Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Study of the genetic diversity of the genus Passiflora L. and its distribution in Colombia
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Study of the genetic diversity of the genus Passiflora L. and its distribution in Colombia

1,614
views

Published on

Workshop Ginés-Mera fellowship , Cali - Colombia (may 12, 13 and 14) …

Workshop Ginés-Mera fellowship , Cali - Colombia (may 12, 13 and 14)
Presentation by John Ocampo

Published in: Education, Technology

1 Comment
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • I am not able to open it after downloading. A zip file gets download but there are xml files.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,614
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
36
Comments
1
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Study of the genetic diversity of the genus Passiflora L. and its distribution in Colombia
    John Ocampo
    École Supérieure d’Agronomie de Montpellier
    Université de Montpellier II
    Ph.D.
    ocampo.john@gmail.com
  • 2. People involved in the study
    CIRAD
    • Philippe FELDMANN
    • 3. Geo COPPENS d’EECKENBRUGGE
    • 4. Ange-Marie RISTERUCCI
    BIOVERSITY INTERNATIONAL – CIAT
    • Andrew JARVIS
    • 5. Xavier SCHELDEMAN
    Ginés-Mera Fellowship
  • 6. Context
    • Genetic resources in Colombia (cultivated species)
    • 7. Passion fruit priorities:
    - Collection and characterization
    - Taxonomy problems
    - Conservation problems
  • 8. General objective
    To study the genetic diversity of the genus Passiflora L. and its biogeographic distribution in Colombia.
  • 9. Specific objectives
    • To map the distribution and the diversity of Colombian Passifloraceae species using Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
    • 10. To characterize the morphologic and molecular diversity at inter- and intra-specific levels.
    • 11. To evaluate the potential of Passiflora as an indicator group to evaluate the risks of biodiversity erosion and take them into account in the development of strategies for in situ genetic resources.
  • Introduction
    1. Taxonomy
    2. Reproduction Biology
    3. Distribution
    4. Uses
    5. Cultivated species
  • 12. 1. Passifloraceae family Taxonomy
    18 genera
    ca. 650 species
    America
    Africa
    Asia
    Killip (1938)
    22 subgenera
    GenusPassifloraL.
    ca. 573 species
    America
    Asia
    Feuillet & McDougal (2003)
    4 subgenera
    Astrophea DecalobaDeidamioides Passiflora
  • 13. Subgenus ASTROPHEA (Feuillet & MacDougal, 2003)
    • Astrophea
    - Arborescent
    - American
    - 2n = 24
    Killip (1938)
  • 14. SubgenusDECALOBA (Feuillet & MacDougal, 2003)
    - Climbers
    - America
    South Asia and Australia
    - 2n = 12, 24, 36, 72
    Killip (1938)
  • 19. SubgenusPASSIFLORA (Feuillet & MacDougal, 2003)
    - Climbers
    Killip (1938)
    - American
    - 2n = 18, 20 (Dysosmia)
  • 24. SubgenusDEIDAMIOIDES (Feuillet & MacDougal)
    • Deidamioides
    • 25. Tryphostemmatoides
    - Climbers
    - American
    - 2n = ??
    Killip
  • 26. 2. Biology of reproduction
    • Allogamous: cross-pollination
    • 27. Cytogenetic:2n = 12, 18, 20, 24, 36, 72
    x = 6 y 9
    • Heredability:paternal / biparental
    Muschner et al. (2006) Hansen et al. (2007)
    • Heteroplasmy
    Mráček (2005)
  • 28. Pollinationsyndromes
  • 29. 3. Distribution of thegenusPassifloraL.
    22 species
    Subg. Decaloba
  • 30. 4. Uses
    Other…
    Ornamental
    Food
    Pharmacopeia
    Liquors
    Medicinal
  • 31. 5. Cultivatedspecies in Colombia
  • 32. Economic importance – International markets
    P. edulis f. flavicarpa
    Yellow maracuja - Maracuyá
    P. ligularis
    Sweet granadilla
    P. edulis f. edulis
    Purple maracuja - Gulupa
  • 33. Economic importance – International markets
    P. tripartita var. mollissima
    Curuba de Castilla
    P. tarminiana
    Curuba India
    P. maliformis
    Cholupa
  • 34. Economic importance – International markets
    P. quadrangularis
    Giant granadilla - Badea
    P. popenovii
    Granadilla de Quijos
    P. alata
    Maracuja doce
  • 35. Study Components
    I- Diversity distribution in Colombia (GIS)
    1.a. Biogeography and conservation
    1.b. Potential distribution and adaptation
    II- Morphological diversity (descriptors)
    III- Genetic diversity (CAPS – DNAcp/mt)
  • 36. I – Diversity Distribution in Colombia (SIG)
    1a. Biogeography and conservation of Colombian Passifloraceae
    .
  • 37. Reported species
    HERBARIA
    National
    PSO - HAU - COL - FAUC - CUVC - FMB
    VALLE - MEDEL - CHOCO – TOLI - CAUP
    AFP - UIS – CDMB - COAH – JAUM - HUQ
    SURCO
    Foreign
    P : Museum d’Histoire Naturelle – Paris – France
    MO : Missouri Botanical Garden – USA
    MA : Real Jardin Botánico – Madrid – Espagne
    K :Kew Garden – London - Grande-Bretagne
    NY : New York Botanical Garden– USA
    LITERATURE
    Killip (1938, 1960), Escobar (1988, 1989) etc.
    3.375 georeferenced data
  • 38. Maximum Diversity in the American Andean Region, especially in Colombia and Ecuador
    Diversity Centre
    Diversity distribution of the American Passion Fruits
    3.375 georeferenced data
    16
    4
    23.5º N
    167 reported species (26 new species for the country)
    Tropic of Cancer
    20
    14
    20
    70
    15
    17
    10
    10
    18
    55
    25
    13
    78
    31
    48
    53
    30
    32
    36
    167

    90
    127
    73
    48
    Tropic of Capricorn
    2
    16
    -23.5º S
    19
    3
  • 39. Species spatial distribution
    High density in the central mountain region.
    Low density North-East and South of the Andes.
    Very marked low density in lowlands, especially in the Orinoquian and Amanzonian regions.
    DIVA-GIS software
  • 40. Expeditions and collected samples
    • Species area richness and collection gaps
    • 41. Access permits (MMA - Ministerio del Medio Ambiente)
    • 42. Public order
    555 collections from 17 of 32 departments
    TOTAL : 3.930 OBSERVATIONS
  • 43. Elevation
    Species distribution by Biogoegraphic region
    Caribbean (38)
    Diversity concentrated in the Andean Region
    Pacific (36)
    Andes (123)
    Orinoquia (19)
    Amazonia (44)
  • 44. Pacific
    Andes
    Caribbean
    Amazonia
    Orinoquia
    Colombian Biogeography & Passifloracea Species
  • 45. Passifloraceae distribution in Colombia
    (Maximum Distance vs. Circular Area)
    Species of continental distribution
    Species of regional distribution and common endemic species
    R2= 0.779
    P. vitifolia
    P. foetida
    P. auriculata
    P. quadrangularis
    P. nitida
    P. maliformis
    P. mollis
    P. mixta
    Endemic species
    P. cumbalensis
    P. menispermifolia
    P. ligularis
    P. suberosa
    P.arborea
    P. oerstedii
    P. capsularis
    P. seemannii
    P. coriaceae
    P.misera
    P. biflora
    P. spinosa
    P..coccinea
    P. rubra
    P. antioquiensis
    P. micropetala
    P. serratodigitata
    P. involucrata
    D. parviflora
    1000
    400
  • 46. f. Threat status of Passifloraceae
    • Circular area CA50
    • 47. Maximum Distance MaxD
    • 48. Number of records
    • 49. Date of records
    UICN Categories
    EX:Extinct
    EW:Extinct in the wild
    CR:Critically endangered
    EN:Endangered
    VU:Vulnerable
    NT:Near threatened
    LC:Least concern
    DD:Deficient Data
  • 50. 1. Diversity and potentiel distribution
    1b. Diversity distribution and in situ conservation of the Colombians Passifloraceae.
  • 51. Software DIVA-GIS
    Speciesrichness and diversity
    Herbarium data: 3.330
    Literature data: 45
    Collection data: 555
    3.930 georeferenced data
  • 52. 1
    2
    Nine ultra- diverse zones in the Andes, four sub-explored (1, 6, 8, 9)
    3
    4
    Species richness
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
    Species potential distribution
    “Hotspot”
    Software DIVA-GIS
  • 53. Protectedareas
    In situ conservation
    “Hotspot”
  • 54. Ultra-diverse zones vs. Coffee growing ecotopes
    Small reserves and micro-basin management
    Conservation strategies
    • Corridor creation
    • 55. Crop systems
    Software DIVA-GIS
  • 56. Conclusions
    • The highest number of species are located between 1.000 and 2.000 m in fragmentation forests.
    • 57. Nine ultra-diverse (hotspot) and non-protected zones in the Andes.
    • 58. There is no geographic relation between richness and endemism.
    • 59. There is a need for urgent conservation strategies.
    • 60. Of the 167 recorded species, 42 have edible fruits and most are not used.
  • II. Morphological diversity in the genus Passiflora L.
  • 61. Collection and characterization (ex situ conservation)
    • Collections
    • 62. Tenerife (El Cerrito – Valle del Cauca) – 2800 m
    • 63. El Moral (El Cerrito – Valle del Cauca) – 2400 m
    • 64. San Joaquín (El Tambo – Cauca) – 1800 m
    • 65. Paraguacito (Buenavista – Quindío) – 1250 m
    • 66. Arauca (Risaralda – Caldas) – 1000 m
    • 67. In situ (collections)
    • 68. Plant material
    124 accessions
    60 species
    9 subgenera (Killip, 1938)
  • 69. List of 127 descriptors
  • 70. Relative variance components – Quantitative characters
    50
  • 71. d. Factor loadings from a Principal Component Analysis - PCA
    COMPONENTS
    Descriptors
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    ACP - Factor loadings
    83% total variance
    -0.088
    0.215
    -0.023
    0.041
    -0.892
    STDI
    0.759
    LEMS
    0.353
    0.365
    0.152
    0.041
    LELC
    0.019
    0.571
    -0.686
    0.009
    -0.195
    -0.017
    0.040
    0.011
    0.014
    LENN
    0.962
    PENN
    0.648
    0.407
    0.013
    -0.055
    0.158
    0.135
    -0.287
    0.010
    0.145
    PDDI
    0.847
    PDLF
    -0.943
    -0.054
    -0.136
    -0.007
    -0.044
    -0.054
    -0.113
    -0.006
    -0.046
    PDBS
    -0.973
    BRLR
    0.723
    0.296
    0.186
    -0.091
    0.240
    FLPL
    0.774
    0.501
    -0.021
    0.235
    0.042
    Cp.1: Flower length
    0.595
    -0.024
    0.095
    0.028
    FLPW
    0.713
    FLSL
    0.716
    0.577
    0.036
    0.243
    -0.028
    0.520
    0.034
    0.074
    -0.108
    FLSW
    0.754
    Cp.2: Flower width and bract shape
    FLLE
    0.960
    0.179
    0.045
    0.017
    0.090
    0.063
    0.086
    -0.100
    0.119
    0.904
    FLHL
    FLHL
    0.824
    0.208
    0.026
    -0.080
    -0.137
    FLCN
    0.723
    -0.521
    0.034
    -0.007
    -0.329
    Cp.3: Stem with, peduncle branching and leaf length
    0.529
    0.651
    0.082
    0.097
    0.171
    FLFL
    FLSF
    0.677
    0.658
    0.076
    0.061
    -0.049
    0.454
    0.693
    0.067
    0.073
    0.263
    FLOL
    0.064
    0.047
    0.033
    0.099
    0.964
    FLSL
    0.236
    0.099
    0.363
    0.214
    0.711
    FLOP
    Cp.4:Number of nectaries on leaf margin
    -0.160
    -0.221
    -0.131
    0.241
    BRWI/BRLE
    0.718
    0.699
    FLNC/FLHD
    0.056
    0.042
    0.043
    0.368
    Expl.Var
    7.610
    6.496
    3.336
    1.256
    1.238
    Prp.Totl
    0.317
    0.271
    0.139
    0.052
    0.052
    Cp.5:Leaf serration
    % total varianza
    46.028
    16.999
    11.138
    4.913
    3.986
  • 72. Manicata
    Distephana
    PCA – Three-dimensional plot of the scores for Passiflora accessions
    Tacsonia
    Passiflora
    Psilanthus
    Dysosmia
    Decaloba
    Tryphostemmatoides
    Astrophea
  • 73. 32 Discriminant qualitative characters between subgenera
  • 74. e. Qualitative data dendrogram (nNeighbour Joining, 32 characters)
    n = 12
    n = 6
    n = 10
    n = 9
    n = 6
    n = ??
    Distances Sokal & Michener
  • 75. Conclusions
    The new descriptors list has permitted to rank species together with taxonomy in a coherent way. However, there are some exceptions.
    The analysis is coherent with Killip's classification (1938) at the subgenus level.
    Descriptors related to the flower permit a higher discrimination between subgenera and species.
  • 76. III. Genetic diversity (CAPS – DNAcp/mt)
  • 77. Taxon sampling
    • 213 individuals
    • 78. 151 species
    • 79. 15 subgenera (Killip, 1938)
    Origin
    • Collections in Colombia – 75 %
    • 80. Passion Fruit National Collections – Blois (France) – 22 %
    • 81. Royal Botanical Garden – Meise (Belgium) – 2 %
    • 82. Cameroon and Gabon - 1% (outgroup)
  • Tecnic – Markers RFLP-PCR (2 couple of primers / 6 enzymes)
  • 83. Outgroup
    Previousstudies
    PASSIFLORA
    Yockteng & Nadot (2004)
    Nuclear Sequences
    ncpGS
    - 91 species
    - 17 subgenera (Killip, 1938)
    DECALOBA
    ASTROPHEA
  • 84. Previousstudies
    PASSIFLORA
    Hansen et al. (2006)
    Chloroplas Sequences
    TrnL / TrnT
    - 57 species
    - 16 subgenera (Killip, 1938)
    DECALOBA
    outgroup
    ASTROPHEA
  • 85. Cytoplasmatic genome inter-specific variation
    Chloroplast
    280 haplotypes
    Mitochondria
    372 haplotypes
    Chlorotypes are easier to interpret than mitotypes
  • 86. Observed variation per primer-enzyme combination (haplotypes)
    Mitochondrial Chloroplastic
  • 87. AFTD of Chloroplastic data
    OUTGROUP
  • 88. Tryphostemmatoides
    Astrophea
    - Three big groups
    - Genus monophyly ?
    Chloroplast DNA
    • Decaloba – much better separated and structured
    • 89. Passiflora - little structure
    • 90. Astrophea
    • 91. Tryphostemmatoides
    NJ, distance de Sokal & Michener
  • 92. Tacsonia
    Astrophea
    • Strong approximation of Astrophea and Tryphostemmatoides to Passiflora
    Tryphostemmatoides
    • Little cohesion with morphology at the section and series levels.
    Tacsonia
    • Geographic structuring by:
    - altitude range (Tacsonia, stip. ren.)
    - region (Tacsonia, Ecuador/Colombia).
    Mitochondrial DNA
    • Separation of the Decaloba group, better structured
    • 93. Genus monophyly ?
  • Conclusions
    • Divergence between morphologic, chloroplastic and mitochondrial data explains plastid transmission modes:
    Chloroplastic genome transmission is basically paternal or biparental in the Passiflora group, and maternal in the mitochondiral genome.
    • The doubt on whether the Passifloragenus is not monophyletic imposes a re-examination of the generic classification of Passifloraceae.
    • 94. The data set must be interpreted taking into account the geological context of tropical flora separation and the formation of the Andean mountain range.
    • 95. RETICULATE EVOLUTION
  • Future prospects
    Passion fruits and biodiversityComplete and verify our knowledge on little or non-exploited zones and tune further geographic analyses to test passion fruits as an indicator group.
    Passion fruits and genetic resourcesExplore the possibility of interspecific hybridization to compensate for the deficiencies of the main cultivated species.
    Passifloraceae studies and their evolution- Sequences of other genome regions.- Study hybridization and introgression between sympatric species (compatibility, molecular markers and cytogenetics) to understand cross-linking mechanisms. - Study the plastid genome transmission in the family at the genus level.
  • 96. Thanks!