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Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species
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Injections of Herbicide into Rhizomes of Knotweeds and Other Invasive Plant Species

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We ran trials on this method for a few years as did other organizations and individuals. Ultimately, we did not find its efficacy to outweigh the labor involved. Therefore, Green Shoots decided not …

We ran trials on this method for a few years as did other organizations and individuals. Ultimately, we did not find its efficacy to outweigh the labor involved. Therefore, Green Shoots decided not to launch the product. We have however had real success with foliar applications using our Green Shoots Foam Herbicide Dispenser. John Lampe gave a presentation on that system at the Upper Midwest Invasive Species Conference: http://www.slideshare.net/johnlampe/how-to-kill-i.

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  • 1. Subterranean Rhizome Injection ofHerbicides for Knotweeds and Other Invasive Species Midwest-Great Lakes Chapter, Society for Ecological Restoration Fourth Annual Chapter Meeting University of Michigan John Lampe Green Shoots, LLC Saint Paul, Minnesota May 5, 2012 1
  • 2. Knotweed – Why Control?• It is listed by the World Conservation Union as one of the worlds 100 worst invasive species.• This is not precise ranking but does show recognition of how problematic species is.
  • 3. Outline of Talk• Knotweed Background• Current Control Methods• Rhizome Injection
  • 4. Knotweed BackgroundPioneer species in native habitat – for example,Mt. Fuji
  • 5. Common Species of Knotweed• Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum)• Giant knotweed (Polygonum sachalinense)• Bohemian knotweed (Polygonum x bohemicum) – hybrid
  • 6. Knotweed ColonyPhoto Credit: Randy Westbrooks, U.S. Geological Survey. Bugwood.com
  • 7. Knotweed Leaves • Dark green leaves • Un-toothed • alternatePhoto Credit: Steve Manning, Invasive Plant Control, Bugwood.com
  • 8. Knotweed Stem - Dry • Hollow internodes • Septum separating • Up to 2 in. dia. Photo Credit: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.com
  • 9. Knotweed Stems - Young
  • 10. Winter Dry Stems Photo Credit: Justin Knabe, Minnesota DOT
  • 11. Common Features of Knotweed (con.)Rhizome• Rhizome can extend 6 to 8 feet in year• Rhizomes can lay dormant for up to 20 years
  • 12. Rhizome Cross-Section
  • 13. Rhizome – Vertical Cross- Section
  • 14. Common Features of Knotweed (con.)• Spread by: – Rhizome extension – Distribution of plant parts • Rhizome pieces – as small as 0.7 g (Brock & Wade 1992) • Node pieces – Seeds – not major source in WA. (Miller 2005)
  • 15. Key Distinctions Among Species• Giant knotweed – Leaf blades up to 18 inches long and half as wide – Cordate (heart-shaped) at base – Straight stem• Japanese knotweed – Leaf blade is 8 inches long and almost as wide – Flat across base – Zig-zag stem• Bohemian – blend of two
  • 16. IdentificationGood source: Prather TS, Miller TW, RobinsSS, Knotweed shrubs: identification, biology, andmanagement, Pacific Northwest ExtensionPublication 2009
  • 17. Knotweed Badness• Riparian areas especially vulnerable• Out-compete other plants => monoculture• Tree Absence leads to: – Loss of shade – Loss of woody debris• Changes in soil fertility• Erosion along streambeds and stream banks
  • 18. Knotweed Monoculture Photo Credit: Justin Knabe, Minnesota DOT
  • 19. Current Control Methods• Cutting or Removal• Coverage or Burial• Chemical
  • 20. Cutting, Removal, Coverage, Burial• Cutting or removal – probably not practical except on small scale; high risk of spread.• Coverage or burial – probably not practical except on small scale.
  • 21. Coverage is Really Tough Photo Credit: Popplewell Associates, York, UK
  • 22. Control – Chemical• Foliar• Cut stem• Stem injection• Stem wipe
  • 23. Knotweed Rhizome Tough to Kill!Key Problem: older parts of rhizome and dormantbuds are weak sinks. (Bashtanova et al. 2009.)
  • 24. Foliar• Best to treat after July 1• Backpack sprayer• Typical chemicals used are: glyphosate, triclopyr, and imazapyr
  • 25. Foliar• Advantages – Fastest – Treat small-stemmed plants – Good control: 81%. (Miller 2005)• Disadvantages – Off-target harm: Avg. injury: 68%. (Miller 2005) – Hard to treat large plants
  • 26. Cut Stem• Cut stem 5 to 10 inches off ground• Immediately pour up to 5 ml into hollow of stem
  • 27. Pouring Herbicide into Cut Stem
  • 28. Cut Stem• Advantages – Low cost equipment – Good control• Disadvantages – Time-consuming – Disposal of green aerial shoots – Amount of herbicide used
  • 29. Stem Injection• Use hypodermic or special injector• Inject up to 5 ml into stem• Between 1st and 2nd node above ground
  • 30. Stem Injection
  • 31. Stem Injection• Advantages – Precision – No stem disposal – Efficacy; Avg control: 88% (Miller 2005)• Disadvantages – Time-consuming – Id of treated stems – Amount of herbicide used – Cost of equipment – Non-target injury: 26% (Miller 2005)
  • 32. Stem Wipe• Either cut stem or leave stem whole• Abrade stem in some manner near base• Wipe onto exposed inner tissue
  • 33. Stem Wipe with Foam
  • 34. Stem Wipe• Advantages – Low cost equipment – Efficacy is good; control: 89%. (Miller 2005)• Disadvantages – Time-consuming – Off-target injury: avg = 13% (Miller 2005)
  • 35. Follow-Up Applications• It seems that all methods of application currently used require follow-ups for many years• According to Washington State Dept Agriculture: “The trend of this data shows a significant decrease in knotweed following six years of annual treatments. Despite these dramatic reductions, knotweed is still present at each monitoring site.” (Statewide Knotweed Control Program; 2010 Progress Report)
  • 36. Can We Do a Better Job of Killing the Knotweed Rhizome?
  • 37. Rhizome Injection
  • 38. Rhizome Injector• 6 in. blunt tipped needle• Metered dosing• 250 ml capacity (treatment for approximately 125 plants)
  • 39. Rhizome Injection – the ConceptFirst Premise: Efficacy of any method dependson herbicide reaching rhizome and roots.
  • 40. Rhizome and Roots
  • 41. Rhizome Injection – the ConceptSecond Premise: Efficacy decreases as trans-location distance increases.
  • 42. Efficacy and Translocation 100%EfficacyDecreases meters Translocation Distance Increases
  • 43. Translocation Distance Foliar Application – 3 meters Stem Injection or Wipe – 20 cm Rhizome Injection – 5 cm
  • 44. Rhizome Injection – 1st Step• Access inside hollow stem near ground level – Cut stem at ground level – dead or living stem; or – Bend stem at ground level and create opening into the stem hollow
  • 45. Rhizome Injection – 2nd Step• Insert needle of injector through septum in hollow of stem• Probe down into rhizome hollow as far as possible
  • 46. Rhizome Injection – 3rd Step• Inject Herbicide• I set dose at 2ml• AquaMaster label, for example, forbids injection in excess of 5 ml into stem
  • 47. Rhizome Injection Needle reaches to below-ground Internode
  • 48. Inserting Needle into Cut, Dead Stem
  • 49. Injecting into Rhizome through Cut Stem
  • 50. Inserting Needle into Bent Live Stem
  • 51. Inserting Needle into Bent Live Stem
  • 52. Results?
  • 53. Treated Area
  • 54. Untreated Area
  • 55. Results - Preliminary
  • 56. Results - Priliminary
  • 57. Results - Preliminary
  • 58. Results - Preliminary
  • 59. Healthy Nearby Knotweed
  • 60. Potential Advantages – Rhizome Injection1. Injection directly into rhizome – the part of plant that herbicide must reach2. Amount of herbicide can potentially be less3. Eliminate disposal problems – leave live aerial shoots attached or treat when aerial shoots are dead
  • 61. Potential Advantages – Rhizome Injection4. Extend application season: – Summer – after July 1 or so – Fall – Late fall – after stems have died – winter5. Treat fewer stems? – Depends on amount of translocation
  • 62. Green ShootsJohn Lampe – contact:• john@greenshootsonline.com• 651-245-4682 (cell)Website:www.greenshootsonline.com• Email or call for copy of presentation 64

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