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The Early Reformation; The Reformation and German Politics; The Spread of the Protestant Reformation; The Catholic Reformation; Religious Violence

The Early Reformation; The Reformation and German Politics; The Spread of the Protestant Reformation; The Catholic Reformation; Religious Violence

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  • An ancient cult of Artemis was founded based on the tradition of virgin girls, between 5-10, going through a ritual called “playing the bear”. There was a bear that came to a sanctuary of Artemis which was tamed and kind of taken as a sacred animal of the sanctuary. But when a young girl started acting wrecklessly, the bear scratched her. Her brothers, enraged, speared the bear but this brought about a pestilence to Athens. When consulting the oracle, it was revealed that virgin girls must act as the she-bear as part of the blood price (or miasma?). Athenians later decreed that no woman would be given in marriage if not playing the bear previously. - Ricard
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    • 1. CHAPTER 14: REFORMATIONS AND RELIGIOUS WARS (1500- 1600) AP European History Magister Ricard
    • 2. Objectives  Compare and contrast the German and English reformations  Assess how the Protestant Reformation affected society (nobility, middle class, peasants)  Evaluate the effects of Protestant Reformation on established religious and political institutions  Compare and contrast attitudes of Martin Luther and John Calvin toward political authority and social orders  Explain the appeal of Protestantism
    • 3. Objectives  Compare and contrast the effects of the Renaissance and Reformation on women  What was the role of the elite and popular elements of culture in forming early European witch hunts?  Explain how the Roman Catholic Church defended itself against Protestant Reformation
    • 4. Chapter 14 (1500-1600) The Early Reformation
    • 5. The Christian Church and the Early 16th Century  Europeans remained loyal to Roman Catholic Church at outset of 16th century  Many were growing more critical of the church  Criticism focused on clerical immorality, clerical ignorance, clerical pluralism  Resentment of clerical privileges and immunities  Was criticism focused on the religion or the institution of the religion? What’s the difference?
    • 6. Martin Luther  1483-1546  Dissatisfied with religion, was not feeling a sense of security over salvation despite being a friar  Concluded that only simple faith in Christ led to salvation  Objected to the sale of “indulgences”  Ninety-Five Theses argued against indulgences, undermined Christianity  He was excommunicated  Ideas become very popular in politically-charged Germany
    • 7. Protestant Thought  Followers of Luther = Protestants  Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) was another important reformer  Protestant beliefs  Salvation comes by faith alone  Religious authority resided in Scripture alone  Church consisted of whole community of believers, not just the clergy
    • 8. Protestant Thought  Transubstantiation – bread and wine literally became the body and blood of Christ  Luther disagreed; opted for consubstantiation – Christ was present (in the host) but the bread and wine were not transformed  John Calvin agreed with Luther on consubstantiation  Zwingli argued the Eucharist was a commemoration of the Last Supper
    • 9. Appeal of Protestantism  Educated people and humanists were attracted to Luther’s more simplified, personal vision  Attracted to Luther’s call for an end of clerical privileges  Printing press greatly aided spread of Luther’s ideas  Luther and Zwingli worked closely with political authorities to gain support of Protestantism
    • 10. Radical Reformation  Some groups began to reject the notion of uniting church and state  Sought to create independent communities of believers and varying interpretations  Interpretation began to differ and set one another at odds with each other  Secular and religious leaders utilize harsh punishments
    • 11. The German Peasants’ War  Crops fail in 1523 and 1524  Swabian peasants demand end to death taxes, new rents, and noble seizures of land in 1525  Luther initially backs the peasants’ demands  When peasants respond with violence, Luther supports noble responses to crush rebellion  Lutheranism supports the notion that the state and church be subordinate to secular rulers
    • 12. The Reformation and Marriage  Many Protestant reformers married  Marriage was praised, a good marriage demonstrated spiritual equality of men and women  Proper social hierarchy is that the wife is obedient to her husband’s authority  Catholics saw marriage as a sacrament  Protestants saw marriage as a contract – allowing for divorce  Protestants condemned prostitution  What is the impact of Protestantism on the life of women?
    • 13. Chapter 14 (1500-1600) The Reformation and German Politics
    • 14. The Holy Roman Empire: 14th & 15th Centuries  The Golden Bull of 1356 gave each of the seven electors virtual sovereignty  Localism and chronic disorder  Allowed the nobility to strengthen their territories  Reduce the authority of the emperor
    • 15. Rise of the Habsburgs  1477, marriage of Maximilian I (Habsburg) and Mary of Burgundy  Unites Austrian Empire with Burgundy and Netherlands  Habsburgs become strongest ruling family in Holy Roman Empire  Charles V (1500-1558, Habsburg) inherits Spain, Spanish possessions in Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia  1519 Charles V is elected Holy Roman Emperor, believes it is his duty to maintain
    • 16. Global Empire of Charles V
    • 17. Political Impact of the Protestant Reformation  Spiritual and material concerns convince German princes to accept Protestantism  Religious wars start in Switzerland and spread  1530, Charles V calls for Imperial Diet at Augsburg to try and stop religious division  Charles rejects Protestant demands, Protestant princes form a military alliance  Outside powers begin to get involved in Germany’s upheaval  1555 – the Peace of Augsburg  Charles accepts religious status quo in Germany
    • 18. Chapter 14 (1500-1600) The Spread of Protestant Reformation
    • 19. Reformation in England and Ireland  The Lollards (followers of Wyclif, driven underground in the 15th century) survive and stress the idea of a direct relationship between the individual and God  The English humanist William Tyndale prints an English translation of the New testament (1525)
    • 20. Reformation in England and Ireland  1534 – King Henry VIII divorces his wife to marry Anny Boleyn  To legitimize this, convinces Parliament to pass Act of Supremacy making him head of English (Anglican) Church  Henry seizes monasteries and redistributes land to upper class  Popular (the people) opposition – Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536
    • 21. Reformation in England and Ireland  Strong support for Catholic Church in Ireland  1536 – Church of Ireland is established  Fighting breaks out between Irish and English reformers  Leads to strong repression of Irish  Edward VI (r. 1547-1553) succeeds father Henry and pushes towards Protestantism  Mary Tudor (r. 1553-1558) swings back to Catholic
    • 22. Reformation in England and Ireland  Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603), daughter of Henry VIII, strives for balance between Catholics and Puritans  Puritans opted for a purified church, totally free of Catholic influence  The Elizabethan Settlement best illustrates her religious policies
    • 23. Calvinism  Most important new form of Protestantism  God is omnipotent and omniscient  Humans can do NOTHING to save themselves  Predestination – God decided at the beginning of time who would be saved and who would not be
    • 24. Calvinism  Predestination did not lead to fatalism  Calvinists were convinced they were among the saved  Calvin and government of Geneva regulated human behavior to create a “godly” city on earth  Inspired by Utopia?  No card playing! No dancing!  Between 1542-1546, 58 heretics were burned  The Calling glorified all vocations as pleasing to God
    • 25. The Church of Scotland  Scottish nobles supported the Reformation  Scottish monarchs, King James V and daughter Mary opposed it  John Knox, studied in Geneva with John Calvin  Helps convince Scottish Parliament to set up Calvinist church as official state church  Becomes known as Presbyterianism
    • 26. Reformation in Eastern Europe  Ethnic factors helped shaped Reformation in Eastern Europe (instead of political and economic)  In Bohemia, ethnic grievances of Czech majority lead to resentment of Roman Catholic church  During Counter-Reformation, Catholic revival would be promoted in Bohemia
    • 27. Reformation in Eastern Europe  By 1500, Poland and Lithuania would form largest state in dynastic union  King Sigismund I banned Lutheran teachings  Polish not fond of Germans  Szlachta (Polish nobility) preferred Calvinism  Originated in France, not Germany  Counter-Reformation would cement strength of Catholicism in Poland
    • 28. Chapter 14 (1500-1600) The Catholic Reformation
    • 29. The Reformed Papacy  Despite desire for reform, early 16th century popes resisted discussion for reform  Pope Paul III (r. 1534-1549) pushed for reform  Established Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office with jurisdiction over Roman Inquisition in 1542  Influence of Inquisition outside papal territories was slight, however
    • 30. The Council of Trent  Reaffirmed equal authority of Scripture and Church (1545-1563)  Reaffirms the 7 sacraments and transubstantiation  Required bishops to live in their dioceses  Ended pluralism, simony  Forbade sale of indulgences  For a marriage to be legal, vows had to be exchanged publicly
    • 31. New Religious Orders  Ursuline nuns fought heresy with religious education of girls  (Syncretism from classical world?)  Ignatius of Loyola founded the Jesuit Order  Mission to fight Reformation through education  Goal was to “help souls”  Noted for seeing “how at a given juncture change is more consistent with one’s scope than staying the course”
    • 32. Ecstasy of St. Teresa
    • 33. Ecstasy of St. Teresa  Nun, mystic who pushed for reforms of convents  Published a mystical experience (1560)  Poverty, strict enclosure, egalitarian, obedience  Discalced
    • 34. Chapter 14 (1500-1600) Religious Violence
    • 35. French Religious Wars  In order to raise revenue, Francis I sold public offices and ended the Concordat of Bologna  Lutheranism spreads to France in 1518  Calvin’s Institutes published in 1536  French Calvinists were called Huguenots  Weakness of monarchy and religious division lead to civil war  Calvinism manifests as iconoclasm
    • 36. French Religious Wars  St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (8/24/1572)  Thousands of Protestants killed, sparks 15 year civil war  Politiques believe only strong monarch can restore order  Henry IV (1589-1610) rises to power  Converts to Catholicism, issues Edict of Nantes
    • 37. The Netherlands Under Charles V  Under Charles V Netherlands remained stable  In 1560’s, policies of Phillip II (Spain) lead to rebellion in Netherlands  Tries to end violence by sending 20,000 troops to Netherlands under duke of Alva, but only intensifies conflict  Netherlands split  10 southern (Catholic) provinces fall to Habsburg Spain  7 northern (Protestant) provinces form Union of Utrecht in 1581 and declare independence from Spain  Seek help and protection from outsiders, notably Protestant England
    • 38. Chapter 14 (1500-1600) The Great European Witch Hunt
    • 39. The Great European Witch Hunt!!  Witchcraft was seen as a pact made with the devil  During 16th and 17th centuries, between 40,000- 60,000 people were executed  75-85% tried were women  Legal changes were made to facilitate massive trials  Most trials began with a single accusation which grew into numerous accusations  Thus a “witch-hunt”  Doubts and skepticism eventually brought trials to a halt