What are the similarities between each question? What does this tell us about what you need to be familiar with?
What can you say about the images of each of these brands? What is it that makes these products successful?
Summarise the key areas that these companies work within. What does this tell us about the spheres of media influence?
Create flash cards?
What was the last film you watched? Who was that film distributed by?
News Corp owns a number of different publishing companies, all of which operate along the same market.
How has the introduction of YouTube challenged the traditional ‘gatekeepers’ to media distribution?How
InstitutionsAS Media Studies
What is an institution?‘Organisation or company, public or privately owned that produces and/or distributes media products’
Ask yourself the following:• What is the institutional source of the text?• In what ways has the text been influenced or shaped by the institution that produced it?• Is the source a public service or commercial institution? What difference does this make to the text?• How has the text been distributed?
Past Paper Questions• What is communicated in the advertisement about the Xbox 360 brand and the experience it offers?• How effectively does Channel 4 promote itself as a public service broadcaster in the trailer?• What values and characteristics of Hollywood are evident in the trailer?• How does the programme try to create a positive brand image for ITV2?• How is the brand image of the MINI Clubman promoted in the video?• How does the advertisement communicate brand values for John Lewis?
What do we see?• What is communicated in the advertisement about the Xbox 360 brand and the experience it offers?• How effectively does Channel 4 promote itself as a public service broadcaster in the trailer?• What values and characteristics of Hollywood are evident in the trailer?• How does the programme try to create a positive brand image for ITV2• How is the brand image of the MINI Clubman promoted in the video?• How does the advertisement communicate brand values for John Lewis?
Brand Image• Establish a difference to other companies• Subsidiaries with different brand images can appeal to different audiences• Brand image should be positive, unique and instant• Set of associations formed in the consumer’s mind• http://www.channel4.com/about_c4/stylegui de/
Media Influence• Values and ideologies are transmitted through the representations in media texts• Powerful institutions can influence the attitudes, interests, beliefs and desires of people on a world scale• Worldwide organisations like BBC and Hollywood, could influence the attitudes, interest, beliefs and desires of people worldwide
Media Influence Chief Executive of Google Chief Executive of Twitter Chairman of the BBC Trust Director/General of the BBC Senior VP of design at Apple Managing Director of Facebook Editor Daily Mail, Associated Newspapers Group Chief Executive, WPP Producer, Co-Founder Syco Entertainment Head of the Leveson Inquiry
Institutional Terminology Term DefinitionConvergence Two or more types of media coming togetherSynergy Different elements of a company working together to promote related productsConcentration of Media Ownership The process by which an increasingly smaller number of companies own most media outletsCross Media Ownership When a company produces two or more different types of mediaConglomerate A large parent company which owns a range of smaller companies
Institutional Terminology Term DefinitionSubsidiary Smaller Companies owned by a parent companyOligopoly When a market is dominated by a small number of companiesHorizontal Integration When a media company owns several businesses in the same sector of the industryVertical Integration When a single company controls both the production and supply of a product
Convergence• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JdJlyh76d Ec• Example of convergent technology in relation to the US show CBS Sunday Morning
Vertical Integration Production Distribution Exhibition
Vertical Integration• Television Industry – TV Producer/Syndication/TV Station• Print Industry – Press Service/Newspapers/Circulation• Film Industry – Studios/Distributors/Theatres
Summary• Identify the institution. Is it a conglomerate or a subsidiary?• Analyse the Brand Image• Who created the product? What is the media influence?• Are they PSB or Commercial? How does this influence the product?• How has the media been distributed? Is it an example of horizontal/vertical integration?