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AP Euro CH 20

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Focuses on the various ways life changed for Europeans during the 18th century.

Focuses on the various ways life changed for Europeans during the 18th century.

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AP Euro CH 20 AP Euro CH 20 Presentation Transcript

  • CH 20: The Changing Life of the People
    AP European History
    Magister Ricard
  • Marriage and the Family
    CH 20: The Changing Life of the People
  • Late Marriage and Nuclear Families
    Nuclear family was most common in preindustrial Europe
    Common people married late (late 20’s)
    Distinguished European society from others in the world
    Most waited until they could support themselves financially
    State attempted to control sexual behavior of unmarried adults
  • Work Away From Home
    Girls and boys learned independence by working away from home as servants, apprentices, laborers
    Service in another family’s home common for girls
    Servant girls worked hard, little independence, in danger of sexual exploitation
    Boys subject to abuse, less vulnerable to sexual harassment
    Prostitutes faced harsh laws during 16th and 17th centuries
  • Premarital Sex and Community Controls
    Evidence points to low rate of illegitimate births
    In rural areas, tight control on premarital sex and adultery
    Couples general had several children
    Contraception used mainly by urban population
  • New Patterns of Marriage and Illegitimacy
    Cottage industry enabled independence earlier for young men and women
    Young villagers who moved to the city entered into new sexual relationship free of community control
    Illegitimacy rates rose steadily between 1750-1850
  • Children and Education
    CH 20: The Changing Life of the People
  • Child Care and Nursing
    Women of lower classes breast fed longer than customary today
    The well-off hired poor wet nurses
    Reliance on wet nurses led to high levels of infant mortality
    In second half of 18th century, harsh criticism rose over wet-nursing
  • Foundlings and Infanticide
    Rates of infant mortality were high
    Many children were abandoned after birth
    Foundling homes created to care for these children
    Infant mortality rates high in foundling homes
    Some evidence suggests infanticide was common
  • Attitudes Towards Children
    Discipline was often severe
    Enlightenment sparked a new debate about proper childrearing and childhood
    Conflicting evidence about relationships between parents and children during 18th century
  • Schools and Popular Literature
    Protestants and Catholics encouraged reading of the Bible
    Some European governments encouraged primary school for children of commoners
    Basic literacy rose rapidly between 1600 and 1800
    Rise in literacy promoted reading
    Common people were not cut off from the ideas of the Enlightenment due to rise in literacy
  • Food, Medicine, and New Consumption Habits
    CH 20: The Changing Life of the People
  • Diets and Nutrition
    Poor diet consisted of whole grain bread, peas, and vegetables
    Commoners loved meat and eggs, but did not eat very often
    Townspeople had a more diverse diet than peasants
    Rich gorged on meat, sweets, and liquor
    Diets varied by region
    Patterns of food consumption changed drastically
    New foods from Americas improved calorie per acre production and nutrition
    Corn, squash, tomatoes, potatoes
    Most remarkable dietary change was consumption of sugar and tea
  • Toward a Consumer Society
    Consumer goods increased in quantity and variety during 18th century
    Fashion industry becomes prominent
    Housing reflected new consumerism
    Consumer society was concentrated in NW Europe and North America
  • Medical Practitioners
    During 1700’s included faith healers, pharmacists, physicians, surgeons, and midwives
    Women became increasingly excluded from medical practice outside of midwifery
    Few treatments were effective
    Surgeons made considerable progress in 18th century
    Conquest of smallpox was greatest medical triumph
    Experimentation with inoculation against smallpox lead to vaccination with cowpox
    Effective in preventing disease (Edward Jenner, 1798)
  • Religion and Popular Culture
    CH 20: The Changing Life of the People
  • The Institutional Church
    Local parish church remained basic religious unit
    Played key roles in community life
    Protestants quickly bureaucratized churches controlled by secular powers
    Catholic rulers took control of Catholic Church in their domains
    Growth of state power and weakness of papacy exemplified by Jesuits in 18th century
  • Protestant Revival
    Pietism sought to revive emotional fervor of early Protestantism
    Influenced by Pietism, John Wesley (1703-1791) spread Methodism in England
  • Catholic Piety
    Catholic authorities compromised with local elements and festivity of popular Catholicism
    Jansenism was Catholic version of Protestant Pietism
    Was an urban phenomenon
    Catholic clergy sought to further “purify” popular religious practices
    Attacks on popular Catholicism varied by region and country
  • Leisure and Recreation
    Carnival combines religious celebration and popular recreation
    Towns and cities offered a wide range of amusements
    Blood sports were popular
    Division begins between “high culture” and popular culture
    Elites saw the latter as sin, superstition, disorder, and vulgar