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ASTRONOMY ''THE SUN''
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ASTRONOMY ''THE SUN''

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  • 1. THE MEMBERS OF SOLAR SYSTEM SUN
  • 2. The Sun is the heart of our Solar System. Diameter: 865,278 miles or 1.9 million Km. Temperature: 6000 degrees Celsius – Visible part 25,000,000 degree F Regions: Photosphere(Solar Surface) – Consisting Hydrogen Gas Chromosphere(Sphere of Colour) Corona or Crown- Upper layer Sunspots- Usually appears black because they are cooler and less bright than the rest of the Photosphere.
  • 3. The Planets There are 8 Planets in our Solar System. Each planet has its own axis and revolves around the sun. Planets Closest to the sun are Inner Planets or Terrestrial Planets. Outer planets which are far from the sun are called Jovian Planets.
  • 4. MERCURY MERCURY, THE PLANET CLOSEST TO THE SUN, HAS ALMOST NO ATMOSPHERE, AND ITS DUSTY SURFACE OF CRATERS RESEMBLES THE MOON. THE PLANET WAS NAMED FOR THE ROMAN GOD MERCURY, A WINGED MESSENGER, AND IT TRAVELS AROUND THE SUN FASTER THAN ANY OTHER PLANET. MERCURY IS DIFFICULT TO SEE FROM EARTH—IN FACT, THE FAMOUS ASTRONOMER NICOLAUS COPERNICUS, FOR ALL HIS YEARS OF RESEARCH AND OBSERVATION, NEVER ONCE WAS ABLE TO SEE MERCURY.
  • 5.  Size: Two-fifths the size of Earth in diameter; second smallest in the solar system  Diameter: 3,032.4 miles (4,880 km)  Surface: Covered by a dusty layer of minerals (silicates), the surface is made up of plains, cliffs, and craters  Atmosphere: A thin mixture of helium (95%) and hydrogen  Temperature: Mercury alternately bakes and freezes, depending on what side is lit by the Sun. The sunlit side can reach up to 950° F (510° C) and the dark side can drop as low as –346° F (–210° C)  Rotation of its axis: 59 Earth days  Rotation around the Sun: 88 Earth days  Your weight: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 38 pounds on Mercury.  Distance from Earth: 57 million miles, at the closest point in its orbit  Mean Distance from Sun: 36 million miles (57.9 million km)  Satellites: 0  Rings: 0
  • 6. Venus Venus is often called Earth's twin because the two planets are close in size, but that's the only similarity. The thick clouds that cover Venus create a greenhouse effect that keeps it sizzling at 864°F. Venus, named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty, is also known as the ―morning star‖ and ―evening star‖ since it is visible at these times to the unaided eye. Venus appears as a bright, white disk from Earth.
  • 7.  Size: About 650 miles smaller in diameter than Earth  Diameter: 7,519 miles (12,100 km)  Surface: A rocky, dusty, waterless expanse of mountains, canyons, and plains, with a 200-mile river of hardened lava  Atmosphere: Carbon dioxide (95%), nitrogen, sulfuric acid, and traces of other elements  Temperature: Ranges from 55°F (13°C) to 396°F (202°C) at the surface  Rotation of its axis: 243 Earth days  Rotation around the Sun: 225 Earth days  Your weight: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 88 pounds on Venus.  Distance from Earth: At its closest, Venus is 26 million miles (41,840,000 km) away  Mean Distance from Sun: 67.24 million miles (108.2 million km)  Satellites: 0  Rings: 0
  • 8. EARTH IS NOT PERFECTLY ROUND; IT BULGES AT THE EQUATOR AND IS FLATTER AT THE POLES. FROM SPACE THE PLANET LOOKS BLUE WITH WHITE SWIRLS, CREATED BY WATER AND CLOUDS.
  • 9.  Size: Four planets in our solar system are larger and four are smaller      than Earth Diameter: 7,926.2 miles (12,756 km) Surface: Earth is made up of water (70%), air, and solid ground. It appears to be the only planet with water Atmosphere: Nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), other gases Rotation of its axis: 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4 seconds Rotation around the Sun: 365.2 days  Satellites: 1  Mean Distance from Sun: 92.9 million miles (149.6 million km)  Rings: 0
  • 10. Mars Because of its blood-red color (which comes from iron-rich dust), this planet was named for Mars, the Roman god of war. Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun, situated between Earth and Jupiter. Three-quarters red, Mars also has dark blotches on it and white areas at the poles—these are white polar ice caps.
  • 11.  Size: About one-half the size of Earth in diameter  Surface: Canyons, dunes, volcanoes, and polar caps of water ice and carbon dioxide ice  Diameter: 4,194 miles (6,794 km)  Atmosphere: carbon dioxide (95%)  Temperature: as low as –305°F (–187°C)  Rotation of its axis: 24 Earth hours, 37 minutes, 23 seconds  Rotation around the Sun: 687 Earth days  Your weight: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 38 pounds on Mars.  Distance from Earth: 35 million miles (56 million km) at the closest point in its orbit  Mean Distance from Sun:141.71 million miles (227.9 million km)  Satellites: 2  Rings: 0
  • 12. JUPITER A BELT OF ASTEROIDS (FRAGMENTS OF ROCK AND IRON) BETWEEN MARS AND JUPITER SEPARATE THE FOUR INNER PLANETS FROM THE FIVE OUTER PLANETS. JUPITER, THE LARGEST PLANET IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM, WAS NAMED FOR THE MOST IMPORTANT ROMAN GOD BECAUSE OF ITS SIZE. ABOUT 1,300 EARTHS WOULD FIT INTO IT. VIEWED THROUGH A LARGE TELESCOPE, JUPITER IS STUNNINGLY COLORFUL—IT IS A DISK COVERED WITH BANDS OF BLUE, BROWN, PINK, RED, ORANGE, AND YELLOW. ITS MOST DISTINGUISHING FEATURE IS ―THE GREAT RED SPOT,‖ AN INTENSE WINDSTORM LARGER IN SIZE THAN EARTH, WHICH HAS CONTINUED FOR CENTURIES WITHOUT ANY SIGNS OF DYING DOWN.
  • 13.  Size: 11 times the diameter of Earth  Diameter: 88,736 miles (142,800 km)  Surface: A hot ball of gas and liquid  Atmosphere: Whirling clouds of colored dust, hydrogen, helium, methane, water, and ammonia. The Great Red Spot is an intense windstorm larger than Earth.  Temperature: –234°F (–148°C) average  Rotation of its axis: 9 hours and 55 minutes  Rotation around the Sun: 12 Earth years  Your weight: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 265 pounds on Jupiter.  Distance from Earth: At its closest, 370 million miles (591 million km)  Mean Distance from Sun: 483.88 million miles (778.3 million km)  Satellites: 63  Rings: 4
  • 14. SATURN SATURN, THE SECOND-LARGEST PLANET, HAS MAJESTIC RINGS SURROUNDING IT. NAMED FOR THE ROMAN GOD OF FARMING, SATURN WAS THE FARTHEST PLANET KNOWN BY THE ANCIENTS. SATURN'S SEVEN RINGS ARE FLAT AND LIE INSIDE ONE ANOTHER. THEY ARE MADE OF BILLIONS OF ICE PARTICLES.
  • 15.  Size: About 10 times larger than Earth in diameter  Diameter: 74,978 miles (120,660 km)  Surface: Liquid and gas  Atmosphere: Hydrogen and helium  Temperature: –288°F (–178°C)  Rotation of its axis: 10 hours, 40 min, 24 sec  Rotation around the Sun: 291/2 Earth years  Your weight: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 107 pounds on Saturn.  Distance from Earth: 744 million miles at the closest point  Mean Distance from Sun: 887.14 million miles (1,427 million km)  Satellites: 31  Rings: 1,000?
  • 16. URANUS URANUS IS A GREENISH-BLUE PLANET, TWICE AS FAR FROM THE SUN AS ITS NEIGHBOR SATURN. URANUS WASN'T DISCOVERED UNTIL 1781. ITS DISCOVEROR, WILLIAM HERSCHEL, NAMED IT GEORGIUM SIDUS (THE GEORGIAN STAR) AFTER THE ENGLISH KING, GEORGE III. LATER ITS NAME WAS CHANGED TO URANUS, AFTER AN ANCIENT GREEK SKY GOD, SINCE ALL THE OTHER PLANETS HAD BEEN NAMED AFTER ROMAN AND GREEK GODS.
  • 17.  Size: 4 times larger than Earth in diameter  Diameter: 32,193 miles (51,810 km)  Surface: Little is known  Atmosphere: Hydrogen, helium, and methane  Temperature: uniform temperature of –353°F (–214°C)  Rotation of its axis: 17 hours  Rotation around the Sun: 30,685 days or 84 Earth years  Your weight: Not known  Distance from Earth: At the closest point, 1,607,000,000 miles  Mean Distance from Sun: 1,783.98 million miles (2,870 million km)  Satellites: 27  Rings: 11
  • 18. NEPTUNE NEPTUNE, NAMED FOR AN ANCIENT ROMAN SEA GOD, IS A STORMY BLUE PLANET ABOUT 30 TIMES FARTHER FROM THE SUN THAN EARTH. NEPTUNE WAS DISCOVERED WHEN ASTRONOMERS REALIZED THAT SOMETHING WAS EXERTING A GRAVITATIONAL PULL ON URANUS, AND THAT IT WAS POSSIBLE THAT AN UNKNOWN PLANET MIGHT BE RESPONSIBLE. THROUGH MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIONS, ASTRONOMERS DETERMINED THERE WAS INDEED AN UNDISCOVERED PLANET OUT IN SPACE—A YEAR BEFORE IT WAS ACTUALLY SEEN FOR THE FIRST TIME THROUGH A TELESCOPE (IN 1846).
  • 19.  Size: Almost 4 times the size of Earth in diameter  Diameter: 30,775 miles (49,528 km)  Surface: A liquid layer covered with thick clouds and with constant, raging storms  Atmosphere: Hydrogen, helium, methane, and ammonia  Temperature: –353°F (–214°C)  Rotation of its axis: 16 hours and 7 minutes  Rotation around the Sun: 165 Earth years  Your weight: Not known  Distance from Earth: 2,680,000,000 miles at closest point  Mean Distance from Sun: 2,796.46 million miles (4,497 million km)  Satellites: 13  Rings: 4 
  • 20. PLUTO PLUTO, NAMED AFTER THE ROMAN AND GREEK GOD OF THE UNDERWORLD, IS THE COLDEST, SMALLEST, AND OUTERMOST PLANET IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM. PLUTO AND ITS MOON, CHARON, ARE CALLED ―DOUBLE PLANETS‖ BECAUSE CHARON IS SO LARGE IT SEEMS LESS OF A MOON THAN ANOTHER PLANET. PLUTO WAS PREDICTED TO EXIST IN 1905 AND DISCOVERED IN 1930. IT IS THE ONLY PLANET THAT HAS NOT YET BEEN STUDIED CLOSELY BY A SPACE PROBE. DURING EACH REVOLUTION AROUND THE SUN, PLUTO PASSES INSIDE NEPTUNE'S ORBIT FOR 20 YEARS, MAKING NEPTUNE THE OUTERMOST PLANET FOR THAT TIME. PLUTO PASSED INSIDE NEPTUNE'S ORBIT IN 1979 AND REMAINED THERE UNTIL 1999.
  • 21. (AUGUST 24, 2006) PLUTO DEMOTED!
  • 22.  Size: Less than one-fifth the size of Earth in diameter  Diameter: 1,423 miles? (2,290 km?)  Surface: A giant snowball of methane and water mixed with rock  Atmosphere: Methane  Temperature: between –369° and –387°F (–223° and –233°C)  Rotation of its axis: 6 days, 9 hours, 18 minutes  Rotation around the Sun: 248 Earth years  Your weight: Not known  Distance from Earth: At the closest point, 2.67 billion miles  Mean Distance from Sun: 3,666 million miles (5,900 million km)  Satellites: 1  Rings: ?
  • 23.  THE MOON  At a distance of 384,400 km from the Earth, the Moon is our closest celestial neighbor and only natural satellite. Because of this fact, we have been able to gain more knowledge about it than any other body in the Solar System besides the Earth. Like the Earth itself, the Moon is unique in some ways and rather ordinary in others.  The Moon is unique in that it is the only spherical satellite orbiting a terrestrial planet. The reason for its shape is a result of its mass being great enough so that gravity pulls all of the Moon's matter toward its center equally.  Another distinct property the Moon possesses lies in its size compared to the Earth. At 3,475 km, the Moon's diameter is over one fourth that of the Earth's. In relation to its own size, no other planet has a moon as large.  For its size, however, the Moon's mass is rather low. This means the Moon is not very dense. The explanation behind this lies in the formation of the Moon. It is believed that a large body, perhaps the size of Mars, struck the Earth early in its life. As a result of this collision a great deal of the young Earth's outer mantle and crust was ejected into space. This material then began orbiting Earth and over time joined together due to gravitational forces, forming what is now Earth's moon. Furthermore, since Earth's outer mantle and crust are significantly less dense than its interior explains why the Moon is so much less dense than the Earth.  When viewed from Earth, the many impact craters fround on the Moon's surface are visible. The reason for this is simple. Unlike the Earth, the Moon is not geologically active, and so it does not possess an atmosphere nor does it possess volcanic activity. Consequently, the Moon does not undergo resurfacing as does the Earth.
  • 24. THE MOON'S PHASES takes to go from one new  The lunar month is the 29.53 days it moon to the next. During the lunar month, the Moon goes through all its phases. You can see the phases drawn in the image below. Just like the Earth, half of the Moon is lit by the Sun while the other half is in darkness. The phases we see result from the angle the Moon makes with the Sun as viewed from Earth.  At new moon, the Moon is lined up between the Earth and the Sun. We see the side of the Moon that is not being lit by the Sun (in other words, we see no Moon at all, because the brightness of the Sun outshines the dim Moon!) When the Moon is exactly lined up with the Sun (as viewed from Earth), we experience an eclipse.
  • 25.  As the Moon moves eastward away from the Sun in the sky, we see a bit more of the sunlit side of the Moon each night. A few days after new moon, we see a thin crescent in the western evening sky. The crescent Moon waxes, or appears to grow fatter, each night. When half of the Moon's disc is illuminated, we call it the first quarter moon. This name comes from the fact that the Moon is now one-quarter of the way through the lunar month. From Earth, we are now looking at the sunlit side of the Moon from off to the side.  The Moon continues to wax. Once more than half of the disc is illuminated, it has a shape we call gibbous. The gibbous moonappears to grow fatter each night until we see the full sunlit face of the Moon. We call this phase the full moon. It rises almost exactly as the Sun sets and sets just as the Sun rises the next day. The Moon has now completed one half of the lunar month.
  • 26.  During the second half of the lunar month, the Moon grows thinner each night. We call this waning. Its shape is still gibbous at this point, but grows a little thinner each night. As it reaches the three-quarter point in its month, the Moon once again shows us one side of its disc illuminated and the other side in darkness. However, the side that we saw dark at the first quarter phase is now the lit side. As it completes its journey and approaches new moon again, the Moon is a waning crescent.
  • 27. QUESTIONS  WE WILL BE GLAD TO HEAR QUESTIONS FROM YOU. Like us on Facebook: Facebook.com/PaknungDukha