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Beginning online course for kids in Chavalos Nica Program

Beginning online course for kids in Chavalos Nica Program

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  • 1. Biology Teaching <br />Descriptions of the Fields of Biological Science<br />Biology<br />Biology is the branch of science dealing with the study of life. It describes the characteristics, classification, and behaviors of organisms, how species come into existence, and the interactions they have with each other and with the environment. Biology has many specialized areas, covering a wide range of scales, from biochemistry to ecology.<br />Biology has 2 branches:Botany-study of plants Zoology-study of animals<br />What are the fields of Biology?<br />Mammology, <br />entomology<br />, ecology,<br /> environmental sciences,<br /> marine biology, herpatology, <br />cell biology, <br />DNA, genetics, <br />zoology<br /> Various fields of specialization in Biology:Morphology-study of structures and forms of organismsAnatomy-study of parts or structure of organismsPhysiology-study of the normal functions of the parts of an organismCytology-study of structure and function of a cellHistology-study of tissuesEmbryology-study of growth and development of new organismsEcology-study of environment and the interrelationships of the organisms on itTaxonomy-study of classification and naming of plants and animalsGenetics-study of hereditary Evolution-study of origin and differentiation of diff. kinds of an organismPaleontology-study of fossils of living things and their distribution in timeMicrobiology-study of microorganisms3 classifications of Microbiology:1.Bacteriology-study of bacteria2.Virology-study of virus3.Protozoology-study of protozoansClassification according to the specific kind of organism being studied:Entomology-study of insects Helmintology-study of wormsIchthyology-study of fishesOrnitology-study of birdsMammalogy-study of mammalsConchology-study of shellsAnthropology-study of manBio-Chemistry-chemistry of life<br />♥Different fields of biology are:♥ <br />Agriculture - science and practice of producing crops and livestock from the natural resources of the earth. The primary aim of agriculture is to cause the land to produce more abundantly and at the same time to protect it from deterioration and misuse. anatomy - study of the human body A strobiology - The branch of biology concerned with the effects of outer space on living organisms and the search for extraterrestrial life. Bioengineering- biological engineering is a broad-based engineering discipline that deals with bio-molecular and molecular processes, product design, sustainability and analysis of biological systems. Bioinformatics- Information technology as applied to the life sciences, especially the technology used for the collection, storage, and retrieval of genomic data. Biochemistry- study of organic chemistry of compounds and processes occuring in organisms; the effort to understand biology within the context of chemistry. biophysics - biophysics (also biological physics) is an interdisciplinary science that applies the theories and methods of physical sciences to questions of biology. botany - The scientific study of plants and related organisms. Cryobiology- The study of the effects of low temperatures on living organisms. cell biology - The study of the molecular or chemical interactions of biological phenomena. developmental biology - The study of the processes by which an organism develops from a zygote to its full structure. This field includes the study of cellular differentiation as well as body structure development. Ecology- The scientific study of the relationships between plants, animals, and their environment. Evolutionary biology - Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, i.e. their evolution. genetics - The branch of biology that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited characteristics among similar or related organisms. <br />Study of heredity in general and of genes in particular. Modern genetics began in the 19th century with the work of Gregor Mendel, who formulated the basic concepts of heredity. In 1909 the word gene was coined by Wilhelm Johannsen, thus giving genetics its name. In the same year, Thomas Hunt Morgan provided evidence that genes occur on chromosomes and that adjacent genes on the same chromosome form linkage groups. This led to the important discovery that genes affect molecular action at the cell level, as evidenced by human hereditary diseases such as inborn errors of metabolism. Molecular genetics began in earnest in the 1940s when Oswald Avery showed that DNA is the chromosome component that carries genetic information. The molecular structure of DNA was deduced by James D. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins. These and other developments led to the deciphering of the genetic code of the DNA molecule, which in turn made possible the recombination techniques of genetic engineering, discovered in the 1970s. An understanding of genetics is necessary for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of hereditary diseases, the selective breeding of plants and animals, and the development of industrial processes that use microorganisms. See also behaviour genetics; biotechnology.<br />Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/genetics#ixzz1AxoRsc2A<br />Microbiology- The branch of biology that deals with microorganisms and their effects on other living organisms. molecular biology - The branch of biology that deals with the formation, structure, and function of macromolecules essential to life, such as nucleic acids and proteins, and especially with their role in cell replication and the transmission of genetic information. <br />Fields of Biology: Microbiology<br />Another main field of Biology is microbiology. Microbiology deals with microscopic organisms, some of which consist of only one cell. Some life forms commonly studied in microbiology include bacteria, fungi, prokaryotes and protists. Microbiologists also study the properties and structure of viruses, though they are considered to be biological agents and aren't technically living organisms. <br />Entmologymarine biology - marine biology, study of ocean plants and animals and their ecological relationships. medicine - The science which relates to the prevention, cure, or alleviation of disease. mathematical biology - mathematical biology or biomathematics is an interdisciplinary field of academic study which aims at modelling natural, biological processes using mathematical techniques and tools. It has both practical and theoretical applications in biological research. Neurobiology - The branch of biology that deals with the anatomy and physiology and pathology of the nervous system Paleontology- The study of the forms of life existing in prehistoric or geologic times, as represented by the fossils of plants, animals, and other organisms. pathology- The scientific study of the nature of disease and its causes, processes, development, and consequences. also called pathobiology. physiology - The biological study of the functions of living organisms and their parts. Parasitology- The scientific study of parasites and parasitism. Zoology- The branch of biology that deals with animals and animal life, including the study of the structure, physiology, development, and classification of animals. <br />Immunology<br />Limology<br />Horticulture<br />Cytology<br />Teaching Materials for Biology<br />Histology<br />Embryology<br />http://edu.symbaloo.com/?brandedCode=EDU<br />http://www.s-cool.co.uk/<br />The previous sites have FREE teaching materials online.<br />Ichthyology<br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />Jump to: navigation, search <br />Part of a series onZoologyBranchesAnthropology · Anthrozoology · Apiology · Arachnology · Arthropodology · Cetology · Conchology · Entomology · Ethology · Helminthology · Herpetology · Ichthyology · Malacology · Mammalogy · Myrmecology · Nematology · Neuroethology · Ornithology · Paleozoology · Planktology · PrimatologyNotable zoologistsGeorges Cuvier · Charles Darwin · William Kirby · Jean-Henri Fabre · Carolus Linnaeus · Konrad Lorenz · Thomas Say · Alfred Russel Wallace · more...HistoryPre-Darwin · Post-DarwinThis box: view · talk · edit<br />Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθύς, ikhthus, "fish"; and λόγος, logos, "study") is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. This includes skeletal fish ( HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osteichthyes" o "Osteichthyes" Osteichthyes), cartilaginous fish ( HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chondrichthyes" o "Chondrichthyes" Chondrichthyes), and jawless fish ( HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agnatha" o "Agnatha" Agnatha). While a majority of species have probably been discovered and described, approximately 250 new species are officially described by science each year. According to FishBase, 31,500 species of fish had been described by January 2010.[1] There are more fish species than the combined total of all other vertebrates: mammals, amphibians, reptiles and birds.<br />Zoology<br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />Jump to: navigation, search <br />Part of a series onZoologyBranchesAnthropology · Anthrozoology · Apiology · Arachnology · Arthropodology · Cetology · Conchology · Entomology · Ethology · Helminthology · Herpetology · Ichthyology · Malacology · Mammalogy · Myrmecology · Nematology · Neuroethology · Ornithology · Paleozoology · Planktology · PrimatologyNotable zoologistsGeorges Cuvier · Charles Darwin · William Kirby · Jean-Henri Fabre · Carolus Linnaeus · Konrad Lorenz · Thomas Say · Alfred Russel Wallace · more...HistoryPre-Darwin · Post-DarwinThis box: view · talk · edit<br />Conrad Gesner (1516–1565). His Historiae animalium is considered the beginning of modern zoology.<br />Zoology (pronounced /zoʊˈɒlədʒi/ or /zuːˈɒlədʒi/[1]), occasionally also spelt zoölogy, is the branch of biology which relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct. The term is derived from Ancient Greek ζῷον (zōon, “animal”) + λόγος (logos, “knowledge”).<br />Botany<br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />Jump to: navigation, search <br />"Plant biology" redirects here. For the journal, see Functional Plant Biology.<br />For other uses, see Botany (disambiguation) and Botanic (disambiguation).<br />Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort<br />Botany, plant science(s), phytology, or plant biology is a branch of biology that involves the scientific study of plant life. Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines concerned with the study of plants, algae and fungi, including structure, growth, reproduction, metabolism, development, diseases, chemical properties, and evolutionary relationships among taxonomic groups. Botany began with early human efforts to identify edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest sciences. Today botanists study over 550,000 species of living organisms. Microbiology<br />Embryology<br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />Jump to: navigation, search <br />This article needs additional citations for verification.Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2007)<br />1 - morula, 2 - blastula<br />1 - blastula, 2 - gastrula with blastopore; orange - ectoderm, red - endoderm.<br />Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is a science which is about the development of an embryo from the fertilization of the ovum to the fetus stage. After cleavage, the dividing cells, or morula, becomes a hollow ball, or blastula, which develops a hole or pore at one end.<br />In bilateral animals, the blastula develops in one of two ways that divides the whole animal kingdom into two halves (see: Embryological origins of the mouth and anus). If in the blastula the first pore ( HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blastopore" o "Blastopore" blastopore) becomes the mouth of the animal, it is a protostome; if the first pore becomes the anus then it is a deuterostome. The protostomes include most invertebrate animals, such as insects, worms and molluscs, while the deuterostomes include the vertebrates. In due course, the blastula changes into a more differentiated structure called the gastrula.<br />The gastrula with its blastopore soon develops three distinct layers of cells (the germ layers) from which all the bodily organs and tissues then develop:<br />The innermost layer, or endoderm, gives rise to the digestive organs, lungs and bladder.<br />The middle layer, or mesoderm, gives rise to the muscles, skeleton and blood system.<br />The outer layer of cells, or ectoderm, gives rise to the nervous system and skin.<br />In humans, the term embryo refers to the ball of dividing cells from the moment the zygote implants itself in the uterus wall until the end of the eighth week after conception. Beyond the eighth week, the developing human is then called a fetus. Embryos in many species often appear similar to one another in early developmental stages. The reason for this similarity is because species have a shared evolutionary history. These similarities among species are called homologous structures, which are structures that have the same or similar function and mechanism having evolved from a common ancestor.<br />