Ch 23 Ideologies and Upheavals


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Post Napoleonic Europe and the plan by Metternich for a conservative European order. Also features characteristics of Romantic movement.

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  • Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer Above the Mist
  • John Constable, The Haywain
  • Eugene Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People
  • Francisco Goya, The 3rd of May 1808
  • JMW Turner, Hannibal Crossing the Alps
  • Eugene Delacroix,Scenes From the Massacre at Chios1822, Ottoman Turks slaughtered 20,000 of 100,000 inhabitants of island of Chios. Sold rest into slavery. Lord Byron enlisted and fought for Greek independence and gave his life to the cause.
  • Eugene Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People
  • Ch 23 Ideologies and Upheavals

    1. 1. CH 23 Ideologies and Upheavals<br />Magister Ricard<br />AP Euro<br />
    2. 2. Questions to Consider<br />Compare and contrast the Peace of Westphalia with the Congress of Vienna.<br />How does liberalism and socialism impact Great Britain and France from 1815-1851?<br />Compare and contrast ideals of the Enlightenment with Romanticism.<br />In what way were Utopian Socialism, Marxism, and Romanticism reactions to Industrialization?<br />
    3. 3. Restoration, Romanticism, and Revolution 1815-1848<br />Searching for Stability<br />
    4. 4. Forces of the Past<br />Institutions of power<br />Monarchy<br />Aristocracy<br />Clergy/Church<br />What is conservatism?<br />National, historic, and religious traditions foundation of a healthy society<br />Change should be gradual<br />French Revolution illustrated the fear of social disorder, chaos, violence<br />
    5. 5. Forces of the Future<br />Industrialization<br />Begins in Britain (late 19th century)<br />Creates new class of urban workers; augmented prosperity of business leaders, merchants<br />
    6. 6. Forces of the Future<br />Liberalism<br />Believed in natural rights protected by government<br />Supported civil liberties freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, freedom from arbitrary arrest<br />Favored constitutional monarchy<br />Favored representational governments<br />Against full democracies<br />Economically supported individualism and against government intervention<br />Little concern for living conditions of urban workers<br />
    7. 7. Forces of the Future<br />Nationalism<br />A nation consists of a group of people who share common language, traditions, history<br />Stressed sovereignty of individual nations<br />Citizen’s greatest loyalty should be aimed towards a nation-state<br />Would fan competitive fires, stir change<br />
    8. 8. Restoration, Romanticism, and Revolution 1815-1848<br />Restoring the Old Order<br />
    9. 9. Prince Klemens von Metternich<br />(1773-1859)<br />Austrian Foreign Minister<br />Host for Congress of Vienna<br />Conservative<br />Liberalism and Nationalism were threats to European way of life and stability of Austrian Empire<br />
    10. 10. The Principles of Legitimacy<br />Legitimacy tied to royalty<br />Restore ruling families of Europe that were deposed during French Revolution and Napoleon<br />Louis XVIII was returned to throne in France<br />Bourbon, younger brother of Louis XVI<br />Bourbon rulers returned to thrones in Spain, Naples<br />House of Orange was restored in Holland<br />House of Savoy was restored in Sardinia-Piedmont<br />
    11. 11. Balance of Power<br />Austria (Vienna) wanted to weaken France<br />Cut France’s influence in Europe militarily and politically<br />Did not want to humiliate and provoke France<br />France was returned to its borders as of 1790<br />Allowed to keep its overseas possessions, army, and independent government<br />
    12. 12. Balance of Power<br />France was encircled with stronger forces<br />Austrian Netherlands was united with Dutch Republic to form Netherlands<br />39 Germanic states joined to create German Confederation (overseen by Austria)<br />Switzerland was recognized as independent and neutral nation<br />Sardinia was strengthened by addition of Piedmont and Savoy<br />
    13. 13. Territorial Settlements<br />Russia acquires more of Poland<br />Sweden keeps Norway<br />Prussia acquires 2/5 of Saxony and territory along Rhineland area of France<br />Austria acquires Lombardy and Venetia for loss of Belgium<br />Britain gains Malta, Cape of Good Hope, Trinidad, Tobago<br />
    14. 14. Evaluating the Congress of Vienna<br />Created a healthy compromise for both victors and France<br />Implemented a balance of power which lasted until unification of Germany 1871<br />Severely underestimated Liberalism and Nationalism brought about by French Revolution<br />
    15. 15. Restoration, Romanticism, and Revolution 1815-1848<br />Maintaining the Old Order<br />
    16. 16. The Congress System<br />Quadruple Alliance – England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia<br />Committed to preserving the old system, conservative<br />Held meetings or congresses to address rising crises and prevent escalation (conspiracy?)<br />Concert of Europe<br />Influence a consensus on foreign policy for the good of stability and collective benefit and security<br />
    17. 17. Uprisings, Repression, and Revolt<br />Congress of Vienna did not give voice to liberals and nationalists<br />Revolts erupted that tested Metternich and Concert of Europe<br />Uprisings in Spain and Italy<br />King Ferdinand VII’s repressive policies provoked need for representative government<br />French forces used to establish absolute power; repress rebels<br />Repressive monarchs in Naples and Sardinia-Piedmont sparked rebellion<br />Metternich sends Austrian forces to defeat rebels<br />
    18. 18. Restoration, Romanticism, and Revolution 1815-1848<br />Reaction: Romanticism<br />
    19. 19. The Romantic Movement<br />Took shape in first half of 19th century in Europe<br />Influenced cultural and intellectual life<br />Desired freedom of thought, expression, feeling, action<br />
    20. 20. Characteristics of Romanticism<br />Emotion over reason<br />Reaction to Enlightenment movement which stressed reason<br />Rejected reason, stressed intuition, feelings, subjectivity<br />Neoclassicism vs. Romanticism<br />Neoclassicists looked to Greece and Rome for inspiration<br />Romanticists looked to medieval models of chivalry, legends, mysteries, miracles<br />
    21. 21. Characteristics of Romanticism<br />Views of Nature<br />Enlightenment relied on scientific method to understand Nature<br />Romanticists contemplated its beauty<br />Powerful storms, raging rivers, monumental mountains, mist<br />
    22. 22. Enlightenment vs. Romanticism: Religion<br />Mechanical view of human nature and the world<br />Rejected faith, relied on rational, scientific connections<br />Favored “divine watchmaker”<br />Mysteries of nature way to feel divine presence<br />Stressed emotion, faith, inspiration<br />Creator of universe was loving, personal<br />Enlightenment<br />Romanticism<br />
    23. 23. Key Romantic Intellectual Figures<br />Writers<br />William Wadsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, lyrical ballads<br />Friedrich von Schiller, Ode to Joy<br />Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Faust<br />Sir Walter Scott, Ivanhoe<br />Victor Hugo, The Hunchback of Notre Dame<br />Brothers Grimm, Grimm’s Fairy Tales<br />
    24. 24. Key Romantic Intellectual Figures<br />
    25. 25. Key Romantic Intellectual Figures<br />
    26. 26. Key Romantic Intellectual Figures<br />
    27. 27. Key Romantic Intellectual Figures<br />
    28. 28. Key Romantic Intellectual Figures<br />
    29. 29. JMW Turner<br />Jacques Louis David<br />
    30. 30. Romanticism and Nationalism<br />Romantic writers stirred awareness of national heritage<br />People became more aware of their shared heritages within their own nation-states<br />Lead to Greek revolt against Ottoman Empire in 1821<br />Spain and Italy failed because of intervention from dominant European powers<br />Greek revolt succeeded because European powers wanted to exert more influence in Balkans and support for Greece based on its historic significance<br />
    31. 31.
    32. 32. Restoration, Romanticism, and Revolution 1815-1848<br />Liberal Reforms in England<br />
    33. 33. Reform Bill of 1832<br />House of Commons was not representative of the people<br />Electoral districts became sparsely populated<br />Industrial cities like Manchester were not represented<br />Pressure from merchants and factory owners leads to bill<br />Creates a number of new districts for heavily populated areas<br />Increases influence from middle-class men<br />Workers, women, and the poor had no voting rights; only 1 in 5 men could vote<br />
    34. 34. Repealing the Corn Laws<br />Placed a high tariff on imported corn, wheat, grains<br />Protected the market of large landowners<br />Industrialists formed Anti-Corn Law League<br />Free trade policy to lower cost of food, increase profits of industry<br />Irish potato famine pushed reform for cheaper imported grains<br />Repeal of Corn Law in 1846 by Parliament was victory for urban population and supporters of free trade<br />
    35. 35. The Charists<br />Disenfranchised workers seek reform<br />1838 propose People’s Charter<br />Universal suffrage (for men)<br />Secret balloting<br />Equal electoral districts<br />Abolition of property requirements for membership into House of Commons<br />Parliament refuses Chartists reforms<br />Eventually, reforms would be adopted<br />
    36. 36. Restoration, Romanticism, and Revolution 1815-1848<br />The Spread of Revolution: 1830<br />
    37. 37. The French Revolution of 1830<br />In 1824 Charles X (1824-1830) takes over for Louis XVIII<br />Opposed republicanism, liberalism, and constitutionalism<br />Policies infuriate republican and liberal opponents<br />Leads to 3 days of rioting in July, 1830<br />Unity was brief<br />Workers wanted republic<br />Bourgeoisie wanted constitutional monarchy<br />Bourgeoisie triumph; Duke of Orleans Louis Phillippe, becomes “king of the French”<br />
    38. 38.
    39. 39. Revolution in Belgium<br />July revolution in France pushes discontent in Belgium<br />Grievances extend from Congress of Vienna decision to unify Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) with Holland<br />Belgium (Catholic) and Holland (Protestant) have little in common<br />1830, riots in Belgium explode for independence<br />Great Britain and France oppose intervention; recognize Belgium as a neutral state<br />
    40. 40. Nationalism of Italy<br />Austria dominated northern Italy<br />Carbonarisecret society formed to drive out Austrians and unify Italy<br />Inspired by France and Belgium, Carbonari rebel<br />Metternich restores order, squashes Carbonari rebellion<br />Guiseppe Mazzini becomes Italy’s nationalist leader<br />
    41. 41. Restoration, Romanticism, and Revolution 1815-1848<br />The Revolutions of 1848<br />
    42. 42. Causes of Revolution<br />Conservative leaders refuse to respond to social tension<br />Working class radicals and middle class liberals convinced conservative (Metternich) system no longer practical<br />Nationalists in Italy and Germany wanted unification<br />National minorities (in Austria) wanted recognition, independence<br />Crop failures, rising cost of food, growing unemployment sparked discontent<br />
    43. 43. Revolution in France<br />Bourgeoisie dominated France during reign of Louis Phillippe (1830-1848)<br />Working class disenfranchised<br />“Enrich yourself and you will have the vote”<br />Louis Phillippe’s government collapses in 1848<br />Socialists, liberals, Bonapartists all scramble for dominance<br />Bloody confrontations between workers and capitalist government lead to election of Louis Napoleon as president of 2nd French Republic<br />Nephew of Napoleon<br />
    44. 44. Defeat in Italy<br />“Young Italy” movement seeks to establish liberal republic for unification of Italy<br />Led by Guiseppe Mazzini<br />Austrians proved too strong<br />Italy was still too loosely divided<br />
    45. 45. Hope and Failure in Germany<br />German nationalists sought more liberal, unified German state<br />1834 Zollverein formed to induce free trade commerce<br />All major German states except Austria joined<br />Riots in Berlin in 1848<br />Frederick William IV (1840-1861) responds with reforms, including Prussian constitution<br />Another assembly forms in Frankfurt to draft constitution for all of Germany<br />Frederick William IV dissolves Prussian assembly, rejects Frankfurt’s attempt for constitutional monarchy<br />
    46. 46. Revolutions in the Austrian Empire<br />Austrian dynasty centered around German-speaking ruling class<br />Oversaw large number of nationalities and ethnic groups<br />Revolutionary ideas spread from Paris to Vienna<br />Metternich resigns, flees to England<br />Austrian assembly abolishes the robot (forced labor)<br />
    47. 47. Revolutions in the Austrian Empire<br />Revolutionary ideas spread from Vienna to Hungary<br />Louis Kossuth demands self-government for Hungary<br />Austrian emperor Francis Joseph allies with Tsar Nicholas I to crush Hungarian rebellion<br />
    48. 48. Key Points<br />Strength of conservative forces still outweighs strength of liberal forces<br />Popular support outside city centers not enough<br />Internal division<br />Peaceful reforms in England help it avoid violence<br />Repressive policies stayed reform in Russia<br />Idealistic romanticism yields to political realism<br />
    49. 49. Questions to Consider<br />Compare and contrast the Peace of Westphalia with the Congress of Vienna.<br />How does liberalism and socialism impact Great Britain and France from 1815-1851?<br />Compare and contrast ideals of the Enlightenment with Romanticism.<br />In what way were Utopian Socialism, Marxism, and Romanticism reactions to Industrialization?<br />