Does the One Laptop Per Child Initiative Improve Primary Education?
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Does the One Laptop Per Child Initiative Improve Primary Education?

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Slides for my presentation at the Comparative International Education Society Conference 2013 at New Orleans, LA, USA on March 13, 2013 during the ICT4D Special Interest Group Highlighted Session:......

Slides for my presentation at the Comparative International Education Society Conference 2013 at New Orleans, LA, USA on March 13, 2013 during the ICT4D Special Interest Group Highlighted Session: Technology and Education Shifts

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  • 1. March 13, 2013 Does the One Laptop Per Child Initiative Improve Primary Education? ICT4D: Technology and Educational Shifts 1:45pm - 3:15pm Hilton Riverside Hotel, Second - Marlborough A John Auxillos | Masters Student @ Tokyo Institute of Technology Khishigbuyan Dayan-Ochir | Rural Education and Development Project, Mongolia Sukhbaatar Javzan | Institute of Finance and Economics, Ulanbaatar, Mongolia Bat-Erdene Regsuren | American University of Mongolia Shinobu Yume Yamaguchi | Tokyo Institute of Technology 1
  • 2. Mongolia  population: 2.7 million (2010)  low population density + nomadic lifestyle  literacy rate ~ 95%  computer-student ratio target: 1:25  % of schools connected to the internet: 50% (2012) Background 2 Transition towards democracy (1990) • decentralization and liberalization • transition to market economy • structural changes in all sectors Issues of the education sector 1. decrease in education budget 2. school drop-outs 3. urban migration of rural teachers 4. inadequate infrastructure 5. curriculum content 6. aligning years of schooling to international practice 7. lack of ICT skills and equipment
  • 3. Reference: http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Deployments http://cartodb.com/attributions http://cdb.io/10knTRF 3 Background
  • 4. Background OLPC in Mongolia electricity infrastructure 47 Schools 12,100 XO1 Distributed in 2008 4 Electricity Grid Town Generator No Data
  • 5. Background OLPC in Mongolia internet infrastructure (to school…) 47 Schools 12,100 XO1 Distributed in 2008 5 Fiber Dial-Up Wireless 3G Satellite No Internet No Data
  • 6. How do we do our research?  What was the impact of the OLPC in Mongolia?  Mixed-Methods Methodology  blend of both quantitative and qualitative data gathering techniques to increase robustness of interpretation (Creswell 2010)  Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills Development Framework Methodology Cognitive Quantitative Data • mathematical abstractions • reading comprehension Non-Cognitive • attitude • confidence • collaboration • “soft skills” Qualitative Data 6
  • 7. Quantitative Data  Instrument 1: National Achievement Test on Mathematics and Reading  World Bank Rural Education And Development Project 2008 for Grade 5 students  Math - number sense, algebra, geometry, probability  Reading - language meaning, grammar  Instrument 2: Computer Attitude Measure For Young Students (CAMYS)  Teo & Noyes, 2008  measures computer disposition for 11-12 year old students  Twelve 5-point likert scale questions on 1) perceived ease of use 2) affect towards computers 3) perceived usefulness Methodology Quasi-experimental study: Paired 7 OLPC and 7 non- OLPC schools with similar conditions 2008 2012 Data Source WB READ OLPC Study N 4750 1915 Content Math and Reading 201 2 N OLPC 967 Non-OLPC 948 7
  • 8. Qualitative Data Methodology 8  Interviews (semi-structured)  school administrators (3)  local education specialists & directors (4)  parents (2)  Focus group discussions (6)  teachers (32)  OLPC schools (6)  Grade 5 Children (2 grps)  education specialists  Classroom observations (1)
  • 9. Findings What have we found? (qualitative findings – aggregate picture) 9
  • 10. Findings 10 Teachers Children Parents Community Ministry School Management
  • 11. Findings Teachers  OLPC -> triggered an ICT movement at school  compelled to catch up with ICT  team up to teach each other about ICT  Teachers found means of maximizing the XO1s  discovered/learned to rewrite lesson plan (student centered approach)  teachers recognized the XOs as a self-learning tool for children  Acknowledgement of benefits and concerns  “great opportunity for children to be exposed to ICT at an early age”  safety of children (in Ulaanbaatar)  "My kid spends all his time on this green thing"  Possible concern for childrens' eyesight 11
  • 12. Parents/Community  Positive acceptance of the OLPC initiative  Recognition of ICT opportunity  Take financial responsibility  Parents participating in school activities  OLPC initiative helped trigger an ICT movement from the grassroots level  Children teach their parents  Parents make creative works on the XO  Parent willing to buy a PC  Parents request local government for laptop project Findings 12
  • 13. Management Education Specialists/Ministry of Education  OLPC initiative was supported by the local culture and environment  Competition  Close collaboration  Schools and local government are responsible for integrating the XO in a way they find fit  weekly curriculum schedule  special training (in addition to the PMU training) Findings 13
  • 14. Children perspectives from parents and educators  are more self-starting, creative, confident, curious, independent, disciplined, and collaborative  in the classroom are disciplined and excited for lessons  spend after school hours self-learning on the computer Findings 14
  • 15. Findings: Khovd Case 15 School Management increase in medals improves school reputation great opportunity to use ICT at an early age Children enjoy playing and creating helping each other out staying after school to use the XO (and the connecting to the internet) finding that accessing information on the internet is easy would like to show our works Tokyo Tech unreserved confident to express themselves proud to show off what they can do Parents playing, exploring, creating learn very fast has willingness to teach family center of ICT in the family Teachers disciplined creative collaborative self-starting
  • 16. Issues  Different understanding of objectives of the initiative Findings 16 OLPC improve quality of primary education Ministry expose children to ICT, develop e-learning content Teachers opportunity to be exposed to ICT Improve children’s skills with the use of ICT (Khovd)  Service and repair system gap  Original idea: decentralized + grassroots level service and support  Reality: some parents cannot pay, repair is done at the capital city, policy focused on allocation of responsibility (i.e. parents pay for repair, PMU will do repair work), software updates rarely pushed  Uncertainty of the future of the OLPC initiative in Mongolia  XOs deployed are 3-4 years in operation (2012 – no more spare parts, laptop batteries are not functional)  OLPC project management unit in Mongolia was dissolved and integrated to the teacher development center  Khovd province doing research on how to implement one-to-one learning programs
  • 17. Conclusion Does the One Laptop Per Child Does the One Laptop Per Child Initiative Improve Primary Education? Initiative Improve Primary Education? at school and community level 1. Teachers, parents, school administrators believe that the OLPC is changing the development of children. 2. The OLPC initiative was a trigger for ICT adoption from the grassroots level. (“there is something going on”) 3. Further research is needed on the impact of the OLPC specific to the culture (school level) in which it is used, integrated and perceived. 17
  • 18. March 13, 2012 Thank you for listening! John Auxillos | Masters Student @ Tokyo Institute of Technology Khishigbuyan Dayan-Ochir | Rural Education and Development Project, Mongolia Sukhbaatar Javzan | Institute of Finance and Economics, Ulanbaatar, Mongolia Bat-Erdene Regsuren | American University of Mongolia Shinobu Yume Yamaguchi | Tokyo Institute of Technology Email us at: auxillos@ap.ide.titech.ac.jp khishid@gmail.com yamaguchi@gsic.titech.ac.jp 18