Mayer’s Multimedia Principles and The Cognitive Approach,
Their Implications on ESP Computing Course at the RCT
Presented by ALRASHIDI, J
1. The Cognitive Definition
2. The Assumption of a Cognitive of Multimedia Leaning
3. Some of the Multimedia Learning Principles
4. The Delivery System
5. Computing Lesson
6. The Conclusion
Cognitive Learning Theory
The cognitive theory is concerned with how people
represent knowledge in their minds. So, it is
interested in mental structures, and not just in
behavior like the behaviorism.
Some of The cognivists get inspired by electronic
computers and they model the human thinking as “
information processing”. They focus on how information
is input through the senses, held in memory, whether
short-term (RAM ) or long-term (ROM)
and then processed.
The cognitive theory emphasizes the need to
structure learning information in meaningful ways, in
logical related chunks, rather than presenting it as
large collection of discrete facts. This means relating
the new information with what is already known
facilitate understanding on the condition that
learners should not be overloaded when facing new
information so that they can retrieve the information
easily when needed.
Based on cognitive theory James Hartley ( 1998 ) identifies several
principles for learning:
Instruction should be clearly structured, showing the logical
relationships between key concepts
prior knowledge is important and new information must fit with it
to be effective.
individual differences in learning styles must be often considered.
feedback is important for the learners to know the results of
to sum up we can say that technological materials
3.Meet prior learners knowledge
4.Varied to cope up with different learning styles
5.Feedback is essential
The Assumption of a Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning
Human possess separate channels for processing visual and auditory information.
Accordingly, humans engage in active learning by attending to relevant incoming
information and represnting it mentally with other knowledge.
According to Mayer
“People learn better when multimedia messages are designed in ways that are
consistent with how the human mind works”.
Some of the Multimedia Learning Principles:
Students learn better from words and pictures than
from words alone.
In which one the message is clearer in 1 , 2 OR 3?
Individual Differences Principle:
Design effects are stronger for low-knowledge learners
than from high-knowledge learners and for high-spatial
learners than for low-spatial learners.
The Spatial Contiguity Principle:
Students learn better when corresponding words
and pictures are presented near rather than far
from each other on the page or screen.
Which example is capable of conveying a better mental image?
The Modality Principle:
Students learn better from animation and narration than from
animation and on-screen text.
The Delivery System:
Instructional delivery involves both human and technology systems.
Information Delivery Tools & modes:
Computing Lesson :
In this lesson the ESP students of
computing are asked to look to the
given picture and read the part
Multimedia and Spatial principles
The Computer System
The delivery system is an
illustration with printed words near
the corresponding parts.
The prior knowledge of the
students are put into account since
they are specialized in computing.
Feedback is given in real-time or on the
The Motherboard Parts
It is better to present an explanation in words and picture than
solely in words. In other words, presenting information in 2 modes
is better than in one mode ( Mayer & Anderson, 1991, 1992).
Students who read a text containing illustrations near
corresponding words are better in problem-solving than other
students who simply read the text ( Mayer, 1989; Mayer& Gallini,
Fletchar & Tobias, 2005 argued that learning and understanding
are enhanced by adding pictures to text rather than presenting a
We can say now the multimedia effects are onsistent
with a cognitive theory of multimedia learning
because students given multimedia explanations are
able to build two mental representations:
And build a logical connection between them.
Fletcher, J.D., & Tobias, S. (2005). The multimedia principle. In R.E.
Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (pp. 117134). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mayer, R.E., & Anderson R. B. (1992). The instructive animation:
Helping students build connections between words and pictures in
multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology.
By Mayer, Richard E.; Gallini, Joan K.
Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol 82(4), Dec 1990, 715726.
Hartley, J. (1998) Learning and Studying. A research
perspective, London: Routledge.