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AP Euro CH 14 Martin Luther

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Martin Luther and Protestantism/Lutheranism.

Martin Luther and Protestantism/Lutheranism.

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    AP Euro CH 14 Martin Luther AP Euro CH 14 Martin Luther Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 14: Martin Luther
      AP European History
      Magister Ricard
    • Questions to Consider
      How was the Reformation an historical phenomenon?
      What kind of man was Martin Luther?
      What were his central ideas?
      Where can you see his debts to Christian humanism?
      What was the Catholic Church objecting to?
    • What is the Reformation?
      What exactly is a reformation?
      What exactly was this particular one trying to reform and, why the big R for it?
    • Laying the Groundwork
      It must be noted that there were many “reformations” during the 16th century
      Protestant vs. Catholic is not a truly accurate picture
      Protestants disagreed with one another as sharply as they did with Catholics
      Protestantism became a general term used for attempted reformations of the Catholic church
    • Laying the Groundwork
      Protestant reformers did not see themselves as anti-Catholic
      A reformation means to improve or make better
      It was an attempt to improve the Catholic church (not destroy it)
    • Martin Luther
      1483-1546
      Father was a miner, attended university
      Joined Augustinians, ordained a priest
      Rose in his ranking and visited Rome
      Began teaching at University of Wittenberg
    • Martin Luther
      At 22, he was lecturing on the ethics of Aristotle using original Greek text
      His appointment at Wittenberg came only three years later as Frederick made him chair of philosophy
      He later translated Old and New Testaments into German, using his dialect, which became the new standard for German
    • Martin Luther
      Influenced by Christian humanism
      He disdained the idea of Scholasticism
      Accepted the criticisms of the church
      Deeply sensitive, prone to pessimism and doubt
      Did not see himself as worthy in the eyes of God
    • Basic Beliefs of Martin Luther
      Salvation was achieved through faith alone
      Catholics believed in faith and good works
      Religious authority was within Bible, not within the institution of the Church
      Every person could be his/her own priest
      The church community was every believer, not just members of the clergy
      All occupations glorify God, not just occupations of the church
    • Buy your way into heaven!
      Make your payment now and confirm your reservation within the pearly gates! BEFORE IT’S TOO LATE!!!
      All proceeds to benefit the rebuilding of St. Peter’s
    • Tetzel and Luther
      In 1516, Luther attacked the notions of indulgences
      They underlined the problem of “good works” for salvation
      One could simply buy his/her way into heaven
      This stance of Luther’s appealed to others because it was sending money out of Germany to Rome
    • Ninety Five Theses
      In 1517, Luther posts his Ninety Five Theses
      Not an act of defiance, rather an act of scholarly debate
      He did happen to circulate German translations
      Humanists received the ideas warmly
      Disciplinary action from Church was soft
    • Separation From Rome
      In 1519, while in a debate, Luther places himself into a position which rejects authority of popes and councils
      Openly begins to separate from Rome on theological matters
    • Three Great Treatises of Luther
      In 1520, he publishes three treatises
      Address to the German Nobility – called on noblemen to reform the churches in their own territories, stop paying tithes to church
      On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church – criticized church imposing transubstantiation; only baptism and Eucharist were valid sacraments
    • Three Great Treatises of Luther
      On the Freedom of a Christian Man – argued that salvation was on faith and not connected to good works
    • Excommunication
      Shortly after his publications, in 1520, Pope Leo X excommunicates him
      Luther finds protection in Saxony, under elector Frederick III
      At imperial Diet of Worms in 1521, Luther refuses to recant
      Charles V labels him an outlaw
    • Marriage
      In 1524, Luther marries Catherine von Bora
      Believes marriage demonstrates spiritual equality of men and women
      Proper social hierarchy also a husband’s authority and his wife’s obedience
      Catholics see marriage as a sacrament
      Protestants as a contract, allow for divorce
    • German Peasants’ War
      Martin Luther also worked hard to help prevent radical reforms
      At once in support of the peasants, their protests got out of hand and violent
      Luther supported the nobles right to pacify their sovereigns with maximum force
      Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of the Peasants
      Maintained Scripture has nothing to do with earthly justice
      More than 75,000 were killed in the German Peasants’ War of 1525
    • Three Alones
      Established the three alones or onlys
      Sola fide – salvation is by faith alone
      Sola gratia – salvation depends on God’s grace alone
      Sola scriptura – the Bible alone teaches and is the authority in matters of religion
    • Conclusion
      Due to his widespread publishing and popularity, Luther created a much more comprehensive alternative to Roman Catholicism
      He translated sacred texts into German, creating the standard voice for German writing
      He was protected politically and seen as a German patriot
      Europe was still a Christian continent
      Only now it had broken away from the katholos form into varying fragments