, Rome
  • Artist:n/aTitle:The Good ShepherdMedium: Marble Size: height 19¾" (50.2 cm), width 16" (15.9 cm)Date:Second half of the 3rd centurySource/ Museum: Eastern Mediterranean, probably Anatolia (Turkey) / The Cleveland Museum of Art. John L. Severance Fund, 1965.241
  • Artist:n/aTitle:Sarcophagus of JuniusBassusMedium: Marble Size: 4 X 8' (1.2 X 2.4 m)Date:c. 359Source/ Museum: Grottoes of Saint Peter, Vatican, Rome
  • Artist:n/aTitle:Elements of Architecture: Basilica-Plan and Central-Plan ChurchesMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate:n/aSource/ Museum: n/a
  • Artist:n/aTitle: Reconstruction drawing of Old St. Peter's Basilica, RomeMedium: n/aSize: approx. 394' (120 m) long and 210' (64 m) wideDate:c. 320–27; Atrium added in later 4th centurySource/ Museum: n/a
  • Artist:n/aTitle:Old St. Peter’s (interior)Medium: PaintingSize: n/aDate:16th centurySource/ Museum: San Martino ai Monte, Rome
  • Artist:n/aTitle:Parting of Lot and AbrahamMedium: MosaicSize: Panel approx. 4'11" X 6'8" (1.2 X 2 m)Date:432–40Source/ Museum: Nave arcade of the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome

Ch 7 Arh Ch 7 Arh Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 7: Early Christian, and Byzantine Art
    Magister Ricard
    Art History
  • Questions to Consider
    What are the architectural elements of a basilica plan church and a central plan church?
    How does the dome of the Hagia Sophia differ from that of the Parthenon?
    How does the mosaic Justinian and His Attendants display the Byzantine Style?
  • Christian Art
    Chapter 7
    View slide
  • Christian Art: Life of Jesus
    For Christians, Jesus is the Son of God, the Messiah foretold in the Old Testament
    Incarnation and childhood: the birth, infancy, and childhood of Jesus
    Public ministry: Critical events like the 12 apostles, performing miracles, and sermons
    Passion: Events of his arrest, trial, crucifixion, resurrection and ascension
    View slide
  • Christian Literary Sources
    Art is drawn from New Testament
    4 evangelists: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John (four gospels)
    Art that draws on Old Testament prefigure the coming of the Messiah
    Draws on the book of Revelation and images of the Last Judgment
  • Christian Underground
    Throughout its young history during the Roman empire, Christianity had to go underground to escape persecution
    This lead to the creation of the catacombs
    This is where Christian imagery was developed, founded on classical imagery
  • Byzantine Art
    Chapter 7
  • Byzantine Art
    Extends from Constantinople
    Based in the eastern portion of Roman empire
    Western Rome ruled by Germanic tribes in 476
    Eastern Rome continues on until 1453 with invasion of Ottoman Turks
    Influenced predominantly by Christian themes and imagery
    Not focused on realism and naturalism
    Concerned with religion and teaching
  • Byzantine Art: Characteristics
    Flat – figures appear flat, lacking volume
    Floating – figures appear to hover, appear weightless
    Frontal – oriented toward the viewer in a planar format, in same picture plane as viewer
    Gold – interest is in central figures, little detail in backgrounds, depthless, but full of gold
  • Byzantine Art: Chronology
  • Justinian I
    Besides Constantine, important Byzantine ruler
    His rule (527-565 AD) typified the early Byzantine era
    Reclaims large portions of former western Roman empire
    Ravenna is administrative capital in the west
    Suppresses all other religions, proclaims Orthodox Christianity official religion
    Creates a theocratic state in which emperor was head of the church and state
  • Byzantine Art: Devotional Objects
    Workshops in Constantinople produced excellent works of gold, carved ivory, and textiles
    Scriptoria (a scriptorium) were sponsored by Byzantine elites for the production of manuscripts
  • Byzantine Art: Devotional Objects
    Vienna Genesis
    Page from book of Genesis
    In codex form
    Written in Greek
    Illuminated due to use of color
    Vellum dyed purple
  • Icons and Iconoclasm
    Christians were more open towards the religious use of icons when compared to Jews and Muslims
    Church doctrine was ambivalent
    Used to help when praying and aid in meditation
    In 726 Emperor Leo III launched campaign against use of icons – iconoclasm
    Byzantine figural art ceases until 843 when icon production is resumed
    Abstraction of religious symbols was used instead
  • Icon: Virgin of Vladmir
    Medium: Tempera – egg yolk mixed with pigment
    11th-12th century, Moscow
    Stylized – adheres to set features of Byzantine style
    Flat appearance, golden background
    Mary’s thin nose, yet expressive
    Believed to have miraculous powers of protection
  • Conclusion
    Christian art would develop upon the Classical images it inherited and would eventually rescue that imagery from oblivion
    Byzantine art, although heavily stylized, would also have a heavy influence on European art
    What it lacks in realism it makes up for by portraying matters of the spirit and establishes a recognizable art style
  • Questions to Consider
    What are the architectural elements of a basilica plan church and a central plan church?
    How does the dome of the Hagia Sophia differ from that of the Parthenon?
    How does the mosaic Justinian and His Attendants display the Byzantine Style?