0
Department of Social Policy and Social Work

Does the Cultural Context Really Shape Welfare?
A Comparative Analysis
John H...
Department of Social Policy and Social Work

Background




‘Culture matters’ thesis
‘Macro’ perspective




‘Micro’ p...
Department of Social Policy and Social Work

In-Between Analysis


Jo (2011) culture as stable societal values






M...
Department of Social Policy and Social Work

Analytic Strategy


Extract examples of societal values:


Data from succes...
Department of Social Policy and Social Work

Analytic Strategy


Societal values used in OLS & MLM regression models


...
Department of Social Policy and Social Work

Analytic Strategy


Additional Independent Variables (Policy Contexts):


E...
Department of Social Policy and Social Work

Societal Values
Societal Value

Example Survey Item

Relgiosity

God is impor...
Department of Social Policy and Social Work

Public Opinion: individuals and poverty


Culture significantly improves mod...
Department of Social Policy and Social Work

Unemployment Spending: Share SOCX


Culture significantly improves models

...
Department of Social Policy and Social Work

Unemployment Spending: Share GDP


Remarkably consistent



Culture signifi...
Department of Social Policy and Social Work

Family Spending: Share GDP


Culture improves models but not significantly
...
Department of Social Policy and Social Work

Family Spending: Share SOCX


Culture improves models but not significantly ...
Department of Social Policy and Social Work

Problems with Spending…




Societal values impact on politically charged ...
Department of Social Policy and Social Work

Family Policy Structures


Considered maternity leave: replacement rate, len...
Department of Social Policy and Social Work

Conclusion


Shown value of in-between concept of culture


Facilitates emp...
Department of Social Policy and Social Work

--- END ---

spsw.york

@spsw
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Does the Cultural Context Really Shape Welfare? A Comparative Analysis - paper by John Hudson, Nam K. Jo and Antonia Keung presented to the UK Social Policy Association Annual Conference 2013, Sheffield, July 9th

311

Published on

Does the Cultural Context Really Shape Welfare? A Comparative Analysis

Presented to UK Social Policy Association Annual Conference 2013, Sheffield, July 9th

John Hudson*, Nam K. Jo* and Antonia Keung***

Abstract
Despite increasing attention recently paid to the role of culture within comparative welfare studies, empirical explorations of the impact of culture on social policy remain rare. One recent exception is Jo’s (2011) analysis of on an in-between level conception of culture based on the exploration of stable societal values using quantitative cross-national surveys of social values in high-income nations. In this paper we update and expand this framework by adding data from the most recent releases of the European Values Study and World Values Survey and by exploring a wider range of policy areas. In so doing, we address the underlining theoretical question of whether the cultural context really shapes welfare policies and conclude that there is strong evidence to support the ‘culture matters’ thesis.

Acknowledgements
This research is supported by ESRC award ES/J00460X/1

Author Contact Details
* Department of Social Policy and Social Work, University of York, UK. John Hudson: john.hudson@york.ac.uk.
** Department of Social Welfare, SungKongHoe University, South Korea. Nam K. Jo: namk.jo@skhu.ac.kr
*** Department of Social Policy and Social Work, University of York, UK. Antonia Keung: antonia.keung@york.ac.uk.

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
311
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Does the Cultural Context Really Shape Welfare? A Comparative Analysis - paper by John Hudson, Nam K. Jo and Antonia Keung presented to the UK Social Policy Association Annual Conference 2013, Sheffield, July 9th"

  1. 1. Department of Social Policy and Social Work Does the Cultural Context Really Shape Welfare? A Comparative Analysis John Hudson University of York, UK Nam K. Jo SungKongHoe University, South Korea Antonia Keung University of York, UK Award ES/J00460X/1 spsw.york @spsw
  2. 2. Department of Social Policy and Social Work Background   ‘Culture matters’ thesis ‘Macro’ perspective   ‘Micro’ perspective   Broad conception, dominant beliefs, often post hoc explanations Public opinion, specific issues, unstable Advances in data, concepts and method spsw.york @spsw
  3. 3. Department of Social Policy and Social Work In-Between Analysis  Jo (2011) culture as stable societal values    More concrete than macro More enduring than micro Cultural context of social policy making  Interplay of politics, economics, institutions and culture at meso-level  Not a decisive influence, but a significant one spsw.york @spsw
  4. 4. Department of Social Policy and Social Work Analytic Strategy  Extract examples of societal values:  Data from successive waves EVS/WVS data 1981-2009  173 societal cases • 59 countries x max 4 time points • 243,975 responses  Factor analysis of pooled data • manual inspection and reanalysis  End goal: identify stable and distinct examples of societal values  Built on work of Hofstede, Jo, Schwartz, van de Vijver et al spsw.york @spsw
  5. 5. Department of Social Policy and Social Work Analytic Strategy  Societal values used in OLS & MLM regression models   Models include OECD states only due to data limitations Dependent Variables (Policy Decisions):  Following Jo: public opinion data and spending data on contentious issues  ‘Old social risks’: perceptions of poverty • unemployment spending  Expand to ‘new social risks’: family policy spending • maternity leave policy  Exploit new data sources (OECD Family Policy Structures Database) spsw.york @spsw
  6. 6. Department of Social Policy and Social Work Analytic Strategy  Additional Independent Variables (Policy Contexts):  Economic context (GDP per capita, growth, unemployment)  Political context (cabinet composition)  Institutional context (welfare regime)  Five year averages (except values)  Stage I of analysis: fs/QCA to follow spsw.york @spsw
  7. 7. Department of Social Policy and Social Work Societal Values Societal Value Example Survey Item Relgiosity God is important in my life Conservative Social Norms Is divorce permissible? Permissive Values on Adherence to Laws Justifiable to cheat on taxes? Optimistic Values Satisfied with your life? Traditional Family Values Is marriage an out-dated institution? Interpersonal tolerance Would you not like heavy drinkers as your neigbours? Political Activeness Do you participate in lawful demonstrations? Political Orientedness Do you regularly discuss politics with friends? spsw.york @spsw
  8. 8. Department of Social Policy and Social Work Public Opinion: individuals and poverty  Culture significantly improves models  Religiosity +  Political activeness -  Condition, but not status of economy  Political impact puzzling?  Regimes play clear role spsw.york @spsw
  9. 9. Department of Social Policy and Social Work Unemployment Spending: Share SOCX  Culture significantly improves models  Inter-personal tolerance +  Political activeness -  Political orientedness +  Condition and status of economy matter  Regimes play muted role  Political context not significant spsw.york @spsw
  10. 10. Department of Social Policy and Social Work Unemployment Spending: Share GDP  Remarkably consistent  Culture significantly improves models  But significant societal values alter  Inter-personal tolerance still +  Political activeness and political orientedness shift  Permissive values on adherence to laws spsw.york @spsw
  11. 11. Department of Social Policy and Social Work Family Spending: Share GDP  Culture improves models but not significantly  Religiosity –  Regimes play muted role  Political context not significant  Status of economy matters  Less strong support for culture matters thesis… spsw.york @spsw
  12. 12. Department of Social Policy and Social Work Family Spending: Share SOCX  Culture improves models but not significantly for MLM  Again religiosity -  Conservative social norms +  Political and institutional contexts not significant  Status and condition (unemp) of economy matters  Less strong support for culture matters thesis… spsw.york @spsw
  13. 13. Department of Social Policy and Social Work Problems with Spending…    Societal values impact on politically charged normative debates Unemployment spending captures this well Family policy aggregates wide range of interventions e.g.:   Income supplements for lone parent and large families  Child care   In-work income top-ups for families with children   Universal child benefits Maternity leave Different normative debates for each Move away from focus on expenditure spsw.york @spsw
  14. 14. Department of Social Policy and Social Work Family Policy Structures  Considered maternity leave: replacement rate, length and FTE  Replacement rate:    Culture improves model but not significantly so Modest support for culture matters thesis? Length:  Culture improves model significantly  Largely the same for FTEs  Strong support for culture matters thesis… spsw.york @spsw
  15. 15. Department of Social Policy and Social Work Conclusion  Shown value of in-between concept of culture  Facilitates empirical investigation of culture matters thesis  Tentative findings – refinements and fs/QCA to follow  Limits to approach here:  Data driven • Examples of societal values • Weaknesses in models  Added support to culture matters thesis  Interesting tentative findings worthy of further exploration spsw.york @spsw
  16. 16. Department of Social Policy and Social Work --- END --- spsw.york @spsw
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×