Enterprise KnowledgebasesKnowledgebases are used to store information that is used between projects. Optimally,enterprise libraries should be maintained by business unit; however they may also bemaintained by business analyst as they define project requirements. The four enterpriselibraries are explained below. A business rule is a compact statement about some aspect of the business • Business Rules Business that serves as a constraint of what must or must not be done. Rules are organized in rule books and expressed using simple, clear language. They Rules should be accessible by all interested parties such as business process owners, business analysts, technical architects and so on. A business process is the set of steps a business performs to create value for • Business Process Business customers. A process consists of three components: inputs, activities, and Processes outputs. Stakeholder profiles are used to describe categories of individuals involved in • Stakeholder project such as the sponsor, customers, end-users, business subject matter Profile Stakeholder experts, and people involved in the design, development, implementation Profiles and support of the solution. Products are used to document the products and services that the • Product or Service organization delivers to the customer. This category can also be used for ITIL Description Products V3 Service Descriptions. In this case, the product and all of its projects with • Product Feature associated requirements become a Service Design Package. Roadmap 1
Three Level of Requirements (Generally recognized) Represent the high level objectives of the • Business Objectives organization. Business requirements describe • Project Vision and Scope Business why the system is being developed, • Project Constraints measurable business benefits that align with • Business Process DesignRequirements the organization’s vision, and any constraints • Business Rules that have been imposed on the project. User requirements describe what the users • Stakeholder Needs need to perform their tasks. They bridge the • Needs from Document Review gap between business requirements and • Business Rule Constraints User what the developers will build (system • Use CasesRequirements requirements). • User Stories • Scenario System requirements describe how the • Functional requirements business processes will be automated • Supplemental requirements (functional requirements) and the attributes • Test Cases System and constraints of the environment where • Requirement BundlesRequirements the system will operate (supplemental requirements). 2
Requirements Overview Business Requirements (Objectives and Constraints) BusinessProcess Analysis and User Requirements (Needs) Design Organizational Change Software & Training Requirements Requirements Organizational Design Systems Analysis and and Change Design Management 3
Avoiding ConfusionMany people seem to confuse the three because the work requirement is used in all three. Ee usethe following terms in the Requirements Excellence Framework:Business Objectives and Constraints Business Objective - Reduce delinquent accounts to 10% or less, within three months. Project Constraint - The software must be delivered by March 31st, 2012. Technical Constraint – The system must utilize the Oracle Database to comply with our standards.Needs User Need – As an accounting clerk, I need the ability to cancel transactions.Requirements Functional Requirement - System shall permit users to cancel transactions with an audit trail. Supplemental Requirement –-The system must be available 24 hours a day from Monday to Saturday.A statement about “how” the solution will work as opposed to “what” it is intended to do shouldbe captured in the Design Document. The statement below is not a requirement. “The Location shall be selected from a drop-down list” 4
Business Rules Project Feature Impact Process Category Rule Book Scope StatementBusiness rules are maintainedseparate from requirements. They Functional Supplemental Requirement Requirementare organized by rule book forvarious functional topics suchvacation and holiday leave, travel,customer service, etc.). Each rule Business Rule Related Rulesbook has a rule book owner. Rulebooks are ideally maintained by thebusiness. Rules may be linked torequirements. 5
Business Processes Process Category Feature Project Impact Process Group Scope Business Process Statement Process Impact Activity Functional Supplemental Requirement RequirementThe process structure is organized using During Process Analysis, impacts on Since software is used toAPQC’s Process Classification Structure existing business processes are provide automated support(PCF). The PCF was developed by APQC identified and documented . for a business process, it isand its member organizations as an open Depending on the size of the essential to understand howstandard to facilitate improvement project, AS IS and TO BE business the process is going to workthrough process management and process models may be created or before defining softwarebenchmarking, regardless of industry, size, updated. The business process requirements.or geography. The PCF organizes operating impacts are later used in theand management processes into 12 Project Scope Activity to defineenterprise-level categories, including scope statements which are usedprocess groups and over 1,000 processes to elicit needs from Stakeholders 6and associated activities. and specify requirements.
Stakeholders Stakeholder Stakeholder Project Profile Contact Contact Product Product Project Stakeholder Stakeholder ProjectProject Stakeholders and Project Stakeholder contacts areidentified during Stakeholder Analysis. Feature Stakeholder Needs are identified during Elicitation through a Impact variety of elicitation techniques such as web forms, Stakeholder Need interviews, observations and group discussion. They are captured using patterns and organized by Product Stakeholder and cope Statement. Scope User Stories are a special type of need often used on Agile User Story Statement projects. They are normally in the form of As…, I want to… so that I can ….. Stakeholders are linked to user stories via the As a … clause of the user story. Use Case Use Cases are developed by the analyst during Analysis to gain a better understanding of the sequence of events and 7 user involvement.
Products Project Product Feature Scope Feature Impact Statement Functional Supplemental Requirement RequirementProducts may be implemented many ways depending on the needs of the organization.For example, products could be applications, ITIL Services, or products or services soldto external customers. A project can impact one or many products. Defining scopestatements depends on having feature (Product) and Process impacts identified anddocumented. 8
Projects The Project, the Project Vision and Project ConstraintsStakeholders that are defined during the Project Vision activity.are impacted by theproject are Project Visionidentified during Projectthe Stakeholder Stakeholder ProjectAnalysis activity Project ConstraintsImpact on theproduct portfolio. Feature ImpactThese are identifiedduring the Project Business ObjectivesScope activity SMART business objectives are Scope documented during the Business Process ImpactBusiness process Statement Objectives activity.impact that areidentified anddocumented duringProcess Analysis. Requirement Functional Supplemental Requirement Requirement Management. Plan Functional requirements, supplemental requirements and The Requirement Management Plan related business rules are Related Rules defines the approach and set of developed during the tasks to complete Requirements Specification activity, Development and Management activities. 9
Requirements Development Scope Statements are defined in the Project Scope activity and Process Impacts are used to elicit needs and specify requirements. identified during Process Process Analysis and used to Impact define scope statements.Project Stakeholders are identified Scopeduring Stakeholder Analysis Impacts on products andand used to define stakeholder Statement Feature services are identified duringneeds and user stories. Project Impact Project Scope and are used tostakeholders are also used as actors create scope statements.in Use Cases. Supplemental Supplemental Requirements Stakeholder Need Requirement are created during Specification. Project User StoryStakeholder Functional Functional Requirements are created during Requirement Use Case Specification.Stakeholder Needs are User Stories are a special type Use Cases are Related Rulesidentified during Elicitation of need which are created developed by the analystthrough a variety of during Elicitation. during Analysis to gain a Related Rules are identifiedelicitation techniques such as better understanding of during Specification andweb forms, interviews, the sequence of events linked to a requirement.observations and group and user involvement.discussion. Note that Requirements Development is an iterative and incremental activity. Generally Elicitation, Analysis, Specification, and Validation go on concurrently. 10
Requirement Management Functional and Supplemental Stakeholder Need User Story Use Case Requirements are grouped into bundles. Associated User Stories, Use Cases Stakeholder Needs, and Related Related Rules Business Rules are included by Functional Supplemental reference. Requirement Requirement Lifecycle Events are identified based on the type of requirements in the bundle. Lifecycle Events include such things as Validation, Design Reviews, User Bundles Acceptance Testing, Code Inspections, Sprint Plans, etc. Lifecycle EventChange Requests DefectsAfter a bundle has Participants Test Scenarios Validations Requirement defectsbeen baselined, all are recorded andchanges, additions, Project Stakeholders Validations are performed tracked to ensure theyand deletions are participate in Test Cases to confirm such things as: are resolved.controlled and lifecycle events to • needs are addressed,tracked. perform tests and User Acceptance Tests • developers understand validations of the are defined to ensure the requirements, and requirements. that the solution meets • there is sufficient budget the defined to build the solution. requirements. 11