African History SS7H1How did nationalism lead to independence in Kenya,Nigeria, and South Africa?
Nationalism in Kenya• controlled by Great Britain• Started the Mau Mau- a Kenyan secret society created to fight for rights and independence against the British.• Thousands were killed during the fighting between the British and the Mau Mau, causing the British to grant Kenya independence• Kenyans were given independence and elected their first President Jomo Kenyatta in 1963
Problems after independence of Kenya• President Kenyatta leader of the Kenyan African National Union, did not allow people who disagreed with him to be involved in government• Drought struck in the 1970s• Daniel arap Moi elected president in 1978• He often fixed elections and mistreated Kenyans
Nationalism in Nigeria• Controlled by the British• Made into two colonies a north and south, that separated ethnic groups• British spent more money (building schools and roads) in the south than the north part of Nigeria causing an uproar• Nigerian student groups and politicians struggled nonviolently with the British until independence was given in 1960
Problems after independence of Nigeria• Ethnic groups (Igbo and Yoruba) fought often due to northerners being Muslim and southerners being non-Muslim (Christian)• Nigeria’s military took control in 1960, killing many citizens• Nigeria’s oil reserves were valuable but it caused corruption and an unstable government so few benefitted while others remained poor
Colonization of South Africa• First colonized by the Netherlands (Dutch) also called the Boers.• When the British took over South Africa, the Dutch settlers moved North and they were fought by the African tribe called Zulus.• Gold and diamonds were discovered in South Africa after the British took control
Nationalism in South Africa• Non-white South Africans formed the African National Congress (ANC) to work for equal treatment and fight apartheid• Many countries set up an embargo against South African until they lifted apartheid• Nelson Mandela was elected President in 1994 and was South Africa’s first black president