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Algae management for golf course putting greens.
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Algae management for golf course putting greens.

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Algae management can be difficult on golf course putting greens. This presentation highlights various aspects of algae including: biology, problems associated with it, research findings, and …

Algae management can be difficult on golf course putting greens. This presentation highlights various aspects of algae including: biology, problems associated with it, research findings, and management strategies.

Published in Education , Technology , Business
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  • I have a question regarding the accumulation of water in the sub grade under the greens complex. Using the standard specifications of 1 inch or more of gravel under the drainage pipe in the trenches in the sub grade allows for water to be left in the sub grade. Many times when the greens are constructed there is no allowances made in the front of the green where the drainage pipe leaves the greens mix and gravel and is completely encased in the native soil. The sub grade smiley drain area can be host to constant moisture because the native soil acts as a barrier to water that is under the drainage pipe in the gravel. What is the danger of pooling water in the sub grade. I am also curious why the USGA greens construction directions do not address this area of the green. In my opinion a smiley drain should be slightly under the sub grade so that the drain is the lowest point in the sub grade. Water that is allowed to remain in the gravel and keep the sub grade wet for extended periods of time seems like a liability. We have recently renovated our greens and we used USGA specifications completely. Unfortunately we are experiencing a major difficulty in the front of several greens. I had asked the architect and construction team to pay attention to the area where the drainage pipe meets the native soil and it was ignored. Do you have any photos of the drainage pipe and how it should be constructed for a total evacuation of all of the water from the green. Water wants to go to the lowest point. It seems that there should be something at the lowest point like a catch basin or vault that gives complete evacuation of all of the water in the sub grade. Any information you can provide would be very helpful. We are getting ready to dig up the front of our greens and try and add some drainage to try and remedy our failing front part of our greens.
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  • 1. Algae Management For Golf Course Putting Greens
    John Kaminski1 and John inguagiato2
    1Penn State University
    2University of Connecticut
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4. prokaryotic cyanobacteria
    blue-green algae
  • 5. chlorophyll
    release oxygen and photosynthesize
  • 6. phormidium & oscillatoria
    Tredway et al., 2006
  • 7. likely many species involved
    visual & molecular identification is difficult
  • 8. The Problem With Algae…
  • 9. subsurface slim mats
    develops in or below canopy
  • 10. mucilage production
    protection and h2o conservation
  • 11. algal crusts form in thinned turf
    impermeable to h2o
  • 12. scarification required
    promote infiltration and seedling germination
  • 13. © LP Tredway
    black layer
    anaerobic bacteria & hydrogen sulfide gas
  • 14. yellow spot
    associated with algae growth (Tredway et al., 2006)
  • 15. yellow spot & algae
    many questions remain unanswered
  • 16. Conditions promoting algae…
  • 17. water, water, water…
    excessive and/or at inopportune time
  • 18. shade or overcast skies
    almost guaranteed to develop algae
  • 19. poor soils
    from construction or self imposed
  • 20. poor drainage
    creating standing water, excessive moisture
  • 21. weak or thinned turf
    mechanical stress, diseases, chemicals, etc.
  • 22. all conditions together
    may or may not see algae
  • 23. Managing algae populations
    Fertility | Wetting Agents | Fungicides
  • 24. nitrogen sources
    applications of ammonium sulfate, urea, nitrates, others
  • 25. algae development on a putting green following repeated fertilizer applications, UMD 2003
    a
    a
    a
    b
    b
    b
    Fertilizers were applied (5-24 kg N/HA) every two weeks from June 2002 to November 2003
    b
    b
  • 26. 20-20-20
  • 27. Ammonium
    Sulfate
  • 28. Ammonium
    Sulfate
    a
    20-20-20
    a
  • 29. algae development on a putting green following repeated fertilizer applications, UMD 2003
    a
    a
    a
    b
    b
    b
    Fertilizers were applied (5-24 kg N/HA) every two weeks from June 2002 to November 2003
    b
    b
  • 30. impact of fertilizers on algae development on a golf course putting green, UConn 17 August 2010
    a
    a
    a
    b
  • 31. Impact of Fertility Summary
    Nitrogen Sources
    Ammonium Sulfate = Near Complete Suppression
    Others = Moderate Suppression
    20-20-20 = No Reduction
    Impact of Phosphorous
    No Impact in 2009-2010 Study
  • 32. chemical suppression
    fungicides, “fertilizers”, and wetting agents
  • 33. Serendipitous Algae Findings
    Observed Algae Reduction in Plots Treated With:
    Phosphites
    Wetting Agents
  • 34. Phosphate vs Phosphite
    Phosphate = Fertilizer
    Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4)
    Ex. K3PO4
    Phosphite ≠ Fertilizer
    Phosphorous Acid (H3PO3)
    Ex. K2HPO3
  • 35. Preventive suppression of algae on a golf course putting green, UConn 17 August 2010
    a
    a
    b
    b
    bc
    bc
    bc
    bc
    H3PO4 = Phosphate
    H3PO3 = Phosphite
    Phos = Phosphite-Based
    FT = “Fertilizer”
    FG = “Fungicide”
    bc
    c
    c
    c
  • 36. Preventive suppression of algae on a golf course putting green, UConn 17 August 2010
    Untreated
    Daconil
    3.4 fl oz
    14-day
  • 37. Preventive suppression of algae on a golf course putting green, UConn 17 August 2010
    Untreated
    Alude
    7.4 fl oz
    14-day
  • 38. Curative suppression of algae on a golf course putting green, UConn 17 August 2010
    a
    a
    b
    cd
    bcd
    H3PO4 = Phosphate
    H3PO3 = Phosphite
    Phos = Phosphite-Based
    FT = “Fertilizer”
    FG = “Fungicide”
    bc
    cd
    cd
    bc
    a
    d
    cd
  • 39. Summary of Phosphite Trials
    Traditional Fungicides Hard to Beat
    DaconilUltrex (Chlorothalonil)
    Protect (Mancozeb)
    Phosphites Suppress Algae
    Regardless of Intended Use (FT or FG)
    Preventive Better Than Curative
    Impact of Phosphite Rates?
  • 40. main effect of phosphate/phosphite rates on algae suppression on a bentgrass green, uconn 2010
    Treatments were applied every 14 days from 20 May to 26 August 2010.
  • 41. main effect of phosphate/phosphite types on algae severity on a bentgrass green, uconn 2010
    Treatments were applied every 14 days from 20 May to 26 August 2010. Data represent average of all titrations evaluated
  • 42. Summary of Titration Study
    All Phosphites Suppressed Algae
    Suppression Increased with Increased Phosphite Rates
    “Limited” Suppression with Phosphate
    High Rates Caused Minor Phytotoxicity with Repeated Applications (>10.9 kg a.i./HA)
  • 43. wetting agents
    preliminary field trial and greenhouse study
  • 44. Development of blue/green algae on a shaded putting green, 21 August 2006
  • 45. Development of blue/green algae on a shaded putting green, 21 August 2006
  • 46. Development of blue/green algae on a shaded putting green, 21 August 2006
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49.
  • 50. influence of wetting agents and fungicides on algae development in turf, uconn greenhouse 2010
  • 51. Summary of Wetting Agents
    Highly Variable/Conflicting Results
    Field vs. Greenhouse
    Among Wetting Agents
    In Combination With Fungicides
    Surfactants Creating “Dryer” Canopy Should Reduce Moisture and Possibly Algae
    More Work Needed
  • 52. Conclusion of Research Info
    Preventive Suppression Possible With Phosphites (≤10.9 kg H3PO3/HA)
    Moderate Curative Suppression
    Excellent Control with Chlorothalonil/Mancozeb
    Improve Turf Density With Adequate N-Fertility
    Impact of Phosphorous Conflicting
    Acidifying Fertilizers May Directly Reduce Algae
    Wetting Agent Importance Unclear
  • 53. Just Tell me what to do…
  • 54. improve light penetration
    selective or clear cut tree removal
  • 55. oxygenate the soil
    manage water infiltration, organic matter, etc.
  • 56. increase drainage
    easier to add water than to remove it
  • 57. increase drainage
    easier to add water than to remove it
  • 58. retrofitting existing greens
    installed after the fact with little disruption to play
    Courtesy XGD Systems
  • 59. manage moisture
    more fine-tuned information
  • 60. manage water applications
    more precision to maintain “enough” water
  • 61. nitrogen and n-sources
    ammonium sulfate, improve health, ↓ phosphorous?
  • 62. utilize available pesticides
    chlorothalonil & mancozeb as well as phosphites
  • 63. how much precision?
    every golf course is different. it’s up to you.
  • 64. www.turfdiseases.org
  • 65. Additional Questions?
    @johnkaminski