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Common Core Unpacking the Standards
 

Common Core Unpacking the Standards

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Description: In this session participants will learn how to choose the appropriate text to meet the Common Core Standards for text complexity and participants will engage in unpacking certain ELA ...

Description: In this session participants will learn how to choose the appropriate text to meet the Common Core Standards for text complexity and participants will engage in unpacking certain ELA standards and begin working to forge connections between what students know and what they need to be able to demonstrate per the CCSS. We are tasked with creating meaningful, relevant performance standards to help students of all levels achieve at their peak. Teaching in Chicago Public Schools, we know that the task is often daunting and roadblocks and mandates seem to throw us off track at every turn. Our aim is to devise work for students that respects their cultural background and diverse ability levels while scaling up students' intellectual skills to reflect their true academic competency.

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    Common Core Unpacking the Standards Common Core Unpacking the Standards Presentation Transcript

    • Unpacking theStandards andSelecting CommonCore-Aligned Texts forthe High School andMiddle School ELAClassroomAllison Dodson, NBCTJohn Kuijper, NBCTJohn Boggs, NBCT
    • Text ComplexityHow do I teach complex texts in analready complicated classroom?
    • How did we get here? -Everyone needs to read Appendix A of the Common Core Standards.-Essentially, according to a report from ACTcalled ―Reading Between the Lines,‖ studentsare not getting enough practice with complextexts. Also, the texts we’re reading in schoolhave ―trended downward‖ in the last halfcentury.
    • From ACT’s ―Reading Between the Lines‖the clearest differentiator was students’ ability to answerquestions associated with complex texts. Students scoring belowbenchmark performed no better than chance (25 percentcorrect) on four-option multiple-choice questions pertaining topassages rated as ―complex‖ on a three-point qualitative rubricdescribed in the report. These findings held for male and femalestudents, students from all racial/ethnic groups, and studentsfrom families with widely varying incomes. The most importantimplication of this study was that a pedagogy focused only on―higher-order‖ or ―critical‖ thinking was insufficient to ensure thatstudents were ready for college and careers: what studentscould read, in terms of its complexity, was at least as importantas what they could do with what they read.
    • How did we get here? Examples from my own life: -Use of Young Adult Lit. -Oprah Winfrey episode (1: 54) In this clip, Jane Smiley talks about her experience with Charles Dickens. Are our kids having these same experiences? How can we make sure our kids have these Experiences?
    • Ideas for Complex Texts? The standards call for complex texts, but they also suggest using short passages, allowing the students to reread the passage and go deep. • Legal opinions • Editorials • Epic poems • Scholarly journals • City Ordinances • Opening/Closing arguments
    • How can WE assess a textthat we’d like to use in ourclassroom for appropriate grade-level complexity?
    • By now, you’ve all seenthis?
    • Measuring Text Complexityincludes:1. Quantitative Measures: Fry Readability test, lexile.com, other online tools, etc.2. Qualitative Measures: A. Structure B. Levels of Meaning or Purpose C. Language Conventionality and Clarity D. Knowledge Demands3. Reader and Task Assessment: YOU are the best judge of what your students can manage.
    • Traditional Quantitative Measures forAssessing Readability• Counting the number of syllables in each word.• Counting the number of words in each sentence.• Determining a readability level based on those two variables.• Lexile.com
    • UnderstandingQualitativeMeasures:
    • Structure:Complicated text-structures (chronological, problem-solution, cause-effect, etc.) will addto a text’s complexity level. *Holes, by Louis Sachar Quantitative Measurement: 4.9 (Fry Readability value). Qualitative Measurement: Structure: Story continuously jumps back and forth between three different time periods/settings, and character groups. Adjusted text-complexity value: 5.9 – 7.5 for independent reading. Possible “Stretch-Text” : In order to challenge students’ reading capacity—stretching them to grow to a higher reading level-- teachers might have students read the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, (7.9) describing the effects of racism during the slavery period. Scaffolding needed: Teacher should provide critical backgound knowledge, along with teacher-directed reading of the text.
    • *Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger Quantitative Measurement: 5.9 (Fry Readability value). Qualitative Measurement: Structure: Narrated as a series of memories through the point of view of an ―unreliable narrator‖ with many emotional insecurities, who provides continual commentary and judgments about the events he describes. Adjusted text-complexity value (plus mature content): 9.0 – 10.5. Possible “Stretch Texts” : Other psychological studies, such as Hamlet (10.5– 12.0) by William Shakespeare.
    • Levels of Meaning or Purpose:Texts that contain multiple levels of meaning or purpose (connotative or implicit language, satirein narrative texts; informational texts with implicit purposes) have a greater text complexity thantexts with a singular meaning or purpose. The Sun Also Rises by Ernest Hemingway Quantitative Measurement (Fry): 5.8 Qualitative Measurement: Hemingway use images and word choice to convey emotion rather than describing it; words are sparse but and have multiple connotative meanings; the novel as the story contains multiple themes. Adjusted text-complexity value: 11.5+ Similar “stretch-texts”: The poems of Emily Dickinson (11.5+) and Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison (12+) also use sparse, precise word choice with multiple connotations.
    • Levels of Meaning or Purpose:Animal Farm by George Orwell Quantitative Measurement (Fry): 7.3 Qualitative Measurement: Orwell uses political satire -- the explicit purpose is different from the implicit purpose. Adjusted text-complexity value: 11 Similar “stretch-texts”: Catch-22 by Joseph Heller (12+), ―A Modest Proposal‖ by Jonathan Swift (11+), The Devil’s Dictionary by Ambrose Bierce (12+). The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck Quantitative Measurement (Fry): 4.9 Qualitative Measurement: The heavy use of symbolism and allusion result in multiple inferences and author commentaries. Adjusted text-complexity value: 9-10 Similar “stretch-texts”: ―The Yellow Wallpaper‖ by Charlotte Perkins Gilman (10), ―Hills Like White Elephants‖ by Ernest Hemingway (11), The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald. (10-11).
    • Language Conventionality & Clarity:Texts that rely on literal, clear, contemporary, and conversational language tend to be easier toread than texts that rely on figurative, ironic, ambiguous, purposefully misleading, archaic orotherwise unfamiliar language or on general academic and domain-specific vocabulary.• Examples: – Shakespeare – Arcane classics – Medieval, Puritan, or other dialects/ language patterns The actual reading level is not difficult, but due to unfamiliar language patterns and old-fashioned language, the reading becomes more difficult.
    • Knowledge Demands*Chew on This, by Eric Schlosser Quantitative Measurement: 8.7 (Fry Readability value). Qualitative Measurement: Knowledge Demands: History of fast food; familiarity with food industry and the role that government and politics play in this industry; lasting and ongoing impact of fast food on our country and on our health;the correlation between fast food and poverty.Adjusted text-complexity value: 10-11.
    • Knowledge DemandsPossible “Stretch Texts” : Other books that address the history of fast food and the impact of choices on the overall value of life—Nickel and Dimed, by Barbara Ehrenreich (11+); Fast Food Nation, by Eric Schlosser (11+); The Jungle, by Upton Sinclair (10+)
    • Knowledge DemandsSpecific examples:• Life Experiences/Cultural/Literary/Content & Discipline Knowledge – Simple theme vs. complex or sophisticated theme – Single theme vs. multiple themes – Single perspective vs. multiple perspectives – Perspective(s) like one’s own vs. perspective(s) unlike or in opposition to one’s own – Everyday knowledge vs. cultural and literary knowledge – Few allusions to other texts vs. many allusions to other texts – Low intertextuality (few or no references to other texts)vs. high intertextuality (many references or citations to other texts)
    • How to incorporate complex textsinto classroom?• Teachers should model active reading. - Think aloud• It’s all about establishing a purpose and letting students know why this is a valuable skill.• Remember Vygotsky. You are the more knowledgeable other. Meet the kids where they are at and take them higher.• Establish purpose—tell students
    • When faced with a U.S. Supreme Court decision, an epic poem, or an ethical treatise—works characterized bydense meanings, elaborate structure, sophisticated vocabulary, and subtle authorial intentions—college-readystudents plod through them. Unready students falter.Does the gap widen because unready students dont have the intelligence or background knowledge tounderstand complex texts? To some extent perhaps, but ACT suggests that the difficulty lies just as much instudents lack of experience and practice with reading complex texts. ACT asserts, "The type of text students areexposed to in high school has a significant impact on their readiness for college-level reading" (p. 23). The morestudents are exposed to complex texts, the more they realize that they cant complete their studies through "asingle superficial reading" (p. 24). Complex texts require a slower labor. Readers cant proceed to the nextparagraph without grasping the previous one, they cant glide over unfamiliar words and phrases, and theycant forget what they read four pages earlier. They must double back, discern ambiguities, follow trickytransitions, and keep a dictionary close at hand. Complex texts force readers to acquire the knack of slow linearreading. If they rarely encounter complex texts, young students wont even realize that such a reading tack is anecessary means of learning. Unready students might be just as intelligent and motivated as the ready ones are,but they dont possess the habits and strategies needed to carry on.