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What was the renaissance
 

What was the renaissance

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  • ARCHITECTONIC SYSTEM TO OFFERS A SUBLIMINAL FACE OF CHRIST

    In the church of Fraga (Aragon-Spain) were tested vaulted new techniques to suggest the Jesus face. http://webspace.webring.com/people/or/ramonetriu/gotico-enigmatico.html

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    ARQUITECTONICO SISTEMA PARA OFRECER UNA SUBLIMINAL CARA DE CRISTO

    En la iglesia de Fraga (ARAGON-España) se ensayaron nuevas técnicas de abovedado para sugerir un rostro de Jesús. http://webspace.webring.com/people/or/ramonetriu/gotico-enigmatico.html

    ROSTRO SUBLIMINAL: En la iglesia de Fraga (ARAGON-España) ensayaron sugerir un rostro de Jesús. http://webspace.webring.com/people/or/ramonetriu/gotico-enigmatico.html
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    What was the renaissance What was the renaissance Document Transcript

    •  . What was the Renaissance? 2. Renaissance = Rebirth• 1400-1600 new period of learning and creativity in Europe• intellectual, artistic, and economic changes• new attitude of enquiring: questioning approach to the world (Greeks and Romans) replaces the unquestioning one, typical of the Middle Ages (and led by the Catholic Church) 3. Where did the Renaissance begin?• The European Renaissance began in northern Italy, and was based in three independent cities; Florence, Venice, and Milan.• The Renaissance ideas would eventually spread into northern Europe as Spain and France fought with each other in Italian lands. 4. Renaissance: geographical influences (I)Classical knowledge brought into Europe via:• Silk Road (exotic products trade, ideas from India and China) 5. Renaissance: geographical influences (II)Classical knowledge brought into Europe via:• Contact with Muslims in Spain (preserved and reinterpreted Ancient Age philosophy) ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. 6. Renaissance: geographical influences (III)Classicalknowledgebrought intoEurope via:Ottoman TurksconquerByzantineEmpire: scholarsflee to Italy withancient texts ofthe Greeks andRomans 7. Renaissance in Europe 8. Tempio di Vesta, Rome, 205 AD. As the most important temple of Ancient Rome 9. Renaissance: Sources• Classics were important because: – satisfied increasing need for practical knowledge – supported involvement in urban affairs – pre-Christian, so didn‘t require all emphasis to be on afterlife 10. The Renaissance way of thinkingArchitecture 11. The Renaissance way of thinkingPhilospohy 12. The Renaissance way of thinkingScience 13. The Renaissance way of thinkingArt 14. The Renaissance way of thinkingMedicine
    • 1. The renaissance and reformation1300-16002. The Renaissance 1300-1500Italy offered new opportunities—The Renaissance Beganin Florence, ItalyAfter the Crusades Italy became the center of trade and gained greatwealthwealthy merchants dominated politics and businessRenaissance marked byrenewed interest in Greek anRoman literature, art, & life—known as classiclearningHumanism: intellectual movement that focused on Worldly subjects rather thanreligious onesNew Values Shaped the Renaissance1. people were eager to achieve asindividuals2. believed you could enjoy life without offending God unlike in the MiddleAges3. Giotto BondonePainted the Arena Chapel using Fresco4. Dante alghieriWrote The Divine Comedy where he describes his tour ofhell.Influenced the development of the Italian language.6. Machiavelli Wrote, The Prince where he described the idea of the perfect ruler. He saidthat a ruler can use unethical actions as long as it is in the best interest of the people.Famous quote, ―The End Justifies, the Means.‖ –It doesn‘t matter HOW you achieve yourgoal, as long as you achieve it.7. michaelangeloPainted the Sistene Chapel with scenes from the Bible, also known forhis ―David‖ sculpture.8. ‗David‘By Michaelangelo9. Leonardo divinciKnown as the ―true renaissance man‖He was an inventor, painter,sculptor, writer and scientist.Drew pictures of helicopters, submarines.10. The Last SupperFamous paining by Da Vinci that showed the last supper of Jesus.11. The renaissance spread to northern europeSpread to Northern EuropeSpread throughforeign courts visiting Italy wealthy merchants were attracted to the individualism andworldly pleasures.William Shakespeare wrote several poems and plays such as Romeoand Juliet, Hamlet, and Julius Caesar.12. End of the renaissanceEnd of the Renaissance (1600s)1. role of self-worth and dignityof individuals allows individualsto seek fame for themselves2. Helps to lead moreindividual thought, the Reformation and the Scientific Revolution3. The rise ofdemocratic ideas begin to slowly spread4. The Renaissance sparks exploration and willbegin a new era of exploitation and dominance by European nations
    • Renaissance and Reformation The end of the medieval period in Europe was marked bychanges in attitudes towards politics, religion, and learning. These changes became morewidespread and sweeping during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, bringing about thecultural movement called Renaissance and the religious movement known as the Reformation .The Renaissance began as revival of interest in the literature and culture of ancient Greece andRome. Its emphasis was on the richness of earthly life and on human achievements. One result ofthe Renaissance spirit was a brilliant period of creativity in the arts. The Reformation alsomarked a breaking away from the attitudes of the Middle Ages. It began with attempts to makereforms in the Church and led eventually to the end of religious unity in Western and CentralEurope. 2. Chapter Outline 1. The Renaissance Brings Change 2. The Renaissance Spirit Is Reflectedin Literature and Art 3. The Reformation Ends Religious Unity in Western and Central Europe 3. 1. The Renaissance Brings Change Late in the Middle Ages, European rulers gained newauthority, while the absolute authority of the Church began to be questioned. At the same time, along period of wars, epidemics, and economic upheaval in Europe came to an end. A new spiritof optimism, confidence, and creativity emerged. In the fourteenth century, these developmentsled to the start of a remarkable period that is known as the Renaissance. 4. a. Interest in classical learning inspires the Renaissance -The word renaissance in French for―rebirth‖. -Originally referred to a new interest in the learning of ancient Greece and Rome,which began in 1300‘s. The Renaissance differed from the Middle Ages in several ways 1. arenewed appreciation for the arts and learning of ancient Greece and Rome. 2. a new interest inworldly matters, accompanied by a growing emphasis on human life and accomplishment. b.Scholars study the humanities -Renaissance scholars‘ interest in Greek and Roman learningdeveloped into the study of the humanities-Latin and Greek language and literature, composition,rhetoric, history, and philosophy. -Renaissance scholars found the literature of the ancientsexciting to read and beautiful to hear. -Scholars who took part in the intellectual movement thatgrew out of the study of the humanities were called humanists . 5. c. Renaissance begins in Italy -The Renaissance began about 1350 in the northern Italiancity- states, which had grown prosperous from the revival of trade in the Middle Ages. Italianmerchants and bankers had the wealth to acquire libraries and fine works of art. d. Petrarch leadsthe rediscovery of classical literature - Francesco Petrarch - an Italian poet born in 1304, led theearly development of Renaissance humanism. -He studied Roman literature and philosophy andencourage others to become interested. -In the process of collecting ancient manuscript, herediscovered a number of Roman authors whose work had been forgotten during the MiddleAges. -He loved writing so much that he often worked all night long at his desk. -When aworried friend urged him to relax, he replied, ―nothing weighs less than a pen, and nothing givesmore pleasure; it is useful not only to the writer but to the others far away, perhaps even thosewho will be born a thousand years from now.‖ -On July 19, 1374, Petrarch was found dead in hislibrary, his head resting on an open book, his pen fallen from his hand. 6. e. The Renaissance emphasizes life on earth -Renaissance humanists tried to understand theentire civilization of the ancient world, not just selected ideas. They looked on the literature ofthe ancient Greeks and Romans as guide to a joyous, successful way of life. -the people of theRenaissance emphasized living life on earth as fully as possible. -They took ancient literature astheir guide to understanding human nature, the conduct of statesmen, the duty of the citizens, andthe meaning of duty. f. Renaissance thinkers study history critically -the study of history wasimportant for Renaissance humanists. They believed that history, like classical literature and
    • philosophy, would help them understand their own times. In their efforts to learn more aboutancient Greece and Rome, they carefully examined and compared copies of ancient manuscript. -Medieval thinkers had tended to accept Aristotle‘s writings as unquestioned truth. Renaissancehumanists, however, said that Aristotle‘s works should be seen as a product of the time in whichhe wrote. 7. g. Politics are important in the Renaissance -Many Renaissance humanists were leaders ofsociety and were active in the politics of their cities. -They valued public service and praise thosewho were useful to society. -The skills of humanists sought to cultivate - eloquence incommunicating ideas, effective public speaking, polished manners, an elegant writing style –were valuable ones for social and political leaders. h. Machiavelli takes a practical view ofpolitics -Political rivalry was intense among the Italian city-states and their rulers. -Renaissancepolitical thinkers were ambitious for fame and power. As a guide, they looked back to Romanhistory rather than to medieval ideals. -They also turned to the advice given in guidebooks onhow rulers could become more successful and skilful in politics. 8. Niccolo Machiavelli-write a famous guidebooks -a diplomat and student of politics -hedrew on Roman history to set up guidelines for rulers of his time. -was a cynical about humanbehaviour and believed that a ruler should do whatever was necessary to gain and keep powerThe Prince-(the title of his book) written about 1513 -he pointed out that successful rulers oftenlied, broke treaties, and killed in order to gain power. -he said, politics must be judged only bytheir result i. Wealthy patrons support the Renaissance -Renaissance life centered on the society,commerce, and politics of the bustling, prosperous cities. In wealthy cities such as Florence,Milan, and Venice, the rulers, noble families, and high-ranking clergy became patrons, orsupporters, of the art. Most Renaissance artists came to depend for their livelihoods on wealthypatrons. Florence-The cultural center of Renaissance Italy, was dominated by the Medici family.-Medici-were bankers who had branch offices in cities throughout Western Europe. -PlatonicAcademy in Florence-Founded by Cosimo de‘ Medici in 1450, it became the center of studies inGreek philosophy. 9. 10. Lorenzo(1449-1492)-(Cosimo‘s grandson) best-known member of the Medici -Known as―the Magnificent‖ -was a classical scholar, a skilled architect, and a talented poet who wrote Inthe style of Petrarch -he hired painters and sculpture to create works of art for his palace, andinvited artists, painters, and philosophers to his court. Women of the wealthy and noble Italianfamilies also played important roles as patrons of the arts. Isabella d‘Este(1474-1539)-one of themost remarkable women in Renaissance Italy. -as a child she and her sister Beatrice studied thehumanities and learned to read and speak Latin and Greek. -married to Francisco Gonzaga rulerof a small state in northern Italy -She collected many of the books just the beginning to comefrom Italian printers. Her own learning and her encouragement of the arts made Isabella knownin her time as ―The first women of the world.‖ 11. j. The Renaissance encourages the development of talents -The Renaissance wascharacterized by an intense appreciation of individualism. -The people of this time wereinterested in the unique qualities that made one person stand from the others -these attitudesencouraged a spirit of curiosity and adventure -the men and women of the upper classesbenefited most from the wealth and leisure to develop the many talents expected in the idealRenaissance individual. k. Printing spreads Renaissance ideas -The Renaissance was the time ofchange in technology as well as in culture -Printing press-one of the new developments 1450‘s-
    • European first used movable metal type to print a book Johann Gutenberg - credited withprinting the first book, a copy of the Bible 12. l. Renaissance ideas spread to Northern Europe -Printing helped spread the spirit and ideasof the Renaissance northward from Italy to France, England, Germany, and theNetherlands(Holland and Belgium). Desiderius Erasmus-was born about 1466in Rotterdam,Holland. -the most respected and influential humanist of the Northern Renaissance -Ordained aCatholic priest, he carefully studied both the humanities and Christian doctrines. -He wanted thechurch to return to the simple religious devotion of early Christianity, but did not agree with theleaders of the Reformation who were breaking away from the Church. -He felt that the study ofthe humanities was more valuable than the study of science. In the Praise of Folly (1509)-Hecriticized scholars, scientists, philosophers, and clergy of his own time for being narrow-minded. -The new craft of printing made Erasmus‘s books available throughout Europe; he wasone of the first authors whose books were read by thousands of people. 13. Sir Thomas More- One of the most important scholar in northern Renaissance -an Englishstatesman -close friend of Erasmus -a devout catholic and a student of both Church doctrine andthe humanities -His book Utopia , published in Latin in 1516, described an ideal, peacefulsociety, and so conveyed More‘s criticism of the Politics, society, and religion of his time. 14. 2. The Renaissance Spirit Is Reflected in Literature and Art The Renaissance spirit and therenewed interest in ancient Greece and Rome were the inspiration of a brilliant creative period inliterature and art. Writers and artist used stories from ancient history and classical mythology astheir subjects. They also adapted styles used by the Greek and Roman authors, artists, andarchitects. Most important, they portrayed people with greet realism, bringing out the subject‘sindividuality. Human beings were the focus of the arts of the Renaissance. RenaissanceLiterature a. Rabelais and Montaigne express the Renaissance spirit in France -The emphasis onindividuality was reflected in very different ways in the works of two great French Renaissancewriters. 15. 1 . Francois Rabelais -was born in France -encouraged the Renaissance ideal of living afull, busy life -was a monk, a scholar, and a physician, who also studied plants and Romanarchaeological sites. Gargantua and Pantagruel-a five-volume work, that made fun of those whodid not take the humanists point of view. The books combined humour, lively imagination, andexciting adventures with scholarship. 16. 2. Michel de Montaigne - a writer lived quietly and wrote short, thoughtful essays thatreflected his personal thoughts and interests. -He drew on his own observations, experience, andtravels -He wrote in a conversational style, exploring ideas about friendship, education, andmany other subjects that interest him 17. b. Cervantes mocks medieval ideals Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra(known as Cervantes1547- 1616)-the greatest writer in the Renaissance in Spain -served as a soldier against the Turksand was imprisoned for five years by pirates in North Africa. -became a tax collector DonQuixote-published first in 1605 -in this book Cervantes mocked the way medieval codes ofchivalry distorted reality. -Do Quixote is a kind, elderly gentleman who spends so much timereading medieval tales that he loses his sense of reality. He decides to become a knight and setsout to do heroic deeds. Blind to the real world, Don Quixote sees a herd of sheep as an army andthinks windmills are giants. He idealizes a servant on a nearby farm, describing her in the termsof courtly love rather than seeing her as a sturdy peasant she really is. 18. c. Shakespeare provides insight into human behaviour William Shakespeare(1564-1616)-many people regarded him as the world‘s finest dramatist and the greatest writer in the English
    • language. -was an actor and playwright, not a classical scholar -he shared the humanist interest inother times and places, particularly the ancient world. Several plays- such as Julius Caesar andAntony and Cleopatra- Greek and Roman history. -In the play Hamlet, he wrote: ―What a pieceof work is man! How noble in reason!...in action how like an angel!!‖ Shakespeare‘s playsportrayed the whole range of human feelings – joy, love, greed, jealousy, ambition, range,sorrow. 19. Renaissance Art and Architecture a. Renaissance artists portray individual -like the writersof the Renaissance, the artists of the time looked back to the ancient Greeks and Romans for theirthemes and Ideas -they used ancient works of arts as their models in depicting a variety ofsubjects stories from Greek mythology, scenes from Roman history, incidents in the Bible andChurch history -Renaissance artists tried to capture each individual‘s character and to show thatperson‘s feelings and personality in a lifelike way. b. Artists strive for balance and proportion -renaissance architects saw nature as beautiful because it was balanced and well proportioned.They hope to achieve these same qualities in their own work so that it would appear morerealistic. -architects admired Greek and Roman buildings and strove for the same kind of balanceand proportion in the buildings they designed. -they tried to make all the parts of a buildingappear perfectly balanced in size and shape. 20. c. The use of perspective adds realism to painting -Another step toward realism was thediscovery of how to achieve perspective -the impression of depth and distance on the flat surfaceof painting Giotto -first used this technique in about 1300. Filippo Brunelleschi-(Florentinearchitect) discovered that painters could used mathematical laws in painting their pictures andthus show perspective accurately. Massaccio-applied these laws in his paintings. By making itseem that a system of lines met at a certain focal point in the painting, he created an illusion ofspace and distance. 21. d. Renaissance artists use new materials -many medieval paintings were frescoes, paintingson freshly plastered walls. This technique had been used since ancient times -medieval paintersalso commonly used a kind of paint called tempera. It too dried so quickly that painters could notchange or correct what they had painted Oil Painting -new technique developed by the Flemishpainter Jan van Eyck -let the artists work more slowly and allowed them to obtain more lifelikeeffects -they could show realistically the look and texture of different fabrics-the smoothness ofsilk, the intricacy of lace, the coarseness of wool, the softness of fur. Jan van Eyck(ike) - wholived from about 1380 to about 1440. 22. e. Raphael is a master of design Raphael Santi -became famous for his paintings ofMadonna‘s, picture of Mary the mother of Jesus -he painted a human, loving woman. -was amaster of designed and skilled architect f. Michelangelo creates lasting masterpiecesMichelangelo Bounarroti -was the greatest sculpture of the Renaissance -he was also immenselyskilled as a painter, poet, and architect, Michelangelo called sculpture ―the first of arts‖ -insculpture, he said, ―each act, each limb, each bone is given life and, love, man‘s body is raisedbreathing, alive, in wax or clay or stone.‖ -Pieta (pyay-tah)-statue which shows Mary holding thebody of Jesus after the Crucifixion. He made this when he was 23 years old. -this work woninstant fame. One of his contemporaries wrote, ―It would be impossible for any craftsman orsculptor, no matter how brilliant, ever to surpass the grace or design of this work or try to cut andpolish the marble with the skill that Michelangelo displayed.‖ 23. -In 1508 Pope Julius II, a leading patron of the arts, called Michelangelo to Rome to paintreligious scenes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. The paintings were to show Biblical eventsfrom the Creation to the great flood of Noah‘s time. For four years Michelangelo worked on the
    • ceiling, stretched out on his back atop a high platform. The sun‘s heat beat down on him throughthe roof of the chapel, and paint dripped into his eyes. When darkness came, he worked bycandlelight. He suffered from cramps in his legs; his eyesight began to fail. ―I have been here athousand years‖ he wrote to his father. ―I am more exhausted than man ever was.‖ Despite hisagony, Michelangelo created a masterpiece. The Sistine Chapel paintings made his reputation asRome‘s greatest artist. -When he was in his 70‘s, he began to complete the plans for building St.Peter‘s Church in Rome. He worked at designing the interior and the huge dome until his deathin 1564. 24. g. Leonardo fulfils the Renaissance ideal Leonardo da Vinci -less famous in his time thanMichelangelo, is now regarded as a universal genius, the ideal admired by the people of theRenaissance. -He left few competed paintings, but they include such famous works as The LastSupper and the Mona Lisa -like other artists of the time, he also depended on his patrons. Theyincluded Duke Ludovico Sforza of Milan, the duke ‘ s wife Beatrice d ‘ Este, and King Francis Iof France. -The proof of Leonardo ‘ s genius is found in the many notebooks he left. He drewobjects and people as he saw them with his own eyes. To find out more about human body, hedissected corpses and made careful drawings of the structure of muscles and bones. -hisnotebooks recorded designs for inventions such as flying machines, submarines, and machineguns. These drawings are so precise that modern engineers have used them to build workingmodels. 25. h. Northern Renaissance artists emphasize realistic detail -the center of the NorthernRenaissance in art was the Netherlands, especially the region of Flanders. It was a Flemishartists, van Eyck who won the first master of oil painting. Pieter Brueghel (Broy-gul) The Elder(1525-1569)-the greatest painter of realistic contemporary scenes. -using a wealth of detail andoften sly humor, he created latge, dramatic paintings of farm workers and crowds of towns-people at work and play. Jan Vermeer and Jacob van Ruisdael (roys-dahl)-continued the traditionof painting carefully detailed landscapes and interior scenes. -1600‘s- Dutch art reached itsheight in paintings Albrecht Durer - The leading German artist of the Renaissance -who wasequally skilled in creating paintings, woodcuts, and engravings. Hans Holbein the Younger(1497-1543)-another German painter -the most famous portrait painter of his time -he createdportraits that vividly show his subjects‘ personalities as well as the realistic details of theirclothing and the objects around them -Erasmus and Sir Thomas More-two of Holbeins mostfamous portraits 26. 3. The Reformation Ends Religious Unity in Western and Central Europe Another kind ofbreak with medieval times came as reformers challenged the authority of the Church, whosepolitical influence had weakened in the late Middle Ages. By the fourteenth century, reformswithin the Church were being demanded in many countries of Europe. a. Wycliffe calls forchanges in church doctrine -late 1300‘s JOHN WYCLIFFE (wik-lif)-a scholar at oxforduniversity in England, questioned the teaching that a person could gain salvation only throughthe Church. -He said that the Bible, not the Church, should be regarded as the supreme source ofauthority -He denounced bishops and other clergy for amassing wealth and neglecting theirreligious duties -He and his followers made the first translation of the Bible in English. -Hisfollowers known as ―the Poor Preachers‖, were trained to teach in the language of the peopleinstead of the Latin of the Church. 27. b. Huss criticizes the church -JOHN HUSS-head of the University of Prague in Bohemia (astate in the Holy Roman Empire) - Like Wycliffe, he challenges the authority of Pope andcriticized the Church wealth. -In 1410 he was excommunicated. Nevertheless, he travelled to
    • Germany to attend a Church council that was trying to end the Great Schism. Although the HolyRoman Emperor had promised that Huss would be safe at the council, he was arrested, foundguilty of heresy, and burned at the stake in 1415. -In 1420 some of Huss‘s followers, calledHussites, began a rebellion against the Church and Emperor. The called together an army for acrusade against the rebels -Peace was finally made in 1434, but many Hussites went on with theirefforts to secure the Church reform 28. c. Martin Luther adopts new beliefs -MARTIN LUTHER (1483-1546)-he taught Biblicalstudies at the University of Wittenberg -He led a strict and pious life but was troubled by afeeling of sin and feared that would never enter heaven. After an intense emotional struggle, hecame to believe that men and women could be save only by the grace of God, which would grantthem faith in Christ. d. Luther challenges the church -The Church taught that most sins would beforgiven if a person confessed to a priest, regretted the action and ask forgiveness, and didpenance, such as fasting or prayer. Indulgence-another way of being pardon for sins -specialservice to the church such as crusade -obtain in return for a money contribution to the Church -The sale of indulgence was widely criticized October 31, 1517-Luther challenge this practicepublicly. On a church door in Wittenberg he nailed 95 theses, or arguments, attacking the sale ofindulgences and inviting a debate. 29. e. Luther defies the pope and the emperor -the Pope ordered Luther to give up his beliefs,but Luther burned the Papal order before a crowd of cheering students, professor andtownspeople. Early in 1521 the Pope excommunicated him. -May 1521, Charles V, the holyRoman Emperor, summoned Luther to appear before the imperial assembly, which met in thecity of Worms. He refused to go against his own conscience and change his views, reportedlysaying, ―Here I stand. I cannot do otherwise.‖ - He took refuge in the castle of Frederick ofSaxony, a German prince. While Luther was in hiding, he translated the New Testament intoGerman, making it possible for more people to read the Bible. f. The protestant movementspreads -Neither Church officials nor the Holy Roman Emperor could keep the reformmovement from spreading among those who were dissatisfied with Church practices. -Luther‘steaching were not the only reason why many Germans became Lutherans, as his followers werecalled. Many people resented the fact that their money flowed from Germany to Rome to payChurch taxes and buy Church offices. Other Germans were annoyed that Italians controlled themost important offices in the Church. -The Emperor tried to suppress the growing strength of theLutheran movement. In 1529 several Lutheran princes met and issued a formal protest againstthese efforts. Because of this they became known as Protestants . 30. 31. g. Religious wars break out -The Lutherans princess continued their open rebellion againstthe Church and the Roman Emperor. In 1530 many of them signed the Augsburg Confession, awritten statement of their belief. The rebellion eventually led to series of wars. -In 1555 a treatycalled the Peace of Augsburg ended the religious wars in Germany. The treaty allowed theGerman princess to decide which religion would be followed in their lands. Most of the southernGerman rulers remained Catholic; most of those in the north chose to become Lutheran. Thedivision into Protestant and Catholic states became a major barrier to German unity. 32. h. Calvinism develops in Geneva -The Swiss city of Geneva was an important center ofProtestant thinking. The earliest Swiss reformer, Ulrich Zwingli, had taught at the same time asLuther. In 1536 a French scholar and theologian, John Calvin, joined the reformers in Genevaand developed the form of Protestant belief called Calvinism . -Calvin like Luther regarded theBible as the supreme authority in matters of faith, attacked abuses by the clergy, and emphasized
    • the importance of faith in salvation. -the central ideas of Calvin‘s philosophy, however, werepredestination, the belief that certain people were chosen by God for salvation. -According toCalvin, those who had not been chosen could never enter heaven no matter how good a life theylived on earth. -Calvin and his followers tried to make Geneva a holy city. The Calvinistsupervised people‘s lives to make certain they lived strictly and solemnly. Laws punished thosewho gambled, made noise during church services, drank at certain hours, sang ―outrageoussongs‖, and did not know their prayers. While those who challenged Calvinist teachings facedpersecution or exile from Geneva, the city at the same time a refuge for Protestants persecutedfrom other countries. 33. i. Calvinism spreads in Europe -Calvinist teaching was carried to other countries bydedicated missionaries. -Calvinism appealed too many French people. French Calvinists becameknown as Huguenots (hyoo-guh-nots) John Knox - Scottish Protestant who carried manyCalvinist ideas to Scotland in the 1550‘s, lying the foundation for the Presbyterian Church. 34. j. The English king breaks with Pope -the Reformation in England, however, becameclosely connected with a struggle for political power. Tudor King Henry VIII (1527 )- ruledEngland from 1509 to 1547. -sought to divorce his wife Catherine of Aragon (Spanish princess) -Henry feared that only surviving child Mary, would not be accepted as heir to the English throne.-Henry wanted to marry Anne Boleyn -Henry asked the Pope to annul (because the churchprohibited divorce) his marriage to Catherine. Catherine bitterly objected and called for the aidfrom her nephew Charles V , the Holy Roman Emperor. -Henry and his advisers began to takesteps to remove England from the authority of the Pope. Thomas Cranmer - a churchman whoagreed with some protestant ideas, to be archbishop of Canterbury, the highest church office inEngland. He approved the annulment of the marriage with Catherine, and Henry married AnneBoleyn early in 1533. -English Parliament next was persuaded to approve a break with thechurch in Rome. The Parliament passed the ―Act of Supremacy‖ in 1534 Act of Supremacy -making the monarch head of what was now called the Church of England . Two years laterHenry closed the English monasteries and convents, seizing their rich lands and properties andselling them to loyal subjects. -The Reformation in England was carried forward by Cranmer andothers. They urged a new English translation of the Bible and began to prepare the Book ofCommon Prayer for use in the Church of England. 35. k. England becomes a protestant nation Edward VI – only son of Henry VIII who marriedsix times, -was only nine (9) years old when Henry VIII died (his father) in 1547 -had beentaught by Protestant tutors, including Cranmer -Protestant became more establish during hisreign -ruled England for only six years after his death in 1553 and the crown went to his half-sister Mary I, the daughter of Catherine of Aragon. Mary I - daughter of Catherine of Aragon -adevout Roman Catholic -she ordered the Persecution of English protestant who refused tobecome Catholics again -married to Philip II , the Catholic king of Spain -died on 1558 and wassucceeded by her half-sister Elizabeth I Elizabeth I - daughter of Anne Boleyn -turned Englandback to Protestantism 1571 - Parliament gave official approval to the Thirty-nine articles, astatement setting forth the doctrines of the Church of England 36. l. The Counter-Reformation makes changes within the Church -reforms and other actionsthat were intended to strengthen and spread Catholicism The council of Trent (1545-1563)Catholics were to continue to accept the principles that a. only the church could explain the Bibleb. both faith and good works were necessary for salvation c. the pope was the highest and finalauthority in the Church Important reforms a. banned the sale of indulgences and tightened
    • discipline for the clergy b. insisted that only worthy people should enter the clergy c. ordered theestablishment of seminaries to train the clergy d. encouraged reform of monasteries and convents 37. m. The Catholic Church takes action against Protestantism -Church took other steps as partof the Counter-Reformation - The inquisition expanded its activities (to the Catholic countries),threatening Protestants in those country with imprisonment or death Inquisition - judicialinstitution, established by the papacy in the Middle Age, charged with seeking out, trying, andsentencing persons guilty of heresy. Index - List of books that Catholics were forbidden to read,own, or sell Society of Jesus - (Commonly known as Jesuits) a new religious order set up toserve the Church and spread Catholic teaching -Founded by a young Spanish nobleman namedIgnatius Loyola -Approved by Pope Paul III in 1540, the order sought to keep Catholics fromleaving the Church, to persuade Protestant to return to the Church, and to win converts toCatholicism 38. n. The reformation has lasting effects The reformation had a profound influence on laterhistory -In both Catholic and Protestant countries, the Reformation strengthened the state at theexpense of the churches. Protestant rulers rejected the authority of the Pope, while Catholicrulers allowed the Church fewer privileges and less say in political matters -Reformation andCounter-Reformation both encouraged the spread of education. The protestant reformers insistedthat the individuals should read the bible themselves; it became important for men and women tobe able to read The Jesuits played an important role in education by establishing Catholic schoolsand universities
    • 1. The Renaissance2. Introduction As the economy and society changed, new ideas began to appear. Thisperiod of interest and developments in art, literature, science and learning is known as theRenaissance , French for ―rebirth.‖3. Causes of the Renaissance4. Causes of the Renaissance 1300‘s, Black Death, starvation, warfare had overtakenEurope Catastrophic events, enormous loss of life may have led to changes of the 1300‘sDecrease in population led to: Increase in food production Decline in food prices Moremoney to spend Specialization in products Changes in Society Urban areas specialized,particularly in Italy Italy divided into several large city-states in north, various kingdoms,Papal States south Catholic Church, nobles, merchants, artisans dominated society incity-states Many sought to display new wealth with knowledge of arts The Rise of City-States5. The Italian Renaissance It is widely accepted that the Renaissance started in Italyduring the 1300‘s. Italy during the Renaissance was largely an urban society. Thepowerful city-states of the Middle Ages became political, economic, and social centers.(Venice, Florence and Milan) A worldly viewpoint developed in this urban society asincreasing wealth created new opportunities for material enjoyment.6. Milan, Florence Milan, west of Venice, based economy on agriculture, silk, weaponsFlorence, to south, famous for banking, cloth Monarchs appealed to Florentine bankersfor money to fund wars Merchants refined raw wool into fine cloth Bankers, merchantscreated city to rival any in Europe Venice With access to sea, Venice built economy,reputation on trade Had long history of trading with other ports on Mediterranean SeaShipbuilding prospered, sailors traveled to Near East Wealthy Venetian merchants builtunique city, ―work of art‖7.8. Italy‘s Wealthy Class In Italy, a wealthy merchant class develops The wealthy enjoyedfine food, homes, clothes Wealthy merchants also become patrons of the arts (financialbackers) Banking family, the Medici , controls Florence Villa Monteriggioni Lorenzo diMedici9. The Medici The Medici was a wealthy and powerful family that first gainedprominence in the late 1300‘s. The Medici first started in cloth guilds, but they foundedthe Medici Bank which became the largest and most prosperous bank in Europe by the1400‘s. Although they never officially became monarchs, the Medici family held greatpolitical power and influence in Italy. Florence becomes very prosperous city. TheMedici left an important and impactful legacy because they were very supportive(financially) in the arts and architecture. They supported famous artists such asMichelangelo, da Vinci, Brunelleschi, etc. Medici Family Crest10. Assassin‘s Creed Assassin‘s Creed II is a historical adventure game that takes placein Renaissance Italy, particularly Florence. The plot centers around fictional depictions oftrue historical figures from the time including Leonardo da Vinci, the Medici family,Machiavelli, etc.11. Renaissance Ideas Venetian ships carried goods for trade and Greek scholars seekingrefuge Scholars brought ancient works thought to be lost Inspiration from the AncientsItalians who could read looked for more information Read Arabic translations of originaltexts Searched libraries, found lost texts New World of Ideas As they read, began to think
    • about philosophy, art, science in different ways Began to believe in human capacity tocreate, achieve Different Viewpoints12. Renaissance Ideas Interest in ancient Greek, Roman culture Characteristics of goodeducation Artists, scholars study ruins of Rome and Latin, Greek manuscripts • Scholarsmove to Rome after fall of Constantinople in 1453 Scholastic education gave way toclassics: rhetoric, grammar, poetry, history, Latin, Greek Subjects came to be known ashumanities, movement they inspired known as humanism Humanists emphasizedindividual accomplishment and human achievements. Humanities13. Patrons Medieval times, anonymous artists who worked for church created artRenaissance artists worked for whoever offered them highest price Buyers of art, patrons,might be wealthy individuals, city governments, or church Patrons of the Arts Wealthyindividuals competed, displaying wealth, modernity through purchase of artworksFlorence, Lorenzo de Medici supported most talented artists Milan, ruling Sforza familybenefactors of artists, others Competition Among Patrons14. Art Artists during the Renaissance tried to create realistic style copied from classicalart (Greek and Roman) It was very important for their depictions to be as realistic aspossible. Often times artists studied anatomy, botany, and how light would touch thesubject Most often they portray religious subjects or prominent citizens Painters useperspective — a way to show three dimensions on a canvas Sculpture shows naturalpostures and expressions15.16.17.18. Michelangelo‘s David (1504)19. Michelangelo‘s David (2011)20. Renaissance Man A new view of human beings that emphasized individual abilityand worth emerged in the Renaissance. The well-rounded, universal person was capableof achievements in many areas of life.21. Renaissance Man22. Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci was a painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, andmathematician. Wrote out ideas, filling 20,000 pages of notes His paintings are stillstudied and admired His interests, enthusiasm boundless23. Leonardo da Vinci24.25. Michelangelo Studied anatomy Was a sculpture and painter Age 24, won fame withPiet à , sculpture of Jesus‘ mother Mary holding son‘s dead body Marble statue of DavidMost famous painting, artwork on ceiling of Sistine Chapel26. Michelangelo27. Renaissance Ideas Scientific Information Humanists searched archives, Arabtranslations for classical texts Discovered wealth of scientific information ScientificChallenges Science soon became important avenue of inquiry Church‘s teachings aboutworld were challenged, particularly that Earth center of universe Natural World Focus ofRenaissance on human sciences, history, politics, geography New ideas about naturalworld began to be explored also Earth, Sun Nicholas Copernicus said Sun was center ofuniverse Galileo Galilei arrested by church officials for saying Earth orbited Sun
    • 28. Copernicus and Galileo Copernicus made strides in astronomy and came up with thetheory that the sun was the center of the universe and not the earth. Galileo followed upand reaffirmed these claims. Galileo was seen as a heretic, for this position was notpopular amongst the Church.29. Did you know? Galileo was asked by the Church to come in and defend his positionon his findings and theories. He was seen as a threat and a heretic and condemned by theChurch. He was ordered to be imprisoned and his writings were banished. Later, thissentence was reduced to ―house arrest‖. He lived out his remaining days studying the sun,moon, and stars. Ironically, he went blind from staring at the sun too long through histelescope.30.31. Machiavelli Niccolò Machievelli, author of political guidebook, The PrinceMachiavelli wrote many views on politics. He spoke of how to get power and keep it. Hisnotes are still read today and influence politicians, CEO‘s and world leaders alike.32. Did You Know? While incarcerated in Clinton Correctional Facility, Tupac Shakurread and studied Niccolò Machiavelli and other published works. This inspired hispseudonym "Makaveli" . Under this name he released the record The DonKilluminati: The 7 Day Theory which was his 5 th and final album and released after hisdeath in 1996.33. Northern Renaissance In the 1400s, the ideas of the Italian Renaissance begin tospread to Northern Europe such as France, Germany, Great Britain, Spain, etc.34. The Printing Press Around 1440 Johann Gutenberg of Germany develops printingpress Printing press allows for quick, cheap book production The first book printed withmovable type; the Bible (1455) The printing press is perhaps the most significantinvention in history . Why?35. The Printing Press During the Renaissance, there was a sharp rise in literacy andtherefore, a high demand for books. The old way of hand copying could not keep up forthis new demand. Printing makes information widely available. Illiterate people benefitby having books read to them. Published accounts of maps and charts lead to morediscoveries. Bibles were especially in high demand and the mass productions of it helpedthe spread of Christianity even further.36. Writing The Renaissance also gave way to a Golden Age of Literacy. During thistime, several significant authors and playwrights emerge. William Shakespeare is knownfor his works in literature and as a playwright. He is considered possibly the greatestplaywright of all time and his unique writing style is still studied today.37.38. Changes in Religion See Reformation PowerPoint39. Impact Today The events that occurred during this time period still impact our livestoday. Western art is founded on classical styles developed by the Greeks and Romans.Machiavelli‘s views on politics had a profound influence on later political leaders in theWestern world and are still studied in universities today. The Jesuits have founded manyCatholic colleges and universities in the United States.
    • . The Renaissance The beginning of the Modern Period A period of transition 2. Two Major Divisions of the Renaissance 3. The Italian Renaissance The Italian Renaissance (occurred first) Focused on the city-statesof northern Italy and Rome The Italian Renaissance tended to be more worldly with a greatemphasis on secular pursuits, the humanities, and the arts Wealth and power Knowledge was thekey 4. Often called the ―Father‖ of Renaissance humanism The Italian poet, Petrarch 5. The Northern Renaissance The Northern Renaissance occurred later Involved the regions ofNorthern Europe England Spain France Germanic regions (Holy Roman Empire) TheNetherlands 6. Northern Renaissance The spread of the Renaissance was delayed in Northern Europe Warand political unrest Hundred Years‘ War War of the Roses in Britain Plague and famine 7. ― renaissance‖ means rebirth The Renaissance began a period of renewed interest andengagement with ―classical‖ (Ancient Greece and Rome) learning, culture, literature, art, style,etc. 8. Major Themes of the Renaissance Humanism (both secular and religious) Human potential,human progress, expansion of human knowledge Secularism -greater emphasis on non-religiousvalues and concerns Individualism -focus on the unique qualities and abilities of the individualperson 9. Major Historical Events of the Renaissance Period Age of Exploration (Period of EuropeanExpansion) Protestant Reformation and the Religious Wars Scientific Revolution- Rise ofModern Science The Rise of the Modern Nation-state 10. Background of the Renaissance- High and Late Middle Ages Increased trade andcommercial activity during the High Middle Ages Urbanization-growth of cities and townsCommercial and business developments (banking) Middle class merchant elite developedDecline in feudalism A decline in the Church‘s hold and control on society and governmentGrowth in vernacular literature/growing literacy Rise of universities and the expansion oflearning 11. The Birthplace of the Renaissance The city-states of Northern Italy Florence was thecenter of the Renaissance Italy was politically fragmented and the city-states often fought forpower and control City-states came to be ruled by wealthy and powerful business people (notnecessarily nobility) Signori - (despots) and oligarchies (group of individuals) maintained order 12. Florence Major center of trade, banking, cloth production, and the arts 13. 14. 15. The Medici family of Florence The most powerful family of the Italian Renaissance Cameto power through business dealings and banking Bank of the Vatican and the papacy Spenttremendous amounts of money supporting the arts and cultural development (patrons) Medicipower often involved corruption and intrigue 16. The Medici Family 17. Medici Pope 18. ― The Adoration of the Magi‖ depicts the Medici family in procession - Celebration ofMedici power and influence
    • 19. Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) The Prince Machiavelli was from Florence Welleducated in the classics Career was in public service and he eventually served as the ambassadorto France Favored republican rule over despotism Machiavelli was tortured and imprisoned for atime when Medici rule was reinstated after a conflict with a Spanish mercenary army He retiredto the country and wrote The Prince 20. The Prince Written in Italian (not Latin) Observations and commentary on political ruleand power (Medicis) Addressed the issue of effective rule How to gain and maintain order andcontrol Stressed the practical (pragmatic ) over the ethical or moral More secular and humanisticChallenged the idea of a social order based on God‘s will Political science- Politics was to begoverned by its own laws ―… it is safer to be feared than to be loved…‖ 21. 22. The Courtier by Castiglione 1528 Written in Italian Treatise on the training of young menin the courtly ideal of a Renaissance gentleman Stressed the value of education and mannersInfluenced social mores and norms during the period 23. 24. The Renaissance spread to Northern Europe 25. Focus of the Northern Renaissance The focus of the Renaissance in Northern Europe wasmore religious Many sought religious reform and a return of the Church to its true mission andspirituality Many were highly critical of the worldliness and corruption in the Church and papacyNorthern Renaissance figures believed that education and literacy were key to social andreligious reform Advocated the translation of the scriptures into the vernacular languages 26. Major figures of the Northern Renaissance 27. Desiderius Erasmus –scholar and theologian The Praise of Folly Criticism of the abusesand worldliness of the Church and papacy 28. Sir Thomas More Lord Chancellor of England during the reign of Henry VIII- highestpolitical office in England Lawyer and scholar Wrote Utopia – explored the idea of a ―perfect‖society Eventually executed by Henry VIII for refusing to agree to the king and Parliament‘s Actof Supremacy 29. 30. Utopia 31. Martin Luther Associated with the Protestant Reformation Critical of Church corruptionand abuses Sought reform Wrote the first translation of the Bible in German 32. Renaissance Art A reflection of Renaissance ideals and values Emphasis on the classicalstyle and classical themes Humanistic - with an emphasis on the individual Religious artremained very important 33. Characteristics of Renaissance Art Realism Three-dimensional Balanced and orderedPortraits Landscapes and attention to depictions of nature Classical style Depiction of classicalthemes and stories 34. Humanism: The School of Athens by Raphael - a celebration of classical learning 35. Individualism –Portraits -portraits celebrated the unique qualities and personality of theindividual person (two examples by Leonardo da Vinci) 36. 37. Secularism-non-religious Renaissance art often depicted stories and scenes from classicalliterature
    • 38. Religion remained a major focal point of Renaissance art - The Sistine Chapel-Michelangelo 39. Michelangelo‘s Pieta 40. Northern Renaissance Art 41. Albrecht Durer 42. 43. 44. Hans Holbein 45. Bruegel 46. 47. Major innovations of the Renaissance 48. Printing Press 1455 Moveable type printing Developed in Germany Associated withGutenburg 1456 the first Gutenburg Bible was printed Printing press allowed for the spread ofknowledge and ideas throughout Europe 49. 50. 51. The Clock The idea of quantification developed The universe came to be conceived inmore quantifiable terms (measurable terms) Allowed for more precise measurements Changedthe focus of daily life which had been guided by the rhythms of the Church 52. 53. The Renaissance brought a new way of thinking and living to Europe A new worldviewwas emerging The medieval Christian worldview was giving way to a more MODERN (secularand humanistic) view of the world and humanity 1. Italian Renaissance 2. What does ―Renaissance‖ mean? The word means ―rebirth‖ The renaissance started in Italy during the 14 th century and lasted for about 250 years. The rebirth of arts and culture will continue to build from this point on. 3. Why Italy??? The renaissance started in Italy for several reasons: 1) remnants of the Roman culture, 2) rich city-states, and 3) a wealthy middle-class that had money to spend on the arts. 4. So, what was so great about the Renaissance? The Renaissance was the first time that a spirit of adventure swept over people. Columbus sailed to new lands during the renaissance. 5. What happened during the Italian Renaissance? Growth occurred in many areas of art and science. The most famous advances came in the form of art during the Italian renaissance. We will explore the advances of the Italian renaissance first.
    • 6. Art before the Renaissance During the Middle Ages, art was declining and very littleimprovements in art techniques were made. Architecture in the Middle Ages followed thegothic style.7. New Ideas during the Renaissance: Humanist movement for art to revolve aroundhuman ideas and events. New techniques were created to allow the artists to useperspective to create realistic art.8. Types of Art: Paintings Renaissance painters studied Greek and Roman paintings.Most paintings reflected the humanist ideas and either focused on an individual or ahuman event.9. Types of Art: Sculpture Sculptures during the Renaissance often reflected eitherreligious or Ancient Greek and Roman subjects. The primary goal of the sculpture is tocapture the human feeling.10. Types of Art: Church Murals and religious decorations. Church murals were verypopular during the Renaissance. The church would pay artists to create elaboratepaintings and sculptures to decorate their churches. The most famous is the SistineChapel in Rome.11. Sistine Chapel12. Types of Art: Architecture Architecture during the Renaissance is based on Greek andRoman styles. Domes, arches, and pillars are common features in Renaissancearchitecture.13. Masaccio 1401-1427, one of the founders of the Renaissance. Painter Known for hisuse of perception to create 3D images. Famous works include: Madonna with St. Anne(1423) and Trinity (1425).14. Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519, one of the most important Renaissance artists. Painter,scientist, and inventor. Famous works include: The Baptism of Christ (1476), The LastSupper (1498), and the Mona Lisa (1503).15. Michelangelo Buonarroti 1475-1564. Created many famous pieces of Renaissanceart. Painter and Sculptor. Famous works include: Pieta (1499), David (1503), SistineChapel (1508-1512),16. Raphael 1483-1520. Known for his youth and humanistic approach to art. Studiedunder Leonardo and Michelangelo. Painter. Famous works include: The Marriage of theVirgin (1504), Stanza della Segnatura (1511), Transfiguration (Unfinished at his death).17. Quiz Yourself!!! Can you name three different types of Art? What was one thingabout Renaissance art that made it different? Who was one important artist and what typeof art did he/she make?18. Paintings, Sculptures, and Architecture!!! Awesome answers!!! Click on the pictureto go back to the quiz!19. Humanism all the way!!! Way to go!!! Click on the picture to answer the nextquestion!20. Take your pick: Leonardo, Masaccio, Rapheal, or Michaelangelo ! How many didyou get right? Awesome Job!!! Click on the picture to go back!21. Let‘s Get Interactive! Explore the Renaissance Connection22. Sources: www.pbs.org/teachersource www.google.com
    • The Renaissance Presentation Transcript 1. Renaissance Age Period of Rebirth and Achievement 2. When you hear the names Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael and Donatello you should not just think of … They are the names of important people from the period called the Renaissance. 3. I. What does Renaissance mean? REBIRTH 4. II. Why does the Renaissance begin in Italy? Renaissance in Italy Rome was the center Roman History. Trade revived quickly Wealthy merchants became patrons to artists. Italy recovered quickly from the plague 5. Lorenzo Medici Influential patron from wealthy business family supported many artists like Michelangelo Florence, Italy Patron - financial supporter Michelangelo lived in his palace and met other artists 6. Humanism - emphasis on individual uniqueness and worth. Perspective was used by Renaissance artists to create dimension and depth. 1 point Perspective 2 Point Perspective IV. Important Terms 7. Leonardo Da Vinci Artist, inventor, botanist 8. Renaissance man Influenced many other artists. Dissected corpses to learn about the body (to paint realistically). 9. He designed early versions of: Helicopter, Tank, Parachute, Hang Glider, Pedometer, Submarine and many other inventions. Helicopter Tank 10. Mona Lisa 11. The Last Supper 12. Michelangelo Painter, sculptor, architect, poet Started sculpting at age 14. Studied anatomy, dissected corpses 13. FOR MORE INFO... Works: The Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Fresco- painting on fresh plaster 14. ― The Creation of Adam‖ The Sistine Chapel Michelangelo 15. The Last Judgment 16. Ever seen these angels? Michelangelo painted them on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. 17. Pieta Moses By Michelangelo 18. St. Peter‘s Basilica in Rome The dome was designed by Michelangelo. Outside Inside Ideas were based on Roman and Greek architectural elements. 19. D. Donatello -Sculptor (Not only a Ninja Turtle) David Made of bronze Michelangelo‘s version 20. FOR MORE INFO... Raphael - painter Blended Christian and classical styles ― The School of Athens‖ 21. ― The Chess Game‖ ― Self Portrait‖ Sofonisba Anguissola- painter Bold, realistic portraits Court painter for Philip II of Spain 22. VI. Writers Niccolo Machiavelli Observed kings at court Wrote The Prince- a ―How To‖ book to get and keep power as a ruler Baldassare Castiglione Played music, studied lit. and history Wrote The Book of the Courtier - about how to act as a noble 23. The Renaissance moves north 100 years after it began in Italy. Northern Europe recovered from the Plague more slowly. Northern Renaissance
    • 24. called the ―German Leonardo.‖ Studied in Italy and spread ideas North engravingsPrints paintings Albrecht Durer - Artist25. Hubert and Jan van Eyck- Flemish painters The Virgin of Chancellor WeddingPortrait developed oil paints and painted realistic scenes.26. Jan Van Eyck: Arnolfini Wedding Portrait27. The Peasant Wedding Peasant Dance Pieter Bruegel - artist influenced Flemishpainters Used vibrant colors to paint peasant life.28. Peter Paul Rubens mixed realistic style with the classical themes.29. Erasmus - Dutch writer Humanist Wanted the Bible translated into the vernacular(every day language) and Church Reforms Wrote new edition of Bible in Greek and Latin30. Sir Thomas More- writer Wrote Utopia (book to describe ideal society) Wanted socialand economic reforms No Private Property Education For All Justice is used to end crime31. William Shakespeare : Playwright Created 1700 new words wrote 37 players in 23years Bedroom Lonely Generous Gloomy Heartsick Hurry Sneak Romeo and JulietMacBeth Hamlet32. Miguel de Cervantes- Spanish writer Don Quixote (the book Man of La Mancha isbased on) Wrote the first modern novel33. Johannes Guttenberg- German inventor Improved moveable type ― invented‖ theprinting press The Guttenberg Bible34. How did the printing press impact Europe? Literacy increased Knowledge and ideasspread Books were cheaper and easier to make Schools were built to teach children howto read and write