How does the One Laptop Per Child Initiative Impact Children, Teachers, and the Community?
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How does the One Laptop Per Child Initiative Impact Children, Teachers, and the Community?

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Slides for my presentation at the Japan Comparative Education Society conference held at Sofia University, Tokyo, Japan on July 7, 2013. Presented at session IV-9 Development and Education.

Slides for my presentation at the Japan Comparative Education Society conference held at Sofia University, Tokyo, Japan on July 7, 2013. Presented at session IV-9 Development and Education.

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How does the One Laptop Per Child Initiative Impact Children, Teachers, and the Community? How does the One Laptop Per Child Initiative Impact Children, Teachers, and the Community? Presentation Transcript

  • How does the One Laptop Per Child Initiative Impact Children, Teachers, and the Community? Japan Comparative Education Society 49th Annual Conference IV-9 Development and Education July 7, 2013 12:30 - 13:00 Yamaguchi-Takada Lab Shinobu Yamaguchi John Auxillos The Yamaguchi-Takada Lab holds the copyright of all images in this presentation unless otherwise specified. Findings from a Mixed-Methods Research in Mongolia Slides Available Here: http://goo.gl/KPJK7 1Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Outline Background - 3 min Methodology - 3 min Findings - 12 min 1. Community 2. Teachers 3. Children • Case of Tsast-Altai Conclusion - 2 min Q&A - 10 min 2Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Presentation Focus “ICT in Education” 3Sunday, July 7, 13 View slide
  • Computer Aided Instruction One-to-One Learning Presentation Focus “ICT in Education” 3Sunday, July 7, 13 View slide
  • Computer Aided Instruction One-to-One Learning Presentation Focus “ICT in Education” 3Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Background 4Sunday, July 7, 13
  • 5Sunday, July 7, 13
  • US Based Non-Profit Organization Spin-out from the MIT Media Lab 5Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Why? 5Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Why? - One Laptop Per Child Mission “empowerment of world’s poorest children through education” 5Sunday, July 7, 13
  • How? 6Sunday, July 7, 13
  • How? “provide each child with a rugged, low- cost, low-power, connected laptop... for collaborative, joyful, and self- empowered learning” - One Laptop Per Child Mission 6Sunday, July 7, 13
  • What? 7Sunday, July 7, 13
  • What? “we have designed hardware, content and software” XO1 - One Laptop Per Child Mission 7Sunday, July 7, 13
  • “we have designed hardware, content and software” Media 1 GB flash memory Operating system Fedora-based (Linux) with Sugar GUI Power NiMH or LiFePO4 removable battery pack CPU AMD Geode LX700 Clocked at 433 Mhz Memory 256 MB DRAM Display dual-mode 19.1 cm/7.5" diagonal TFT LCD 1200×900 Input Keyboard, Touchpad, Microphone, Camera Camera 640×480; 30 FPS Connectivity 802.11b/g /s wireless LAN, 3 x USB 2.0, MMC/SD card slot Dimensions 242 mm × 228 mm × 32 mm Weight 1.45 kg-1.58 kg XO1 - One Laptop Per Child Mission 7Sunday, July 7, 13
  • “we have designed hardware, content and software” Media 1 GB flash memory Operating system Fedora-based (Linux) with Sugar GUI Power NiMH or LiFePO4 removable battery pack CPU AMD Geode LX700 Clocked at 433 Mhz Memory 256 MB DRAM Display dual-mode 19.1 cm/7.5" diagonal TFT LCD 1200×900 Input Keyboard, Touchpad, Microphone, Camera Camera 640×480; 30 FPS Connectivity 802.11b/g /s wireless LAN, 3 x USB 2.0, MMC/SD card slot Dimensions 242 mm × 228 mm × 32 mm Weight 1.45 kg-1.58 kg This was back in 2005. XO1 - One Laptop Per Child Mission 7Sunday, July 7, 13
  • greater than 100,000 10,000-100,000 1,000 to 10,000 100-1,000 less than 100 source: http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Deployments 8Sunday, July 7, 13
  • greater than 100,000 10,000-100,000 1,000 to 10,000 100-1,000 less than 100 53 Countries ~2,000,000 XO Laptops source: http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Deployments 8Sunday, July 7, 13
  • greater than 100,000 10,000-100,000 1,000 to 10,000 100-1,000 less than 100 53 Countries ~2,000,000 XO Laptops source: http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Deployments 8Sunday, July 7, 13
  • greater than 100,000 10,000-100,000 1,000 to 10,000 100-1,000 less than 100 53 Countries ~2,000,000 XO Laptops 12,100 XO1s 47 Schools Distributed in 2008 source: http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Deployments 8Sunday, July 7, 13
  • greater than 100,000 10,000-100,000 1,000 to 10,000 100-1,000 less than 100 What happened to the OLPC initiative in Mongolia? 53 Countries ~2,000,000 XO Laptops 12,100 XO1s 47 Schools Distributed in 2008 source: http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Deployments 8Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Mongolian Education Reform • Collapse of USSR (1991) – Decentralization and democratization – Transition into market economy – Economic shock all sectors – Decreasing the national budget Issues of the Education Sector – fall in enrollment – increase in dropout rate up to 8.8% – deterioration of facilities – lack of training materials – under-paid teachers – no investment in the sector (i.e. no single school or dormitory was built) – closure of many rural school dormitories Policies related to education reform – New Education Law (1993, 2003) – New Educational Standard (2005) – Mongolian Government Action Plan (2008-2012) – Education Master Plan (2006-2015) – Information and Communication Technology in Education Policy (2012-2016) 9Sunday, July 7, 13
  • ICT in Education in Mongolia ICT Related Policies – Education Master Plan (2006-2015) – Amendment on New Education Law (2012) – Information and Communication Technology in Education Policy (2012-2016) World Bank: Supplement Rural Education and Development Project (Netbook Project) Supplement Rural Education and Development (READ) Project JICA Grassroots Project: Sustainable Use of ICT to Improve the Quality of Education in Rural Mongolia MEXT: Sustainable ICT Use in Education: Introducing Technology to Assist Teacher Professional Development (Phase I) (Phase II) World Bank FTI-ICT project on ‘Level-up’ training on advanced level of ICT for primary school teachers ACCU : Promoting Sustainable Development in Education through UNESCO Development Project in Mongolia UN Human Security Fund “Rehabilitation of Boarding Schools and Provision of Refresher Training Course for Headmasters and Teachers in the Dzud affected Gobi Desert provinces” ADB IIROM: Education Sector Reform Project 2003 2004 2005 2007 2009 2010 2012 2013 2017 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 10Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Methodology 11Sunday, July 7, 13
  • 1.Treatment-control comparison (before and after, with and without OLPC) 2.Attitudinal comparison (computer disposition) 3.Understand the experiences of the users (children, teachers & community) Mixed Methods Research Design (1) 12Sunday, July 7, 13
  • 2008 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Mixed Methods Research Design (2) 13Sunday, July 7, 13
  • introduced 2008 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Mixed Methods Research Design (2) 13Sunday, July 7, 13
  • introduced World Bank Rural Education And Development Project National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=4,750 5th Grade Students 166 Schools from all Regions (12 selected as OLPC Schools) 2008 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Mixed Methods Research Design (2) 13Sunday, July 7, 13
  • introduced World Bank Rural Education And Development Project National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=4,750 5th Grade Students 166 Schools from all Regions (12 selected as OLPC Schools) National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=2000 5th Grade Students 2008 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Mixed Methods Research Design (2) 13Sunday, July 7, 13
  • introduced World Bank Rural Education And Development Project National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=4,750 5th Grade Students 166 Schools from all Regions (12 selected as OLPC Schools) National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=2000 5th Grade Students 2008 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 7 OLPC Schools Tested 7 OLPC Schools Mixed Methods Research Design (2) 13Sunday, July 7, 13
  • introduced World Bank Rural Education And Development Project National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=4,750 5th Grade Students 166 Schools from all Regions (12 selected as OLPC Schools) National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=2000 5th Grade Students 2008 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 7 OLPC Schools Tested 7 OLPC Schools 7 Paired non-OLPC schools 7 Paired non-OLPC schools Mixed Methods Research Design (2) 13Sunday, July 7, 13
  • introduced World Bank Rural Education And Development Project National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=4,750 5th Grade Students 166 Schools from all Regions (12 selected as OLPC Schools) National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=2000 5th Grade Students 2008 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 7 OLPC Schools Tested 7 OLPC Schools 7 Paired non-OLPC schools 7 Paired non-OLPC schools Pairing Strategy • nearby school (similar conditions) • on the advice of local education specialists Mixed Methods Research Design (2) 13Sunday, July 7, 13
  • introduced World Bank Rural Education And Development Project National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=4,750 5th Grade Students 166 Schools from all Regions (12 selected as OLPC Schools) National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=2000 5th Grade Students 2008 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 7 OLPC Schools Tested 7 OLPC Schools 7 Paired non-OLPC schools 7 Paired non-OLPC schools Pairing Strategy • nearby school (similar conditions) • on the advice of local education specialists Analysis • difference-in-differences (DID) to measure treatment over time • average school student learning achievement test scores Mixed Methods Research Design (2) 13Sunday, July 7, 13
  • introduced World Bank Rural Education And Development Project National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=4,750 5th Grade Students 166 Schools from all Regions (12 selected as OLPC Schools) National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=2000 5th Grade Students Computer Attitude Measure For Young Students (Teo & Noyes 2008) Computer Disposition 1) perceived ease of use 2) affect towards computers 3) perceived usefulness 2008 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 7 OLPC Schools Tested 7 OLPC Schools 7 Paired non-OLPC schools 7 Paired non-OLPC schools Pairing Strategy • nearby school (similar conditions) • on the advice of local education specialists Analysis • difference-in-differences (DID) to measure treatment over time • average school student learning achievement test scores Mixed Methods Research Design (2) 13Sunday, July 7, 13
  • introduced World Bank Rural Education And Development Project National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=4,750 5th Grade Students 166 Schools from all Regions (12 selected as OLPC Schools) National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=2000 5th Grade Students Computer Attitude Measure For Young Students (Teo & Noyes 2008) Computer Disposition 1) perceived ease of use 2) affect towards computers 3) perceived usefulness 2008 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 7 OLPC Schools Tested 7 OLPC Schools 7 Paired non-OLPC schools 7 Paired non-OLPC schools Pairing Strategy • nearby school (similar conditions) • on the advice of local education specialists Analysis • difference-in-differences (DID) to measure treatment over time • average school student learning achievement test scores Analysis • descriptive analysis • significant tests of means Mixed Methods Research Design (2) 13Sunday, July 7, 13
  • introduced World Bank Rural Education And Development Project National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=4,750 5th Grade Students 166 Schools from all Regions (12 selected as OLPC Schools) National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=2000 5th Grade Students Computer Attitude Measure For Young Students (Teo & Noyes 2008) Computer Disposition 1) perceived ease of use 2) affect towards computers 3) perceived usefulness 2008 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 7 OLPC Schools Tested 7 OLPC Schools 7 Paired non-OLPC schools 7 Paired non-OLPC schools Pairing Strategy • nearby school (similar conditions) • on the advice of local education specialists Analysis • difference-in-differences (DID) to measure treatment over time • average school student learning achievement test scores Analysis • descriptive analysis • significant tests of means Mixed Methods Research Design (2) Interviews & Focus Group Discussions at the Schools 13Sunday, July 7, 13
  • introduced World Bank Rural Education And Development Project National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=4,750 5th Grade Students 166 Schools from all Regions (12 selected as OLPC Schools) National Achievement Test of Mathematics and Reading n=2000 5th Grade Students Computer Attitude Measure For Young Students (Teo & Noyes 2008) Computer Disposition 1) perceived ease of use 2) affect towards computers 3) perceived usefulness 2008 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 7 OLPC Schools Tested 7 OLPC Schools 7 Paired non-OLPC schools 7 Paired non-OLPC schools Pairing Strategy • nearby school (similar conditions) • on the advice of local education specialists Analysis • difference-in-differences (DID) to measure treatment over time • average school student learning achievement test scores Analysis • descriptive analysis • significant tests of means Mixed Methods Research Design (2) Interviews & Focus Group Discussions at the Schools Today’s Presentation Focus • Interviews & Focus Group Discussions • CAMYS 13Sunday, July 7, 13
  • • Visited 8 (of 47) OLPC schools in Mongolia – 2 Urban – 6 Rural • Interviews –school administrators (6) –local education specialists and directors (4) –parents (3) • Class Observations (2) • Focus Group Discussions (11) –teachers (40) –Gr 5 Children (42) Interviews and Focus Group Discussions 14Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Findings Community Teachers Children 15Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Findings Community Teachers Children Case of Tsast-Altai 15Sunday, July 7, 13
  • 1. Community 16Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Perspective from the Community and Parents 17Sunday, July 7, 13
  • • There is a positive acceptance of the OLPC initiative. –Parents actively participate in school competitions. –Take financial responsibility for one-to-one learning and investing in ICT. Perspective from the Community and Parents 17Sunday, July 7, 13
  • • There is a positive acceptance of the OLPC initiative. –Parents actively participate in school competitions. –Take financial responsibility for one-to-one learning and investing in ICT. • OLPC initiative helped trigger an ICT movement from the grassroots level –Children teach their parents • Parents create on the XO with children • Parents willing to invest (e.g. buy a PC) –Parents request local government for laptop project (Zavkhan) Perspective from the Community and Parents 17Sunday, July 7, 13
  • 2. Teachers 18Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Teachers’ View on the OLPC (1) 19Sunday, July 7, 13
  • • OLPC helped trigger an ICT movement in the school –Teachers teamed up together to teach each other to catch up with the ICT trend. –Teachers type out lesson plans, use email, get news from the internet. Teachers’ View on the OLPC (1) 19Sunday, July 7, 13
  • • OLPC helped trigger an ICT movement in the school –Teachers teamed up together to teach each other to catch up with the ICT trend. –Teachers type out lesson plans, use email, get news from the internet. • Despite limited training, XOs were used and integrated into childrens’ learning –Teachers discovered that lesson plans need to be rewritten using student centered approach to fully utilize the XO1s. –Teachers realized that the XO is best used as a self- learning tool for children Teachers’ View on the OLPC (1) 19Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Teachers’ View on the OLPC (2) 20Sunday, July 7, 13
  • • Recognize that it is a “great opportunity for children to be exposed to ICT at an early age” –Children learn basic ICT skills –Able to type, turn on/off a computer Teachers’ View on the OLPC (2) 20Sunday, July 7, 13
  • • Recognize that it is a “great opportunity for children to be exposed to ICT at an early age” –Children learn basic ICT skills –Able to type, turn on/off a computer • There are concerns –Safety of children who bring laptops to and from school is an issue (at Ulaanbaatar). –Some teachers receive complains from parents that children “spend all their time on this green thing”. –There are isolated cases where some teachers are made to bare the cost of repairing or replacement of XOs. Teachers’ View on the OLPC (2) 20Sunday, July 7, 13
  • 3. Children 21Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Computer Attitude Measure for Young Students 22Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Computer Attitude Measure for Young Students • Measure for computer disposition (Teo & Noyes 2008) –perceived ease of use –attitude towards use –perceived usefulness 22Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Computer Attitude Measure for Young Students • Measure for computer disposition (Teo & Noyes 2008) –perceived ease of use –attitude towards use –perceived usefulness • 12-item 5-point likert scale 22Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Computer Attitude Measure for Young Students • Measure for computer disposition (Teo & Noyes 2008) –perceived ease of use –attitude towards use –perceived usefulness • 12-item 5-point likert scale • Expect to find that students who have XOs have a higher disposition for computers 22Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Computer Attitude Measure for Young Students • Measure for computer disposition (Teo & Noyes 2008) –perceived ease of use –attitude towards use –perceived usefulness • 12-item 5-point likert scale • Expect to find that students who have XOs have a higher disposition for computers • Findings –We find differences in the computer disposition between OLPC and non-OLPC schools in the rural area. 22Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Computer Attitude Measure for Young Students • Measure for computer disposition (Teo & Noyes 2008) –perceived ease of use –attitude towards use –perceived usefulness • 12-item 5-point likert scale • Expect to find that students who have XOs have a higher disposition for computers • Findings –We find differences in the computer disposition between OLPC and non-OLPC schools in the rural area. –Children in urban schools (OLPC and non-OLPC) have the same level of computer disposition 22Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Computer Attitude Measure for Young Students Rural Urban 23Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Computer Attitude Measure for Young Students Rural Urban 23Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Computer Attitude Measure for Young Students Rural Urban 23Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Computer Attitude Measure for Young Students Rural Urban Urban Teachers: Children have access to computers and smartphones at home 23Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Case of Tsast-Altai School in Khovd Province (2013-01) 24Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Quantitative Measures: Student Learning Achievement 2012 2012 OLPC OLPC 25Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Quantitative Measures: Computer Attitude N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean OLPC Non-OLPC 110 81% 0.11714 0.01117 102 62% 0.18909 0.01872 CAMYS Total Score in % Levene's Test for Equality of Variances Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Meanst-test for Equality of Meanst-test for Equality of Meanst-test for Equality of Meanst-test for Equality of Meanst-test for Equality of Meanst-test for Equality of Means F Sig. t df Sig. (2- tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed 19.014 0.000 8.597 210 0.000 0.18428 0.02144 0.14202 0.22654 8.453 166.173 0 0.18428 0.0218 0.14124 0.22732 OLPC 26Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Perspectives on Children 27Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Perspectives on Children Children enjoy playing and creating helping each other out staying after school to use the XO (and the connecting to the internet) finding that accessing information on the internet is easy would like to show our works 27Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Perspectives on Children Children enjoy playing and creating helping each other out staying after school to use the XO (and the connecting to the internet) finding that accessing information on the internet is easy would like to show our works Teachers disciplined creative collaborative self-starting 27Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Perspectives on Children Children enjoy playing and creating helping each other out staying after school to use the XO (and the connecting to the internet) finding that accessing information on the internet is easy would like to show our works Teachers disciplined creative collaborative self-starting School Management increase in medals improves school reputation great opportunity to use ICT at an early age 27Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Perspectives on Children Children enjoy playing and creating helping each other out staying after school to use the XO (and the connecting to the internet) finding that accessing information on the internet is easy would like to show our works Teachers disciplined creative collaborative self-starting School Management increase in medals improves school reputation great opportunity to use ICT at an early age Parents playing, exploring, creating learn very fast has willingness to teach family center of ICT in the family 27Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Perspectives on Children Children enjoy playing and creating helping each other out staying after school to use the XO (and the connecting to the internet) finding that accessing information on the internet is easy would like to show our works Teachers disciplined creative collaborative self-starting School Management increase in medals improves school reputation great opportunity to use ICT at an early age Tokyo Tech unreserved confident to express themselves proud to show off what they can do Parents playing, exploring, creating learn very fast has willingness to teach family center of ICT in the family 27Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Conclusion 28Sunday, July 7, 13
  • http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2395763,00.asp 29Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Conclusion 30Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Conclusion • One-to-one learning has benefits that impact not only children, but also teachers and the communities they are introduced in. 30Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Conclusion • One-to-one learning has benefits that impact not only children, but also teachers and the communities they are introduced in. • This preliminary results suggest the need for that multiple approach to reflect the reality of the use of the XO1s. 30Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Conclusion • One-to-one learning has benefits that impact not only children, but also teachers and the communities they are introduced in. • This preliminary results suggest the need for that multiple approach to reflect the reality of the use of the XO1s. • Our research findings cannot be generalized for the entire Mongolia and further research is needed. 30Sunday, July 7, 13
  • Thank you for listening! Shinobu Yamaguchi yamaguchi@gsic.titech.ac.jp John Auxillos auxillos@ap.ide.titech.ac.jp 31Sunday, July 7, 13