All effective instruction requires careful planning. Teaching with instructional media and technology is certainly no exception. The ASSURE model is a procedural guide for planning and conducting instruction that incorporates media and technology. The ASSURE model focuses on planning surrounding the actual classroom use of media and technology. It is less ambitious than models of instruction development, which are intended to guide the entire process of designing instructional systems. Such models include the procedures of the ASSURE model and the processes of needs analysis, subject matter analysis, product design, prototype tryout, system implementation and the like. The ASSURE model, on the other hand, is meant for the individual instructor to use when planning classroom use of media and technology.
If instructional media and technology are to be used effectively, there must be a match between the characteristics of the learner and the content of the methods, media, and materials. Therefore, the first step is analysis of the learners. You cannot analyze every trait of your learners, but several factors are critical for making good methods and media decisions. General characteristics include broad identifying descriptors such as age, grade level, job or position, and cultural or socioeconomic factors. Specific entry competencies refer to knowledge and skills that learners either possess or lack: prerequisite skills, target skills, and attitudes. Learning style refers to the spectrum of psychological traits that affect how we perceive and respond to different stimuli, such as anxiety, aptitude, visual or auditory preference, and motivation.
What learning outcome is each learner expected to achieve? More precisely, what new capability should learners possess at the completion of instruction? An objective is not a statement of what the instructor plans to put into the lesson but of what learners ought to get out of the lesson. An objective is a statement of what will be achieved, not how it will be achieved. You must know your objectives in order to make appropriate selection of methods and media. Your objectives will guide your sequence of learning activities and your choice of media. Knowing your objectives will also commit you to create a learning environment in which the objectives can be reached. Objectives also help insure proper evaluation. You won’t know whether your students have achieved an objective unless you are absolutely sure what that objective is. If objectives are clearly and specifically stated, learning and teaching become objective oriented. Should be as specific as possible. ABCDs of Objectives – Audience, Behavior, Conditions, Degree A well-stated objective starts by naming the audience for whom the objective is intended. It then specifies the behavior or capability to be demonstrated and the conditions under which the behavior or capability will be observed. Finally, it specifies the degree to which the new skill must be mastered—the standard by which the capability can be judged.
A systematic plan for using media and technology certainly demands that the methods, media, and materials be selected systematically in the first place. The selection process has three steps: 1) deciding on the appropriate method for the given learning tasks, 2) choosing a media format that is suitable for carrying out the method and 3) selecting, modifying, or designing specific materials within that media format.
Never use instructional materials without previewing them first. During the selection process you should determine that the materials are appropriate for your audience and objectives. Prepare the media and materials to support the instructional activities you plan to use. Gather all the materials and equipment that you and the students will need. Determine in what sequence you will use the materials and media. Some teachers keep a list of the materials and equipment needed for each lesson and an outline of the presentation sequence of the activities. Practice using the materials and equipment. Prepare the environment so proper student use of the materials and media is possible. Some media require a darkened room, a convenient power source, and access to light switches. Check that equipment is in working order. Prepare learners – inform them of objectives; give broad overview, rationale telling how it relates to topic being studied, motivating statement that creates a need to know, or cues directing attention to specific aspects of the lesson. Conduct – Must direct attention in the classroom
Active participation enhances learning. Effective learning demands active manipulation of information by learners. Feedback is important. It can come from oneself (e.g., experiencing the “feel” of swinging a golf club), from print sources (turning to the back of the book to find the correct answer), from a device (computer provides corrective statement), or from others. Most powerful is interpersonal feedback because face-to-face reactions are more vivid than printed or graphic. The most effective learning situations are those that require learners to practice skills that build toward the objective. Learners should received feedback from the teacher or peers (small groups).
There are many purposes for evaluation – assessing learner achievement and evaluating methods and media Evaluation is ongoing. Evaluations are made before, during, and after instruction. For example, before instruction, you would measure learner characteristics to ensure that there is a fit between existing student skills and the methods and materials you intend to use. In addition, materials should be appraised prior to use. During instruction, evaluation may take the form of student practice with feedback or it may consist of a short quiz or self-evaluation. During instruction, evaluation usually has a diagnostic purpose; that is, it is designed to detect and correct learning/teaching problems and difficulties with the instruction that may interfere with student achievement. At the end, it is the starting point for the next cycle. Look at the results and make revisions.
The ASSURE Model
The ASSURE Model <ul><li>A nalyze learners </li></ul><ul><li>S tate objectives </li></ul><ul><li>S elect methods, media, and materials </li></ul><ul><li>U tilize media and materials </li></ul><ul><li>R equire learner participation </li></ul><ul><li>E valuate and revise </li></ul>
State Objectives <ul><li>Be specific </li></ul><ul><li>State terms of what student will be able to do </li></ul><ul><li>Include conditions and degree of acceptable performance </li></ul>
Select Methods, Media, and Materials <ul><li>Decide on appropriate method </li></ul><ul><li>Choose suitable format </li></ul><ul><li>Select available materials </li></ul><ul><li>Modify existing materials </li></ul><ul><li>Design new materials </li></ul>
Utilize Media and Materials <ul><li>Preview and practice </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare class and ready equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare learners </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct instruction </li></ul>
Require Learner Participation <ul><li>Active mental engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Allow learners to practice </li></ul><ul><li>Provide feedback </li></ul>
Evaluate and Revise <ul><li>Evaluate impact and effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Assess student learning </li></ul><ul><li>Revise wherever there are discrepancies </li></ul>