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HIV-Related Stigma John B. Pryor, Ph.D. Illinois State University Presentation at the 17 th  Texas HIV/STD Conferences May...
Outline of Today’s Talk <ul><li>What is stigma? A theoretical analysis of four manifestations of stigma </li></ul><ul><li>...
Goffman (1963) defined stigma as “an undesired  differentness  from what we had anticipated.” “ By definition, we believe ...
Four Manifestations of Stigma <ul><li>1)  public stigma  – people’s social and psychological reactions to someone with a p...
A Dynamic Model of the Four Manifestations of Stigma Stigma-by- Association Public  Stigma Self- Stigma Institutional Stigma
Applying the Stigma Model to HIV
Public Stigma <ul><li>Social psychologists view negative reactions to a perceived stigma as a form of   prejudice. </li></...
Tri-Part Conceptual Model of Public Stigma Cognitive Component Behavioral Component Affective Component
Cognitive components of reactions to perceived HIV-related stigma <ul><li>Stereotypes about PLWHA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Co...
Affective (emotional) components of reactions to perceived HIV-related Stigma <ul><li>Affective reactions can be positive ...
Behavioral components of reactions to perceived HIV-related stigma <ul><li>Avoidance  (or approach)  – a general behaviora...
What is  self-  stigma?
Self-stigma  – derived from enacted (actual) or perceived (anticipated) social experiences   <ul><li>Related to knowledge ...
Stigma-by-Association  Goffman called this  courtesy stigma <ul><li>To some degree all of the public stigma reactions to P...
Institutional stigma <ul><li>Examples of stigmatizing government laws and policies in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Until rec...
Institutional stigma <ul><li>Public stigma toward persons living with  </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS is related to the percei...
HIV African Americans MSM IV Drug Users Stigmas related to HIV in the US
HIV African Americans MSM IV Drug Users Societal responses to related stigmas  in the US Sexual Prejudice Racism Criminali...
Related Institutional Stigma in the United States <ul><li>Sexual prejudice   – state laws banning gay marriage, Federal De...
 
Research focusing upon one link in the model of stigma Stigma-by- Association Public  Stigma Self- Stigma Institutional St...
 
Types of Stigmatizing Behavior Experienced
 
Stigmatizing experiences  that uniquely predict psychological distress among 601 Dutch  PLWHA Psychological Distress  Told...
Relationship of Endorsing Public Stigma to Manifestation of Self-Stigma Stigma-by- Association Public  Stigma Self- Stigma...
Relationships between Endorsing Public  Stigma and HIV Testing  Source: Kalichman &  Simbayi (2003)
 
Evaluation Research of an Intervention Design to Reduce Public Stigma Stigma-by- Association Public  Stigma Self- Stigma I...
Salud Es Cultura ¡Protégete! (Health is Culture, Protect Yourself)  To reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma within Latino commun...
Overview of  peer education ( promotores ) intervention components  <ul><li>A group discussion of Latino cultural values t...
Organization The National Council of La Raza Anti-Stigma Focus Public stigma Target Audience Selected Latino communities i...
Stigma-by- Association Public  Stigma Self- Stigma Institutional Stigma Evaluation Research of an Intervention Design to R...
THRIVE! Weekend A program developed by  the  AIDS SURVIVAL PROJECT To reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma among PLWHA as a barr...
Topics covered in THRIVE! Weekend workshops <ul><li>understanding HIV (basic information about HIV/AIDS) </li></ul><ul><li...
Organization The AIDS Survival Project  Anti-Stigma Focus Self-stigma Target Audience PLWHA in rural & urban Georgia Metho...
Some Common Sense steps in Conducting a Stigma Reduction Intervention <ul><li>Identify the manifestations you want to targ...
Components of Effective Interventions
Take Home Messages of Today’s Talk <ul><li>Stigma is a multi-dimensional concept. Public stigma, self-stigma, stigma-by-as...
 
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Hiv Related Stigma Pryor Texas Hiv Std Conf

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Presentation by John B. Pryor, Ph.D. at the 17th Texas HIV/STD Conference on May 25, 2010 in Austin, Texas

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  1. 1. HIV-Related Stigma John B. Pryor, Ph.D. Illinois State University Presentation at the 17 th Texas HIV/STD Conferences May 25 2010
  2. 2. Outline of Today’s Talk <ul><li>What is stigma? A theoretical analysis of four manifestations of stigma </li></ul><ul><li>Applying this theory to HIV-related stigma </li></ul><ul><li>A study examining the relationship between stigma-by-association and self-stigma </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce public stigma </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce self-stigma </li></ul><ul><li>Common elements of effective interventions – what works? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Goffman (1963) defined stigma as “an undesired differentness from what we had anticipated.” “ By definition, we believe the person with a stigma is not quite human.” “ We construct a stigma-theory, an ideology to explain his inferiority and account for the danger he represents, sometimes rationalizing an animosity based upon other differences, such as those of social class (p. 5).”
  4. 4. Four Manifestations of Stigma <ul><li>1) public stigma – people’s social and psychological reactions to someone with a perceived stigma </li></ul><ul><li>2) self-stigma – how one reacts to the possession of a stigma </li></ul><ul><li>3) stigma-by-association – social and psychological reactions to people who are somehow associated with a stigmatized person or how people react to being associated with a stigmatized person </li></ul><ul><li>4) institutional stigma – the legitimatization and perpetuation of a stigmatized status by society’s institutions and ideological systems </li></ul>
  5. 5. A Dynamic Model of the Four Manifestations of Stigma Stigma-by- Association Public Stigma Self- Stigma Institutional Stigma
  6. 6. Applying the Stigma Model to HIV
  7. 7. Public Stigma <ul><li>Social psychologists view negative reactions to a perceived stigma as a form of prejudice. </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice is essentially a negative attitude toward people perceived to be members of an out-group. </li></ul><ul><li>Stigmatized out-groups often have less social power than in-groups. </li></ul>US THEM
  8. 8. Tri-Part Conceptual Model of Public Stigma Cognitive Component Behavioral Component Affective Component
  9. 9. Cognitive components of reactions to perceived HIV-related stigma <ul><li>Stereotypes about PLWHA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connections to sexual orientation and drug use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beliefs about blame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief that bad things happen to bad people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conceptions of risk and transmission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risks associated with casual contact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beliefs about prejudice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are negative reactions to PLWHA seen as a form of prejudice? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Affective (emotional) components of reactions to perceived HIV-related Stigma <ul><li>Affective reactions can be positive (e.g., compassion, empathy) or negative (e.g., fear, disgust, anger, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Affective reaction can be automatic (spontaneous or reflexive) or derived from conscious deliberation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Behavioral components of reactions to perceived HIV-related stigma <ul><li>Avoidance (or approach) – a general behavioral tendency </li></ul><ul><li>Harassment, ridicule, & ostracism </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to medical care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pro-social behavior – the flip side of discrimination – social support </li></ul><ul><li>Support for public policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercive policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-discrimination policies </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. What is self- stigma?
  13. 13. Self-stigma – derived from enacted (actual) or perceived (anticipated) social experiences <ul><li>Related to knowledge of public reactions to stigma – reflected appraisals of others </li></ul><ul><li>Label avoidance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding HIV testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding disclosure of HIV status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding safer sex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal from situations where ill treatment might occur </li></ul><ul><li>Internalization of the negative label </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of self-esteem & self-efficacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hopelessness and depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Immune functioning </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Stigma-by-Association Goffman called this courtesy stigma <ul><li>To some degree all of the public stigma reactions to PLWHA are also experienced by uninfected people who are somehow associated with PLWHA </li></ul><ul><li>HIV-related stigma affects families – shame & disclosure concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Stigma-by-Association contributes to burnout among care-givers and health care providers </li></ul><ul><li>Being associated with a PLWHA may contribute to psychological distress </li></ul><ul><li>Concern about stigma-by-association contributes to social avoidance </li></ul>
  15. 15. Institutional stigma <ul><li>Examples of stigmatizing government laws and policies in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Until recently the U.S. government banned individuals with HIV from entering the United States as tourists, workers or immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. Foreign Service still refuses to hire applicants with HIV. </li></ul><ul><li>The Transportation Security Administration has refused to hire applicants who are HIV+. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual activity by people with HIV may subject them to criminal penalties in many U.S. states, even when the sexual activity is consensual, the activity involves little or no risk of transmission, there is no intention to transmit the virus and the activity does not result in HIV transmission. </li></ul>Source: Lambda Legal Report , 2007
  16. 16. Institutional stigma <ul><li>Public stigma toward persons living with </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS is related to the perceived </li></ul><ul><li>connections of HIV/AIDS to other </li></ul><ul><li>stigmas (e.g., homosexuality) </li></ul><ul><li>Policies of private and governmental </li></ul><ul><li>institutions that have a negative impact </li></ul><ul><li>people with these related stigmas also </li></ul><ul><li>serve to legitimize and perpetuate HIV- </li></ul><ul><li>related stigma </li></ul>
  17. 17. HIV African Americans MSM IV Drug Users Stigmas related to HIV in the US
  18. 18. HIV African Americans MSM IV Drug Users Societal responses to related stigmas in the US Sexual Prejudice Racism Criminalization of drug addiction
  19. 19. Related Institutional Stigma in the United States <ul><li>Sexual prejudice – state laws banning gay marriage, Federal Defense of Marriage Act </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional racism – 1 in 7 Black men between ages 25 & 29 are in prison </li></ul><ul><li>Criminalization of Drug Addiction - Federal ban on syringe exchange </li></ul>
  20. 21. Research focusing upon one link in the model of stigma Stigma-by- Association Public Stigma Self- Stigma Institutional Stigma
  21. 23. Types of Stigmatizing Behavior Experienced
  22. 25. Stigmatizing experiences that uniquely predict psychological distress among 601 Dutch PLWHA Psychological Distress Told to Conceal Exaggerated Kindness Avoidance Awkward Social Interaction From Family From Health Care Sector Source: Stutterheim, Pryor, Bos, Hoogendijk, Muris, & Schaalma (in press, 2009)         Controlling for partner, educational & health status
  23. 26. Relationship of Endorsing Public Stigma to Manifestation of Self-Stigma Stigma-by- Association Public Stigma Self- Stigma Institutional Stigma
  24. 27. Relationships between Endorsing Public Stigma and HIV Testing Source: Kalichman & Simbayi (2003)
  25. 29. Evaluation Research of an Intervention Design to Reduce Public Stigma Stigma-by- Association Public Stigma Self- Stigma Institutional Stigma
  26. 30. Salud Es Cultura ¡Protégete! (Health is Culture, Protect Yourself) To reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma within Latino communities through a portable promotores (peer education) program designed to provide accurate and culturally appropriate HIV prevention and outreach information.
  27. 31. Overview of peer education ( promotores ) intervention components <ul><li>A group discussion of Latino cultural values that contribute to personal health. </li></ul><ul><li>HIV 101- basic information about HIV and how it is transmitted and can be prevented. </li></ul><ul><li>A discussion of sexuality in Latino culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Common attitudes about homosexuality in Latino communities were explored. </li></ul><ul><li>The concepts of public stigma ( externo and communidad ) and self-stigma ( interno ) were explained. A story or novelita about a man whose neighbor was HIV+ was used to illustrate the process of coming to terms with one’s own prejudices regarding PLWHA. Discussion following the story focused on stereotypes of PLWHA, how prejudice can impair prevention efforts, and how traditional Latino values can contribute to both prevention and care of PLWHA. </li></ul><ul><li>The roles of Latino cultural values, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and community leadership and support in overcoming stigma were discussed. </li></ul>
  28. 32. Organization The National Council of La Raza Anti-Stigma Focus Public stigma Target Audience Selected Latino communities in California and Texas (N = 574) Method Peer education ( promotores ) programs Evaluation Quantitative: Pre/post assessment of public stigma in peer education sessions ( charlas ) Results Improvements in knowledge, communication intentions, testing comfort, & comfort with PLWHA
  29. 33. Stigma-by- Association Public Stigma Self- Stigma Institutional Stigma Evaluation Research of an Intervention Design to Reduce Self-Stigma
  30. 34. THRIVE! Weekend A program developed by the AIDS SURVIVAL PROJECT To reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma among PLWHA as a barrier to prevention, care, and treatment in two rural areas of Georgia using a volunteer-based training run by and for those affected by and/or living with HIV/AIDS.
  31. 35. Topics covered in THRIVE! Weekend workshops <ul><li>understanding HIV (basic information about HIV/AIDS) </li></ul><ul><li>treatment strategies and options </li></ul><ul><li>disclosure </li></ul><ul><li>safer sex </li></ul><ul><li>advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>complementary therapies and nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>oral health </li></ul><ul><li>legal issues (rights and legal protections against discrimination) </li></ul><ul><li>substance abuse (connections to HIV infection and treatment, also harm reduction concepts) </li></ul><ul><li>disability benefits and social security </li></ul><ul><li>meditation </li></ul>
  32. 36. Organization The AIDS Survival Project Anti-Stigma Focus Self-stigma Target Audience PLWHA in rural & urban Georgia Method Weekend workshops led by teams of PWLHA, experts, and healthcare & social service providers Evaluation Quantitative: Pre/post assessment of self-stigma Results PLWHA felt less blame & shame following weekend workshops
  33. 37. Some Common Sense steps in Conducting a Stigma Reduction Intervention <ul><li>Identify the manifestations you want to target </li></ul><ul><li>Specify how you will measure stigma reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Identify some effective components of past interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor intervention components to your audience </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate your intervention’s outcomes and be prepared to adjust your ongoing plan </li></ul>
  34. 38. Components of Effective Interventions
  35. 39. Take Home Messages of Today’s Talk <ul><li>Stigma is a multi-dimensional concept. Public stigma, self-stigma, stigma-by-association, and institutional stigma represent different, but inter-related manifestations of stigma. </li></ul><ul><li>While public stigma is theorized to be pivotal to the other manifestations of stigma more research is needed that examines the inter-relationships empirically. </li></ul><ul><li>Stigma reduction interventions should identify specific manifestions of stigma for potential change and include evaluation measures that are appropriate </li></ul>
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