Cook invited talk Uni of Bristol


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Invited talk: Using Social Media and Mobile Devices to Mediate Informal, Professional, Work-Based Learning

John Cook
Bristol Centre for Research
in Lifelong Learning and Education (BRILLE)
University of the West of England (UWE)\jn-cook

Invited talk: Centre for Learning, Knowing and Interactive Technologies, Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol
26th February, 12.30 to 13.45

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  • Figure 1 represents a human tutor’s external regulatory moves.
  • Cook invited talk Uni of Bristol

    1. 1. Using Social Media and Mobile Devices to Mediate Informal, Professional, Work-Based Learning John Cook Bristol Centre for Research in Lifelong Learning and Education (BRILLE) University of the West of England (UWE) Invited talk: Centre for Learning, Knowing and Interactive Technologies, Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol 26th February, 12.30 to 13.45
    2. 2. StructureCritical overview of key issues from the literature on work-based learning, face-to-face and technology-supportedInitial typology (Cook and Pachler, 2012) of informal workplace learning in order to provide a frame for understanding social (mobile) network(ing) services in work-based learningEC FP7 funded integrating project called Learning Layers is briefly describedDesign Research: Methodological Reflections
    3. 3. Cook & Pachler (2012) Contains critical review of literature This paper also outlines the conceptual basis from my perspective  Based on a case study of MATURE People Tagging tool Personal learning networks (group or distributed self-regulation) to larger clusters and networks = Scaling,Cook, J. and Pachler, N. (2012). Online People Tagging: Social (Mobile)Network(ing) Services and Work-based Learning. British Journal of EducationTechnology, 43(5), 711–725. Link to paper
    4. 4. Critical overviewWhat is already known about this topic? The importance of social networks and associated technologies in everyday life and commerce. Some conceptualisations of learning through and at work exist but they tend to be based on the empirical study of professionals and graduate employees.
    5. 5. Critical overview What this paper adds?  A consideration of the use of social networks in learning in informal and work-based context.  An exploration of some of the affordances of social media for work- located learning.  A topology of factors in social network(ing) services and work-based learning.  An analysis of a case study of people tagging in relation to the typology of factors.
    6. 6. Critical overview Social media and mobile devices are under-researched in work-based learning! The very notion of learning in the work place is contested. Work-based practice may be a better phrase? Similarly „learning in informal contexts‟ may be better than „informal learning‟ Kraiger (2008) found that most „solutions‟ in work-based learning are targeted towards a learning model based on the ideas of direct instruction in a formal manner, e.g. transferring lectures and seminars from face-to-face interactions to computer-mediated interactions.
    7. 7. Critical overview Work-based and informal learning are discussed at a range of different levels in the literature. In Cook & Pachler (2012) paper we focus on literature that is empirically founded. One key proponent of an empirical tradition of work-based learning research is Michael Eraut. There are, of course, other important scholars in the field, such as for example Sawchuck (2010), Evans et al. (2009), Illeris (2007) or Livingstone (2006), to name but a few. Given the significance and internal coherence of Eraut‟s work, as well as its connectedness to other scholarship and research in the field, we use it as a basis for our conceptual thinking here. Eraut‟s work (2000, 2004, 2007, 2008) also has been derived mainly from the study of professionals and graduate employees rather than workers more widely.
    8. 8. Critical overviewLearning in workplace viewed as response to complex problem or taskEmbedded in meaningful and authentic cultural contexts Factors affecting learning in the workplace (Eraut, 2004)
    9. 9. Critical overview Table 1: A typology of Early Career Learning (Source: Eraut, 2008, p. 18)
    10. 10. Critical overview Eraut (2007, p. 406) posits that these features by-and-large play out in the following four types of activities:  Assessing clients and/or situations (sometimes briefly, sometimes involving a long process of investigation) and continuing to monitor them;  Deciding what, if any, action to take, both immediately and over a longer period (either individually or as a leader or member of a team);  Pursuing an agreed course of action, modifying, consulting and reassessing as and when necessary;  Metacognitive monitoring of oneself, people needing attention and the general progress of the case, problem, project or situation.
    11. 11. Critical overview What is of particular interest for our purposes here is the fact that the majority of learning activities through and at work seem to involve other people, e.g. through one-to-one interaction, participation in group processes, working alongside others etc. This, for us, underlines the centrality of identifying relevant „others‟ from and with whom to learn – and the possible role of social media and SNSs in it –, particularly given the documented problems in the transfer of knowledge between people in the workplace (see Eraut, 2008, pp. 15-18) The art of discourse about practice then becomes one of establishing affinity with colleagues through work-related discourse and giving the appearance of being generally cooperative, without giving anything away that might increase one‟s vulnerability (Eraut, 2008, p. 16).
    12. 12. Critical overview One of the early and often cited papers on social network(ing) sites is that by (boyd & Ellison, 2008). In it the authors, in addition to charting the history of social network sites (SNSs) and setting out some relevant research questions, offer a definition of SNSs as  web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a publish or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. Also, they make the distinction between social networking and social network sites preferring the latter term as the former, according to them, emphasises relationship initiation. The term social network, they argue, reflects the fact that users are primarily communicating with people “who are already part of their extended social network”, i.e. they augment pre-existing social relationships and interactions.
    13. 13. Initial typology of informal workplace learningOur typology of factors in Social (Mobile) Network(ing) Services and Work-based Learning are represented textually on next slide.The derivation of the main nodes was made after going through the literature variously over several months and coming back to the simple focus presented by Eraut (2004, p. 269)„Factors affecting learning in the workplace‟ calling them Context Factors and Learning Factors.
    14. 14. Initial typology of informal workplace learningInitial typology of informal workplace learning (top 2 levels)1. Contexts Factorsa. Work process with learning as a by-productb. Learning activities located within work or learning processesc. Learning processes at or near the workplace2. Learning Factorsa. individual self-efficacy (confidence and commitment)b. acts of self-regulationc. cognitive loadd. personal learning networks (group or distributed self-regulation)Table: Factors in work-based Social (Mobile) Network(ing) Services
    15. 15. personal learning networks (group or distributed self-regulation) (Rajagopal, et al., 2012)i. building connections (adding new people tothe network so that there are resources availablewhen a learning need arises);ii. maintaining connections (keeping in touchwith relevant persons); andiii. activating connections (with selected personsfor the purpose of learning)iv. aggregated trustworthiness (perceivedcredibility) = social validation + authority and trustee+ profiles (Jessen and Jørgensen, 2012)
    16. 16. Key questionsHow can we scale up meaningful learning activities of  individuals and groups so they become linked together  building confidence, commitment, performance & progress?Amplified by SNSs and mobile technologies?Mediated by scaffolding and bridging activities?
    17. 17. Learning Layers A large-scale research project co-funded by the European Commission‟s 7th Framework Programme. The consortium consists of 17 institutions from 7 different countries. Total project budget over 4 years is 12 Million Euros (i.e. over 10.5 million GBP). The goal of the project is to scale up support for informal workplace learning in regional clusters of small and medium sized enterprises. We will trial these innovations in two sectors that have been particularly hesitant to take up learning technologies:  health care in the North East of England and  building and construction in North Germany.
    18. 18.
    19. 19. Learning LayersThe Learning Layers project looks at how informal learning in the workplace can be supported by new technologies like mobile phone and tablet apps.I lead a work package called Networked Scaffolding – Interacting with People that is taking a Design Research approach to development.
    20. 20. Learning Layers One aim of Design Research (e.g. Bannan-Ritland, 2003&2009) is to identify and model technology-mediated, social learning and behaviours in order to design tools that support and promote the practices under investigation. For example, in Cook (2002) I proposed a Design Research approach (although I never called it that) which revolves around evolutionary prototyping. What this means in simple terms is that we need to consider repeated cycles of: empirical work, theory/model development and tool/artefact refinement. I have extended this approach of „cycles for design‟ to the Learning Layers project so that it now has much in common with participatory design process. A "key characteristic of the participatory design territory is the use of physical artefacts as thinking tools throughout the participatory design process, a practice emanating from the research-led "Scandinavian" tradition" (Sanders and Chan, 2007, my bold).
    21. 21. Learning Layers Rest of talk will be to give snapshots of the extensive cycles for design being undertaken in Learning Layers by several work packages, including my own. The starting point for my own work package is the initial typology (Cook and Pachler, 2012) of informal workplace learning;  this is used to provide a theory/model for understanding social mobile network(ing) services in work-based learning.  The talk will then go on to introduce on-going, overlapping activities from across the project:
    22. 22. Learning Layers State of the Art review of scaffolding and related concepts Initial textual example to motivate design Design ideas  Tools to inspire design, e.g. using the network section of the MoLE app from Tribal, a technical partner  Wire frames & story boards Analysis of Q&A Forums Ethnographic study and resulting user stories that describe current practices at the workplace and personas Social Semantic Server to underpin interactions Application Partner Days, with co-design activities Integrated Model of Scaffolding Design Conference (a Month 5 milestone) which has a focus on mappings between the multiple activities & design teams, held at Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland, March 2013.
    23. 23. Conceptual model of face-to-face scaffolding (Pol, Volman, & Beishuizen, 2010, p. 274)
    24. 24. Initial textual example to motivate designScaffolding examples from medical domain (by John Sandars and JohnCook)A GP called Susan at the Diabetes Clinic has a PC dashboard with NHSdata base icon and Layers icons (including one for a scaffolding informallearning networks). Susan has just used the NHS data base to diagnosea patient and wants to see what her trusted colleagues think. Susanenters the diagnosis through the Layers interface asking her network"was I right, what do you think?" She goes on her afternoon rounds andwhilst walking to her third visit checks her mobile phone Dashboard. TheLayers icon is flashing, when she clicks she has a 4 line answer to herquestion from her network; there is also a prompt from Layers to raisethis at the next team meeting and to enter this into the notes of herpatient (she accepts both). How Susan set up this informal learningnetwork in the past could be a form of scaffolding based around ideas of...
    25. 25. Design ideasTribal: MoLE (Mobile Learning Environment
    26. 26. /22/ReachOutTo.jpg/200px- ReachOutTo.jpgBy Tribal
    27. 27. Ethnographic study and resulting user stories & personas that describe current practices at the workplace USER STORY 1: CASCADING LEARNING Situation / Trigger New Pathway Guidelines The NHS has produced new pathway guidelines on how to manage a certain diabetic condition. Training Invitation The Diabetic Clinic at Rowland Green Medical Centre (GP Practice) receives an invitation to attend local training on the new guidelines. Actors Peter Richard NHS trainer Jane Douglas Tina Patient Staff from (GP running the (Business Manager) (GP of Diabetic Clinic) (GP, not involved in (Diabetic Nurse Specialist) Diabetic Clinic) Diabetic Clinic) other GP practices Tools / Physical Objects / Locations Information on new guidelines Presentation and training tools: Email powerpoint, video, written NHS, NICE Pathway website material Email folder for education material NHS training rooms Transportation and facilites Private communication facilities (Coffee room) Sequence of Activities Richard Peter Peter Richard Staff from Peter Richard NHS trainer other GP practices Attend local training Training Session and discussion Reflection and urgeBy on new guidelines on new guidelines to spread the informationUniversityInnsbruck Delay due to time intensive day-to-day work
    28. 28. Application Partner Days, with co-design activitiesTribal and Aalto University go into action
    29. 29. Integrated Model of ScaffoldingBrainstorming!
    30. 30. Design Conference A Month 5 milestone which has a focus on mappings between the multiple activities & design teams, held at Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland, March 2013 Criteria for Selecting Design Ideas  Learning and Scaffolding  Networking and Peer Production  Meaning Making  Potential to scale and be sustained beyond the immediate context of interaction
    31. 31. Design Research: Methodological Reflections In Year 1 we are looking at these areasBannan-Ritland, B. (2009). The integrative learning design framework: An illustrated example from the domain of instructional technology. In T. Plomp & N. Nieveen (Eds.), An Introduction to Educational DesignResearch. Enschede, Netherlands; SLO Netherlands Institute for Curriculum Development.
    32. 32. ILDF Phases Informed Enactment- Local Impact Broad Impact Exploration Detailed DesignSub-phases Needs analysis Research Formative Publish results Survey Literature Systems design evaluation Diffusion, Theory Articulated Theory systems adoption & development prototype refinement adaption Audience Detailed design Implementation Consequences characterization Evaluation resultsIn Learning Needs analysis: Articulated Diffusion,Layers not as textual prototypes: adoption &linear as ILDF. examples, WP7 wire frames, adaption: we areWe are Application story boards, trying to thinkworking in Partners mock-up, about this now,parallel on generate ideas semantic particularly howthese in year 1 Survey server, other we will scale via Literature: design ideas networks and many of the Research clusters work package Systems design: are developing The design their own conference will perspective use ‘design Theory criteria’ to development: evolved distinct Integrated design teams. scaffolding model Audience characterization : ethnographic study, co- design, new empirical work on existing online fora We are trying to understanding the problem space and moving forward on multiple fronts.
    33. 33. Thank YouQuestions