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1 Prehistoric
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1 Prehistoric

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Aligns with the material found in chapter 1 of Stokstad's Art History survey.

Aligns with the material found in chapter 1 of Stokstad's Art History survey.

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  • Sarsen is a grey sandstone.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 1<br />Prehistoric Art in Europe<br />
    • 2. Dating Conventions and Abbreviations<br />B.C.=before ChristB.C.E.=before the Common Era<br />A.D.=Anno Domini(in the year of our Lord)C.E.=Common Era<br />c. or ca.= circa <br />C.=century<br />
    • 3. Outline of Prehistoric Period<br />Paleolithic<br />Lower<br />Middle <br />Upper<br />Neolithic<br />
    • 4. Paleolithic Age<br />“Old Stone Age” - 2,500,000 – 10,000 BC<br />Technological advancement from spear to bow/arrow = better hunting<br />Appearance of Homo sapiens sapiens(-120,000)<br />Cro-Magnon Man<br />Europe<br />Stone Ax = chop down trees &amp; make boats<br />Hunting large animals required 4-5 “bands” of people working together<br />Chief status for leader<br />Cave Paintings<br />
    • 5. Homo Sapiens Sapiens<br />
    • 6. Shelter or Architecture?<br />
    • 7. Architecture of Mammoth-Bone Houses <br />Mammoth bone dwelling<br />from Ukraine<br />ca. 16,000-10,000 B.C.E.<br />
    • 8.
    • 9. Artifacts or Works of Art?<br />
    • 10. Lion-Human<br />from Hohlenstein-Stadel, Germany<br />ca. 30,000-26,000 B.C.E.<br />mammoth ivory<br />11 3/8 in. high<br />
    • 11. Sculpture<br />Oldest surviving art objects<br />Made from bone, ivory, stone, or antlers<br />Either engraved (by incising an outlined figure with a sharp tool), carved in deep relief or fully rounded three-dimension<br />Lion-Human is half man, half beast <br />
    • 12. Female Figurines<br />
    • 13. Venus of Willendorffrom Willendorf, Austria<br />ca. 28,000-25,000 B.C.E.<br />limestone<br />4 1/4 in. high<br />
    • 14. “Venus” of Willendorf<br />
    • 15. Other Female Beauties<br />Woman of Lespugue<br />from cave of Les Rideaux, France<br />ca. 20,000 B.C.E.<br />mammoth ivory<br />5 3/4 in. high<br />
    • 16. Various European “Venus” figures<br />
    • 17. Modern Exaggeration<br />
    • 18.
    • 19. The Meaning of Cave Paintings<br />The first “paintings” were probably made 15,000 years ago<br />Pictures of bison, deer, horses, cattle, mammoths &amp; boars are in the most remote recesses of the caves, from the entrance<br />Scholars proposed the social function of art lead to totemistic rites and increase ceremonies used to enhance fertility<br />
    • 20. The Meaning of Cave Paintings<br />Archeologists speculate the animal images were meant to guarantee a successful hunt<br />Drawing a picture of it gave you power over it?<br />Sympathetic magic<br />Artwork has been depicted with realistic features that enables scholars to identify animals<br />
    • 21. Chauvet Cave paintings<br />Vallon-Pont-d’Arc, Ardèche, France<br />ca. 30,000-28,000 B.C.E.<br />pigment on stone<br />
    • 22.
    • 23. Not intended for long-term use?<br />Used for rituals?<br />Pech-Merle Cave paintings<br />Lot, France<br />ca. 22,000 B.C.E.<br />pigment on stone<br />
    • 24.
    • 25. Lascaux Cave paintings<br />Lascaux, Dordogne, France<br />ca. 15,000-13,000 B.C.E.<br />pigment on stone<br />
    • 26. Twisted Perspective – horns, eyes &amp; hooves are shown as seen from the front, yet heads &amp; bodies are rendered in profile<br />
    • 27. Prehistoric Art Tools<br /><ul><li>Cave artists used charcoal to outline the walls; sometimes they incised the wall with sharp stones or charcoal sticks
    • 28. The “paints” used were ground minerals like red & yellow ochre
    • 29. The minerals were applied directly on the damp limestone walls</li></li></ul><li>
    • 30. Altamira Cave paintings<br />Santander, Spain<br />ca. 12,000-11,000 B.C.E.<br />pigment on stone<br />
    • 31. Bison Ceiling<br />Artists used the irregularities of the cave to create sculptural effects by painting over them<br />
    • 32. Neolithic Revolution<br />End of Ice Age (100,000 – 8000 BCE) brought ability to search for new food<br />Systemic Agriculture – Making the conscious decision to plant &amp; grow food<br />Domestication – Raising goats, sheep, pigs &amp; cattle<br />Development of permanent, year-round settlements (and eventually, civilization)<br />
    • 33. Skara Brae Architecture<br />Neolithic settlement in northern Scotland<br />3100 and 2600 BCE<br />Corbeling – layers of stones are piled on top of each other to form walls without mortar<br />
    • 34.
    • 35. Megalithic Architecture<br />“Large stone” (mega + lithos)<br />Powerful religious or political figures and beliefs was the impetus for these massive building projects<br />2 types:<br />Dolmen – large, vertical stones with a covering slab like a giant table (mounded over with dirt to form a cairn)<br />Menhir – single stone set on its end<br />Positioned:<br />Henge– circular arrangement of stones<br />Alignment – in rows<br />
    • 36.
    • 37. Stonehenge<br />Salisury Plain, Wiltshire, England<br />ca. 2,550-1,600 B.C.E.sarsen and bluestone<br />
    • 38.
    • 39. Stonehenge: England’s First Rock Group<br />Series of concentric circles &amp; circular shapes<br />Outer circle of 13 foot high gray sandstones, called sarsen stones, topped by a continuous lintel<br />They weigh up to 26 tons each!<br />http://youtube.com/watch?v=DewEKz9TzmM<br />
    • 40. Built it and They Will Come?<br />
    • 41. How Did They Do That?!<br />Lacked bronze or iron tools and, possibly, the wheel<br />Transported the stones by barge or sled<br />Heel stone standing upright, weighs 35 tons and was brought in from 23 miles away<br />Raising of the stones was done in stages by prying the ends up and inserting timber beneath<br />Added layer after layer and then removed the elevated scaffolding<br />
    • 42. Banksy<br />Stonehenge Port-A-Potties<br />Glastonbury, England<br />2008<br />metal and plastic<br />Jim Reinders<br />Carhenge<br />Alliance, Nebraska<br />1987<br />metal<br />
    • 43. Could Coral Castle Provide an Answer?<br />
    • 44.
    • 45. Menhir alignments at Ménec,<br />Carnac, France<br />ca. 4,250-3,750 B.C.E.<br />
    • 46. various Menhirs<br />Ireland, Scotland, England, France<br />
    • 47. Dolmens<br />Ireland, Scotland, England, France<br />
    • 48. Essential Questions<br />What is prehistory? <br />What are the problems and challenges of making meaning of prehistoric art?<br />How is prehistoric art useful in understanding the human condition? <br />

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