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Denison (1996) suggested that
‘Culture’ refers to the deep structure
of organizations, which is rooted in
the values, beliefs and assumptions
held by organizational members.
‘Climate’ refers to those aspects of
the environment that are consciously
perceived by organizational members.
HRD in the organizational context is a
process by which the employees of an
organization are helped in a continuous,
planned way to:
(a) acquire or sharpen capabilities
required to perform various functions
associated with their present or
expected future roles;
(b) develop their general capabilities
as individuals and discover and exploit
their own inner potentials for their own
and/or organizational development
(c) develop an organizational culture in
relationships, team work and
collaboration among sub units are strong
and contribute to the professional well-
being, motivation and pride of
HRD mechanisms measure the extent
to which HRD mechanisms are implemented
seriously. These mechanisms include
Feedback and counselling
Employee welfare for quality work-life and
Organizational or corporate culture
is the pattern of values, norms,
beliefs, attitudes and assumptions
that may not have been articulated
but shape the ways in which people in
organizations behave and things get
‘Values’ refer to what is believed to
be important about how people and
‘Norms’ are the unwritten rules of
Characteristics of culture, Furnham and Gunter (1993)
• It is difficult to define.
• It is multi-dimensional, with many
different components at different
• It is not particularly dynamic and
• It takes time to establish and
therefore time to change a corporate
Significance of culture, Furnham and Gunter (1993)
Culture represents the ‘social glue’ and
generates a ‘we-feeling’, thus counteracting
processes of differentiations that are an
unavoidable part of organizational life.
Organizational culture offers a shared
system of meanings which is the basis for
communications and mutual understanding.
If these functions are not fulfilled in a
satisfactory way, culture may significantly
reduce the efficiency of an organization.
The values and norms that are the basis of
culture are formed in following ways;
•over a period of time,
•by the leaders in the organization,
•is formed around critical incidents,
•develops from the need to maintain
effective working relationships among
•is influenced by the organization’s
Culture is learnt over a period of time,
there are two ways in which this learning
•THE TRAUMA MODEL, in which members of
the organization learn to cope with some
threat by the erection of defence
•THE POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT MODEL,
where things that seem to work become
embedded and entrenched.
The components of culture
Areas in which values may be expressed
– explicitly or implicitly
• Care and consideration for people.
• Customer service.
• How managers treat the members of
their teams (management style) and how
the later relate to their managers.
• The prevailing work ethic.
• Status – how much importance is
attached to it; the existence or lack of
obvious status symbols.
• Ambition – naked ambition is expected
and approved of, or a more subtle
approach is the norm.
• Performance – exacting performance
standards are general; the highest praise
that can be given in the organization is to
be referred to as ‘very professional’.
• Power – recognized as a way of life;
dependent on expertise and ability rather
than position; concentrated at the top;
shared at different levels in different parts
of the organization.
• Politics – life throughout the organization
and treated as normal behaviour; not
accepted as overt behaviour.
• Loyalty – expected, a cradle to grave
approach to careers; discounted, the
emphasis is on results and contribution in
the short term.
• Anger – openly expressed; hidden, but
expressed through other, possibly political
• Approachability – managers are expected
to be approachable and visible; everything
happens behind closed doors.
• Formality – a cool, formal approach is the
norm; forenames are/are not used at all
levels; there are unwritten but clearly
understood rules about dress.
are the visible and tangible aspects of an
organization that people hear, see or feel
and which contribute to their understanding
of the organization’s culture.
can include such things as the working
environment, the tone and language used in
can be very revealing.
is the approach managers use to deal with
people. It is also called ‘leadership
Style’, it consists of the following
Classifications of organizational
• Power-oriented – competitive, responsive
to personality rather than expertise.
• People-oriented – consensual,
management control rejected.
• Task-oriented – focus on competency,
• Role-oriented – focus on legality,
legitimacy and bureaucracy.
Supporting and changing cultures
• It may not be possible to define an
ideal culture or to prescribe how it can be
• But embedded cultures exert considerable
influence on OB and therefore performance.
• If there is an appropriate and effective
culture, it would be desirable to take steps
to support or reinforce it.
• If the culture is inappropriate, attempts
should be made to determine what needs to
be changed and to develop and implement
plans for change.
HRD climate is the perception that
the employees have about the
policies, procedures, practices,
and conditions which exist in the
HRD Climate has three dimensions
of (T.V. Rao and E. Abraham) –
OCTAPAC culture and
Implementation of HRD mechanisms
The general climate deals with the
importance given to human resources
development in general by the top
management and line managers.
The OCTAPAC items deal with the extent
to which are
valued and promoted in the organization.
Openness is there when employees
feel free to discuss their ideas, activities
and feelings with each other.
Confrontation is bringing out problems
and issues in open with a view to solving
them rather than hiding them for fear of
hurting or getting hurt.
Trust is taking people at their face
value and believing what they say.
Autonomy is giving freedom to let
people work independently with
Pro-activity is encouraging employees to
take an initiative and risks.
Authenticity is the tendency on the part of
people to do what they say.
Collaboration is to accept
interdependencies to be helpful to each
other and work as teams
HRD climate is characterised by the
tendencies such as
•Treating employees as the most important
•Perceiving that developing employees is the
job of every manager
•Believing in the capability of employees
•Encouraging risk taking and
•Making efforts to help employees
recognize their strengths and
•Creating a general climate of trust
•Collaboration and autonomy
supportive personnel policies, and
•Supportive HRD practices
An optimal level of development
climate is essential for facilitating
otraining and development systems
oreward and recognition and
promotes a favourable HRD climate.