Anaplasma

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Anaplasma

  1. 1. THEILERIOSIS <ul><li>Three spp. of Theileria </li></ul><ul><li>Theileria parva – East Coast Fever </li></ul><ul><li>T. annulata – Bovine Tropical Theilariosis – In India </li></ul><ul><li>T. mutans – Benign Bovine Theileriosis </li></ul><ul><li>T. annulata – Cattle, yak buffalo (milder infection) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Bos indicus X Bos taurus
  3. 3. Transmission: Various spp. of Ticks – Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum H. dromedarii, H. marginatum, H. detritum
  4. 5. Epidemiology : <ul><li>1) All age group exotic and cross bred are highly susceptible </li></ul><ul><li>2) Young indigenous calves highly susceptible </li></ul><ul><li>3) Indigenous cattle and buffaloes –inherent resistant </li></ul><ul><li>4) Favourable climate and habitat for the survival of ticks, responsible for transmission </li></ul><ul><li>5) Bos Taurus X Bos indicus crosses susceptible to the disease </li></ul><ul><li>6) Adult indigenous cattle are generally do not suffer clinically but are the constant source of infection </li></ul>
  5. 6. Diagnosis : <ul><li>Clinical simptoms, knowledge of the disease and tick distribution of the area </li></ul><ul><li>1) Clinical symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>a) High rise of temp.(40.5 0 C to 41.5 0 C). Theileriosis should be suspected in tick infested animals with fever. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Prepatent period – attachment of ticks to onset of fever 10-13 days </li></ul><ul><li>c) Enlargement of prescapular lymph nodes </li></ul>
  6. 7. Enlargement of prescapular lymph nodes
  7. 8. <ul><li>d) Decreased rumination </li></ul><ul><li>e) Decrease of temp. and development of anaemia with high coloured urine in later stage </li></ul><ul><li>f) Reduced milk yield and may abortion </li></ul><ul><li>g) Constipation / diarrhoea </li></ul><ul><li>h) Lies neck curved back to the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>i) The course of the disease from fever to death ranges from 1-2 wks. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>2. Exam. of Giemsa-stained blood and lymph node smears </li></ul><ul><li>a) Detection of schizonts in WBC and piroplasms in RBC </li></ul><ul><li>b) Schizont is a characteristic diagnostic feature of acute infections </li></ul><ul><li>* Negative results of microscopic examination of blood films do not exclude latent infection </li></ul>
  9. 10. Peripheral blood smear with Theileria spp.
  10. 11. <ul><li>3. P.M. Lesions </li></ul><ul><li>a) Enlargement of lymph nodes </li></ul><ul><li>b) Enlargement of liver and spleen </li></ul><ul><li>c) Numerous ulcers in the m.m. of the abomasums </li></ul><ul><li>d) Schizonts may be found in impression smears from most internal organs </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Collection of materials </li></ul><ul><li>a) Blood and lymph node biopsies should be submitted for the detection of Theileria schizont </li></ul><ul><li>b) Blood or buffy coat smears and lymph node impressions should be air dried and fixed in methanol </li></ul><ul><li>c) Lymph node, spleen, liver should be collected for histopathology </li></ul><ul><li>d) Serum for serological tests </li></ul>
  12. 13. Stained impression smear from an enlarged lymph node of a cow with Theileriosis.
  13. 14. <ul><li>4. Serological Tests </li></ul><ul><li>a) CFT </li></ul><ul><li>b) IFAT </li></ul><ul><li>c) ELISA </li></ul><ul><li>d) EITB </li></ul><ul><li>5) PCR </li></ul>
  14. 15. BABESIOSIS <ul><li>‘ Tick borne’ haemoprotozoan disease </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle Worldwide– B. bovis, B. bibemina, B. divergens, B. major </li></ul><ul><li>India – B. bovis and B. bigemina </li></ul><ul><li>First reported in India by Lingard and Jennins (1904) – Buffalo </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission : 1) Boophilus spp. </li></ul><ul><li>Hyalomma, Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor, Ixodes spp. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Blood transfusion, vaccination </li></ul>
  15. 16. Life cycle
  16. 17. <ul><li>Epidemiology : </li></ul><ul><li>1) Young animals suffer less </li></ul><ul><li>2) Adult – Acute and chronic forms </li></ul><ul><li>3) Recovered animals – immune for life </li></ul><ul><li>4) Indigenous cattle tend to be more resistant than exotic cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Zoonotic importance: </li></ul><ul><li>Several human cases of babesiosis have been recorded </li></ul>
  17. 18. DIAGNOSIS <ul><li>A. Clinical symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>1) Acute disease generally runs for about 1 week </li></ul><ul><li>2) The first sign is fever (105.80F) </li></ul><ul><li>3) Inappetance </li></ul><ul><li>4) Anaemia </li></ul><ul><li>5) Weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>6) Haemoglobinurea </li></ul><ul><li>7) CNS involvement </li></ul><ul><li>8) Late term pregnant animal may abort </li></ul><ul><li>9) Bulls may undergo temporary infertility </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>B. Examination of thin blood smears </li></ul><ul><li>a) Blood should be collected from tip of the ear or tail </li></ul><ul><li>b) Jugular blood EDTA (1 mg/ml) </li></ul><ul><li>c) Kept cool (5 0 C)- until delivery to the Lab. (preferably within hours of collection) </li></ul><ul><li>d) Stain blood films as soon as possible to ensure proper stain definition </li></ul><ul><li>e) Unstained blood smears should not be stored with formalin solutions as it may affect staining quality </li></ul>
  19. 20. Babesis bigemina parasites in two erythrocytes (top left and bottom right)
  20. 21. Diagram of Giemsa stained Babesia bovis infected erythrocytes.
  21. 22. <ul><li>C. Exam. of P.M. materials </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of samples from dead animals </li></ul><ul><li>a) Thin blood films as well as smears from </li></ul><ul><li>b) Cerebral cortex </li></ul><ul><li>c) Kidney </li></ul><ul><li>d) liver </li></ul><ul><li>e) Lung </li></ul><ul><li>f) Unreliable if death occurred 24 hours previously </li></ul>
  22. 23. Giemsa stained liver impression smear from B. bovis field case. Note clumping of infected erythrocytes (X1000)
  23. 24. <ul><li>E. Animal inoculation test – Splenectomized calf </li></ul><ul><li>F. Serological Tests </li></ul><ul><li>a) IFAT </li></ul><ul><li>b) ELISA </li></ul><ul><li>c) PCR </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Anaplasmosis – Form of ‘Tick Fever’ </li></ul><ul><li>A. marginale , A. centrale (sometimes) </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoan Parasite </li></ul><ul><li>Family: Anaplasmataceae (Since 1957) </li></ul><ul><li>Order :Rickettsiales </li></ul><ul><li>Genera : Anaplasma, Aegyptianella Haemobartonenella, Eperythrozoan </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by High fever & progressive anaemia </li></ul>ANAPLASMOSIS
  25. 26. Transmission <ul><li>Ticks ( Boophilus, Dermacentor, </li></ul><ul><li>Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma ) </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical transmission – Dipteran Flies </li></ul><ul><li>Transplacental Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminated needle </li></ul>
  26. 27. Epidemiology <ul><li>All ages of cattle may become infected but the severity of illness increases with age. </li></ul><ul><li>6 months to 3 yrs – increasingly ill </li></ul><ul><li>> 3 yrs – 30-50% die </li></ul><ul><li>After recovery- Chronic </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate treatment – carrier </li></ul><ul><li>Carriers rarely become ill in second time </li></ul><ul><li>Unidentified carriers – source of infection for future outbreak </li></ul><ul><li>Outbreaks related – Lack of control programme, the ratio between anaplasmosis carriers, the amount of vector </li></ul><ul><li>Serious illness – with no previous exposure </li></ul>
  27. 28. Diagnosis <ul><li>1) By clinical symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>a) In cattle the incubation period varies from 15-45 days or more after tick infection </li></ul><ul><li>b) Experimentally: C.B. – 24 Days, Indigenous cattle – 29 Days </li></ul><ul><li>c) High rise of Temp (40.50C) </li></ul><ul><li>d) Constipation </li></ul><ul><li>e) Decrease milk yield </li></ul><ul><li>f) May be abortion </li></ul><ul><li>g) Anaemic </li></ul><ul><li>h) Jaundice but no haemoglobinurea </li></ul><ul><li>2) Exam. of thin blood smears </li></ul>
  28. 29. Anaplasma marginale in bovine bloodg, located near the margin oferythrocytes.
  29. 30. <ul><li>3) Animal sub-inoculation Test </li></ul><ul><li>4) Spleenectomy </li></ul><ul><li>5) Serological Tests </li></ul><ul><li>a) Complement Fixation Test </li></ul><ul><li>b) Capillary Tube Agglutination Test </li></ul><ul><li>c) FAT </li></ul><ul><li>d) Card Agglutination Test </li></ul><ul><li>e) ELISA </li></ul><ul><li>6) PCR </li></ul>

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