John CookProfessor in EducationDirector of the Bristol Centre for Researchin Lifelong Learning and Education (BRILLE)Research ProfileFor D4DL SIG visit to & talks with the DCRC/REACT hub @ Pervasive Media Studio,Watershed, May 22nd 2013: http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/8427
A cautionary tale!Formal & informal learningHealth Warningformal learningdid this to me
Research Highlights Concept of problem seeking in music (Cook, 2000), based on PhD work Rather than mere problem solving In the early creative/design process we can say that “knowledge is essentiallyproblematical: it is not just a question of solving a problem, it is more a question ofseeking out the nature of the problem and then devising an approach to solving it”(Cook, 2000) Brought in over £5 million external R&D funding RAE 2008 I co-led on the submission of London Met UoA ‘Education’ Ranked upper quintile @ joint 16th with Bath and Newcastle All old Universities submitted (including Oxbridge, Bristol & IoE) If strip out environment our papers were in top 5! My own publications were rated 3*/4* in a 2007 mock RAE (the external was theformer Chair of the 2000 RAE Education UoA, Prof. Sally Brown) I note UWE submission for 2008 UoA ‘Communication, Cultural and Media Studies’ alsoranked joint 16th with Oxford & Leeds
Socio-Cultural Ecology: The Triangle(Pachler, Bachmair and Cook, 2010) Structures (digital tools and media) Giddens, 1984, structuration theory Structural properties are instantiated in practice (so links to cultural practices) Educational institutions no longer define alone what learning and knowledge are and they are certainly no longerthe only, even the main location where learning and knowledge can be accessed and takes place From push to pull, change of mass communication and media convergence Individualised mobile mass communication and social fragmentation into different milieus Milieus do have the function of individualised life-worlds, which are structured by the hierarchical variable ofdifferentials in income and formal education. This is the traditional social stratification. Agency (capacity to act on the world) Hall, 1997, individualised agency practices of everyday life Formation of identity and subjectivity Environment a potential resource for learning Different habitus of learning and media attitudes; a new habitus of learning is one of the characteristics of at risk-learners By ‘habitus’ we follow Bourdieu: dispositions and action patterns based on appropriated social structures withintypical cultural practices (the original purpose of that behaviour or belief can no longer be recalled and becomessocialized into individuals of that culture). Cultural practices (routines in stable situations, and beyond …) Institutional settings, be they school, university, the work place etc. Media practices in everyday life (includes informal/non-formal)
Augmented Contexts for Development:qualitative analysis of process and explanatoryperspective, looking at the inner features of thesituation (Cook, 2010)Screen shot of Carl Smith’swire-frame moviereconstruction of Nine Alters(http://cistercians.shef.ac.uk/)Students interacting @Cistercian Chapel inCONTSENS
“The ability to be in a particular position but get avariety of views/different visual perspective was a veryuseful opportunity. The whole thing also got everyonetalking in a way I hadnt experienced on field trips toFountains before.”
“The information given was underlined by theexperience of the area and therefore given context inboth past and present.”
Three Current Research FociResearch Focus 1: Reshaping workplace design tofacilitate better learning(Cook & Pachler, 2010; Cook, 2013)1http://mashable.com/2011/08/08/mobile-workers-infographic/
BOYD: Bring Your Own Device Smartphones, tablets, laptops ... Wearables … 6.8 billion phone subscriptions & 2.7 billion people are online (UN’sInternational Telecommunication Union, 2013) With our increasingly mobile workforce, consumerisation in IT has ledto staff demanding to use their own devices for work - or for distractionsduring work breaks! Citrix cites savings of up to 20% (FT Jan 4, 2012) IBM claims 80,000 staff are now accessing its corporate networkusing self-owned devices (Computerworld, March 2012)
1Clustersthe Layers scaling strategy Research and develop solutions by workingwith Excellence clusters and cluster policymakers Piloting in Healthcare and construction. Involve new clusters in new countries Build sustainability beyond project horizonby promoting a network of EducationInnovation Clusters to serve other clusterswith services and technologies to speeduptake of new learning methods andtechnologies
Semantic Searchingof textual-audio-visual archives Semantic Tagging: add structure/meaning to tags by connectingkeyword tags to relational structures Folksonomies: collaborative tagging, social classification, socialindexing, and social tagging Taxonomies and/or ontologies: relational structures People Tagging e.g. Collabio, a tagging game developed by Microsoft Semantic annotation: or tagging, is about attaching names, attributes,comments, descriptions, etc. to a document or to a selected part in atext Natural language processing Social Semantic Networks: result of the application of Semantic Webtechnologies to social networks and online social media
Towards a Design Research Framework for Scaling the use of TEL toSupport Informal Work-Based Learning(Cook, Bauters, et al., submitted)2Cook, J., Bauters, M., Colley, J., Bannan, B., Schmidt, A. and Leinonen, T. (submitted). Towards a Design Research Framework for Scaling the use ofTEL to Support Informal Work-Based Learning, EC-TEL (European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning), Cyprus, September 2013.
Design Seeking and Scaling (Cook and Bannan, in preparation)
Research Focus 3: Using Social Network Sites andMobile Technology for Bridging Social Capital(Cook, Pachler and Bachmair, 2012) It is a democratic right for citizens to have ‘equity of access’ to culturalresources (widely defined). Some research suggests that in HE Facebook, for example, providesaffordances that can help reduce barriers that students with lower self-esteem might experience in forming the kinds of large, heterogeneousnetworks that are sources of social capital. ‘Trust’ is a key issue in this respect. Thus, there appears to be considerable potential for network andmobile technology in terms of sustainability in the integration of informaland formal institutional dimensions of learning. However, although a new educational paradigm is emerging, thereexists a need for more debate and further research.
As it stands, there still appears to exist a small conceptualgap around cultural resources.Society and cultural forces help shape technology, and inthis sense it has been said that ‘we cannot jump over ourshadows’ (Kress, 2007).Do such forces also set the limits of appropriation andtransformation of technology and indeed define the level ofaccess to cultural resources?We cannot jump over our shadows (and hence‘appropriate’ the shadow, i.e. make use of shadows in aculturally novel way to meet a new purpose) – or can we?
Extending the shadow metaphor, the principles of sundialscan be understood better from the perspective of the sun’sapparent motion across the sky.In fact, a sundial is a latitude-specific technology to indicatethe time; it uses (or appropriates) the shadow created bythe sun’s light as the Earth spins on its axis around the sun.The shadow-casting object is the sundial’s gnomon, whichis the triangular object (above right).Maybe there are occasions when we can jump over ourshadows by appropriation, or when we need help to seebeyond?
In this sense, innovative and creative thinkers and groupshave always been able to jump over the shadow created bysociety and culture. Is that not a paradigm shift?Or is it a creative act a reaction propelling a conceptover the historical shadow of society?On a more personal level, what if we want to provide equityof access to cultural resources for individuals and groups?What do we mean by this and how could we achieve it?
References Cook, J. (2000). Cooperative Problem-Seeking Dialogues in Learning. In Gauthier, G., Frasson, C. and VanLehn, K.(Eds.) Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 5th International Conference, ITS 2000 Montréal, Canada, June 2000 Proceedings,p. 615–624. Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer-Verlag. Available:http://www.academia.edu/3002001/Cooperative_Problem-Seeking_Dialogues_in_Learning_615624 Cook, J. (2010). Mobile Phones as Mediating Tools Within Augmented Contexts for Development. International Journalof Mobile and Blended Learning, 2(3), 1-12, July-September. Preprint:http://www.academia.edu/357712/Mobile_Phones_as_Mediating_Tools_Within_Augmented_Contexts_for_Development Cook, J. (2013). Reshaping Workplace Design to Facilitate Better Learning. Invited talk 24th April, Division of LearningTechnologies, George Mason University, USA. Slides: http://t.co/K1DkaEE2s1 Cook, J. and Bannan, B. (in preparation). Reconceptualising Design Research for Design Seeking and Scaling.Workshop on Collaborative Technologies for Working and Learning (ECSCW meets EC-TEL), 21 September, Cyprus. Cook, J., Bauters, M., Colley, J., Bannan, B., Schmidt, A. and Leinonen, T. (submitted). Towards a Design ResearchFramework for Scaling the use of TEL to Support Informal Work-Based Learning, EC-TEL (European Conference onTechnology Enhanced Learning), 18-20 September, Cyprus. Cook, J. and Pachler, N. (2012). Online People Tagging: Social (Mobile) Network(ing) Services and Work-basedLearning. British Journal of Education Technology, 43(5), 711–725.http://www.academia.edu/1501290/Online_People_Tagging_Social_Mobile_Network_ing_Services_and_Work-based_Learning Cook, J., Pachler, N. and Bachmair, B. (2012). Using Social Networked Sites and Mobile Technology for BridgingSocial Capital. In Guglielmo Trentin and Manuela Repetto (Eds.), Using Network and Mobile Technology to BridgeFormal and Informal Learning, pp. 31-56. Chandos.http://www.academia.edu/2365830/Using_social_network_sites_and_mobile_technology_to_scaffold_equity_of_access_to_cultural_resources Pachler, N., Bachmair, B. and Cook, J. (2010). Mobile Learning: Structures, Agency, Practices. New York: Springer.