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AP Euro CH 14 John Calvin

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John Calvin and Calvinism

John Calvin and Calvinism

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  • 1. Chapter 14: John Calvin
    AP European History
    Magister Ricard
  • 2. Questions to Consider
    Calvinism seems to be cold, but was very popular. Why was this the case? Who did it appeal to?
    What are some other examples that you can think of where the outlook was gloomy? What might they have in common with Calvinism?
    Compare and contrast Calvinism with Lutheranism.
  • 3. Chapter 14
    The Reformation in Switzerland
  • 4. Zwingli in Switzerland
    Reformation here owes most of its debt to Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531)
    Came from German Switzerland
    Received traditional education, became a priest (1506)
    Pursued humanistic studies, focused on Erasmus’ Greek New Testament
  • 5. Zwingli
    Closely read Paul’s Epistles
    He memorized them
    John Colet, Martin Luther, and Zwingli all heavily influenced by them
    Regarded the thoughts of pilgrims as “superstitious folly”
    Formed his notions for reform
    Elected People’s Preacher of Zurich in 1518
    Lectured on Paul, called for reform, gained support
    Attacked issues like purgatory, the saints, clerical celibacy, Mass, monastic life, authority of the pope, fasting
  • 6. Zwingli
    Would marry in 1524
    He and Luther did not agree on many things
    Zwingli came to his conclusions mostly on his own accord
    Same generation as Luther, More, Erasmus
  • 7. Chapter 14
    Calvinism
  • 8. John Calvin
    Frenchman (1509-1564) born at Noyon from a modest family
    Studied theology at Paris (1523)
    Had doubts, and began to study law at Orleans
    He encountered Protestants there
    But would not renounce his association with Catholicism until 1533
  • 9. John Calvin
    Also influenced by humanism
    In 1532 published Latin commentary on Seneca
    Fearing capture from King Francis I, he fled to Basil in Switzerland
    In 1536, in exile, he published Institutes of the Christian Religion
    He was invited to Geneva to help with reforms
    With Guillaume Farel, created Articles of Church Government imposing strict regime on Geneva
  • 10. John Calvin
    Articles of Church Government
    All citizens had to profess to the reformed faith before public officials
    No freedom of religion
    Eventually both Calvin and Farel were chased out of Geneva but recalled in 1541
    Created Holy Commonwealth
    4 groups – pastors, doctors, elders, and deacons held power
    Supervision of public morality was carried out by Consistory
  • 11. John Calvin
    2nd term in Geneva enabled Calvin to serve as a virtual dictator
    Harsh penalties were imposed for skipping church
    One could be executed for speaking on behalf of the pope
    All pleasures – especially singing and dancing – were forbidden
  • 12. What is Calvinism?
    Calvin believed in the absolute authority of God (omnipotent and omniscient)
    Man was a depraved creature
    Laid out his theology in his Institutes
    But we find a more mature version in later publications of the Institutes
  • 13. TULIP of Calvinism
    T – Total depravity; man is sinful and incapable of redemtion
    U – Unconditional election; God elects those for salvation and the terms are unconditional
    L – Limited atonement; Christ died only for the elect, not all of humankind
    I – Irresistible grace; God’s grace is irresistible for the elect and do not receive it as a reward
    P – Persistence in grace; Grace cannot be lost or rejected
  • 14. Predestination
    Calvin’s system depended on the notion of absolute predestination
    Certain people were predestined for salvation or damnation
    Nothing a human being could do would change that
  • 15. Signs of Election
    Salvation was assured for the elect
    No one could know for sure who was among the elected
    External signs might help
    Public profession of faith
    Regular attendance to church
    A godly life
    Forced a kind of uniformity, no one wanted to appear to not be among the elect
    Signs did not guarantee to be among elect, made them “candidates” for elect
  • 16. Conclusion
    We now have a break with the ancient notion about the goodness of humankind and their capacity for improvement
    There are a variety of forms of religious experience
    Catholicism did not offer an alternative, but reforms begin to offer alternatives instead
  • 17. Group Discussion: Chapter 14
    Comparison of Lutheranism and Calvinism
  • 18. Compare Luther and Calvin
    Group discussion:
    What are some of the similarities and differences between Lutheranism and Calvinism?
    What did both systems agree upon?
    How did each disagree with one another?
  • 19. Compare Luther and Calvin
    They agreed on three points
    Primacy of Scripture (sola scriptura)
    Justification by faith (free and underserved gift from God)
    Free will did not truly exist because of sin
  • 20. Compare Luther and Calvin
    They disagreed on five points
    Grace was persistent and irresistible (Luther did NOT agree with this)
    Certitude of salvation (was possible, but for Calvin only for elect)
    Absolute predestination (Luther does not believe in absolute version)
    Presence of Christ in the Eucharist (symbolic for Calvin, Luther questioned priest’s role)
    Theocratic polity (for Calvin, church was supreme; for Luther state was supreme)