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AP Euro_CH 16.1

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17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding; Absolutism in France and Spain

17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding; Absolutism in France and Spain

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  • 1. Magister Ricard
    AP Euro
    17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding and Absolutism in France and Spain
    CH 16: Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western Europe (1589-1715)
  • 2. Questions to Consider
    How absolute were the absolute monarchs?
    To what extent did absolute and constitutional monarchs use different methods to achieve similar ends?
    What are the conditions that promoted the rise of absolutism in France and constitutionalism in England?
  • 3. Chapter 16: Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western Europe (1589-1715)
    17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding
  • 4. Economic and Demographic Crisis
    Vast majority of 17th century Europeans lived in rural settings
    Bread was the primary element of diet
    Rural societies lived on edge of subsistence
    Poor weather conditions further stressed agriculture and industry
    Peasants and urban poor suffered most from bad harvests and economic depression
  • 5. 17th Century State Building Common Obstacles and Achievements
    Both constitutional and absolutist monarchs attempted to:
    Protect and expand frontiers
    Raise new taxes
    Consolidate state control
    State building faced considerable obstacles
    Privileged groups (nobility) resisted centralization of European monarchies
    Most states succeeded, achieving new levels of central control
    Larger, more powerful states required new sources of revenue
  • 6. Warfare and the Growth of Army Size
    Driving force behind 17th century expansion was warfare
    Armies grew larger, more professional, and more expensive
    War becomes a source of revenue
  • 7. Popular Political Action
    Popular revolts (populus) were common in England, France, Spain, Portugal, and Italy during 17th century
    In France, so common it became accepted as a fact of life
    Authorities were often unable to overcome popular revolts, did not have the means
    By the end of the 17th century, states were better able to handle revolts and popular discontent
  • 8. Chapter 16: Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western Europe (1589-1715)
    Absolutism in France and Spain
  • 9. Foundations of French Absolutism: Henry IV, Sully, and Richelieu
    Henry IV lowered taxes on peasants
    His chief minister, Sully, streamlined tax collection
    As economy grew, tax revenue increased
    In 1598, Henry IV issues Edict of Nantes
    Henry is assassinated in 1610
    Marie de Medici (queen) rules until Louis XIII comes of age
    Appointed Cardinal Richelieu in 1624
  • 10. Foundations of French Absolutism: Henry IV, Sully, and Richelieu
    Cardinal Richelieu appointed to council of ministers in 1628 (Louis XIII r. 1610-1643)
    Richelieu curbed power of the nobility
    Reshuffled royal council
    Leveled castles
    Executed conspirators against the king
    Divided France into 30 generalites, each overseen by one intendant
  • 11. Foundations of French Absolutism: Henry IV, Sully, and Richelieu
    Intendants were beholden to the king
    Appointed from newer nobility of the robe (not older nobility of the sword)
    Recruited soldiers
    Supervised tax collection
    Kept an eye on local nobility
    Administered local law
    Regulated economic activity
  • 12. Foundations of French Absolutism: Henry IV, Sully, and Richelieu
    In 1627, Louis XIII ended Protestant independence
    Revoking the Edict of Nantes
    During later 17th century urban revolts increase over high taxation
    After deaths of Louis XIII and Richelieu, Mazarin provokes aristocratic rebellion known as Fronde (1648-1653)
    The Fronde convince Louis XIV only alternative to anarchy is absolute monarchy
  • 13. Louis XIV and Absolutism
    Secures the collaboration of nobility in projects that increased his prestige and theirs
    Royal court at Versailles becomes a tool for state policy
    Overawes subjects and dignitaries
    Becomes copied by other monarchs
    French language and culture become prestigious and fashionable all over Europe
  • 14. Louis XIV and Absolutism
    Louis XIV used court ceremonies, entertainment, spies, and informers to reduce the power of nobility
    In 1685 formally revokes Edict of Nantes
    Views it as an affront to his power
    French monarch never intended religious toleration to be permanent
    Religious liberty not a popular policy
    Had a negative impact on economy and foreign affairs
    Staffs administration with members of nobility of the robe and upper middle class
    Shows Louis XIV will not share power
  • 15. Financial and Economic Management Under Louis XIV: Colbert
    Financial problems weakened Louis XIV’s administration
    Tax revenues fell short of needs (deficit)
    Tax exemptions for nobility/elites placed burden on peasants
    Chief financial minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, used subsidies for domestic industries, tariffs, and policies to attract foreign artisans
    Makes France self-sufficient and boosts French exports (mercantilism)
    Expands French navy, merchant marine, promotes colonization in North America
  • 16. Louis XIV’s Wars
    France was at war 33 of 54 years of his reign
    Developed large and efficient military which answered to him directly
    Grabbed new territory in the Low Countries and Lorraine before running out of steam in 1680s
    High taxes and bad weather lead to mass starvation in areas of France (1688-1694)
  • 17. Louis XIV’s Wars
    King Charles II of Spain dies in 1700
    Spanish throne passes to Louis XIV’s grandson
    England, Holland, Austria, and Prussia unite against France to preserve European balance of power
    Need to check French expansion in the Americas, Asia, and Africa
    Knows as the War of the Spanish Succession
    Ends in 1713 with Peace of Utrecht
    Checks France, finishes Spain as a great power, expands English overseas empire
  • 18. Decline of Absolutist Spain
    Absolutism in Spain precedes France’s
    During the 1500’s Castile develops characteristics of absolute monarchy
    Gold and silver from Americas basis for Spanish power
    By 1715, Spain was a 2nd rate power
    Agricultural crisis
    Population decline
    Lack of a middle class, brought about by expulsion of Jews and Muslims
    Lack of investment in productive enterprises
  • 19. Colonial Administration
    How was Spain able to rule a vast empire in the Americas?
    New World territories divided into 4 viceroyalties
    Charles III (r. 1759-1788) introduced system of intendants
    Spanish policies based on mercantilism
    Portuguese governed Brazil in a similar fashion