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Does the One Laptop Per Child Initiative Improve Primary Education?
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Does the One Laptop Per Child Initiative Improve Primary Education?

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Slides for my presentation at the Comparative International Education Society Conference 2013 at New Orleans, LA, USA on March 13, 2013 during the ICT4D Special Interest Group Highlighted Session: ...

Slides for my presentation at the Comparative International Education Society Conference 2013 at New Orleans, LA, USA on March 13, 2013 during the ICT4D Special Interest Group Highlighted Session: Technology and Education Shifts

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Does the One Laptop Per Child Initiative Improve Primary Education? Does the One Laptop Per Child Initiative Improve Primary Education? Presentation Transcript

  • March 13, 2012 Does the One Laptop Per ChildInitiative Improve Primary Education? ICT4D: Technology and Educational Shifts 1:45pm - 3:15pm Hilton Riverside Hotel, Second - Marlborough A John Auxillos | Masters Student @ Tokyo Institute of TechnologyKhishigbuyan Dayan-Ochir | Rural Education and Development Project, Mongolia Sukhbaatar Javzan | Institute of Finance and Economics, Ulanbaatar, Mongolia Bat-Erdene Regsuren | American University of Mongolia Shinobu Yume Yamaguchi | Tokyo Institute of Technology 1
  • Background Transition towardsMongolia democracy (1990) • decentralization and liberalization population: 2.7 • transition to market economy • structural changes in all sectors million (2010) low population Issues of the education sector density + nomadic 1. decrease in education lifestyle budget 2. school drop-outs literacy rate ~ 95% 3. urban migration of rural computer-student teachers 4. inadequate infrastructure ratio target: 1:25 5. curriculum content % of schools 6. aligning years of schooling to connected to the international practice 7. lack of ICT skills and internet: 50% (2012) equipment 2
  • Background Reference: http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Deployments http://cartodb.com/attributions http://cdb.io/10knTRF 3
  • Background OLPC in Mongolia electricity infrastructure Electricity Grid Town Generator No Data47 Schools 12,100 XO1 Distributed in 2008 4
  • Background OLPC in Mongolia internet infrastructure (to school…) Fiber Dial-Up Wireless 3G Satellite No Internet No Data47 Schools 12,100 XO1 Distributed in 2008 5
  • MethodologyHow do we do our research? What was the impact of the OLPC in Mongolia? Mixed-Methods Methodology  blend of both quantitative and qualitative data gathering techniques to increase robustness of interpretation (Creswell 2010)  Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills Development Framework Cognitive Non-Cognitive Quantitative Data • mathematical • attitude abstractions • confidence • reading •Qualitative collaboration comprehension Data • “soft skills” 6
  • Methodology Quantitative Data Quasi-experimental study: Paired 7 OLPC and 7 non- OLPC schools with similar conditions Instrument 1: National Achievement Test 2008 2012 on Mathematics and Reading  World Bank Rural Education And Data WB OLPC Development Project 2008 for Grade 5 Source READ Study students N 4750 1915  Math - number sense, algebra, geometry, probability Content Math and  Reading - language meaning, grammar Reading Instrument 2: Computer Attitude Measure For Young Students (CAMYS) 201  Teo & Noyes, 2008 2  measures computer disposition for 11-12 year N old students  Twelve 5-point likert scale questions on OLPC 967 1) perceived ease of use 2) affect towards computers 3) perceived usefulness Non-OLPC 948 7
  • MethodologyQualitative Data Interviews (semi-structured)  Focus group discussions (6)  school administrators (3)  teachers (32)  local education specialists  OLPC schools (6) & directors (4)  Grade 5 Children (2 grps)  parents (2)  education specialists  Classroom observations (1) 8
  • FindingsWhat have we found?(qualitative findings – aggregate picture) 9
  • Findings Teachers Ministry Parents Children School CommunityManagement 10
  • FindingsTeachers OLPC -> triggered an ICT movement at school  compelled to catch up with ICT  team up to teach each other about ICT Teachers found means of maximizing the XO1s  discovered/learned to rewrite lesson plan (student centered approach)  teachers recognized the XOs as a self- learning tool for children Acknowledgement of benefits and concerns  “great opportunity for children to be exposed to ICT at an early age”  safety of children (in Ulaanbaatar)  "My kid spends all his time on this green thing"  Possible concern for childrens eyesight 11
  • FindingsParents/Community Positive acceptance of the OLPC initiative  Recognition of ICT opportunity  Take financial responsibility  Parents participating in school activities OLPC initiative helped trigger an ICT movement from the grassroots level  Children teach their parents  Parents make creative works on the XO  Parent willing to buy a PC  Parents request local government for laptop project 12
  • FindingsManagementEducation Specialists/Ministry of Education OLPC initiative was supported by the local culture and environment  Competition  Close collaboration Schools and local government are responsible for integrating the XO in a way they find fit  weekly curriculum schedule  special training (in addition to the PMU training) 13
  • FindingsChildrenperspectives from parents and educators are more self-starting, creative, confident, curious, independent, disciplined, and collaborative in the classroom are disciplined and excited for lessons spend after school hours self-learning on the computer 14
  • Findings: Khovd Case Teachers disciplined School Management creative increase in medals collaborative improves school reputation self-starting great opportunity to use ICT at an early age Children enjoy playing and creating helping each other outstaying after school to use the XO (and the connecting to the internet) finding that accessing information on the internet is easy would like to show our works Parents Tokyo Tech playing, exploring, creating unreserved learn very fast confident to express themselves has willingness to teach familyproud to show off what they can do center of ICT in the family 15
  • Findings Issues OLPC improve quality of primary education Different understanding Ministry expose children to ICT, develop e-learning content of objectives of Teachers opportunity to be exposed to ICT the initiative Improve children’s skills with the use of ICT (Khovd) Service and repair system gap  Original idea: decentralized + grassroots level service and support  Reality: some parents cannot pay, repair is done at the capital city, policy focused on allocation of responsibility (i.e. parents pay for repair, PMU will do repair work), software updates rarely pushed Uncertainty of the future of the OLPC initiative in Mongolia  XOs deployed are 3-4 years in operation (2012 – no more spare parts, laptop batteries are not functional)  OLPC project management unit in Mongolia was dissolved and integrated to the teacher development center  Khovd province doing research on how to implement one-to-one learning programs 16
  • Conclusion Does the One Laptop Per ChildDoes the One Laptop Per Child Initiative Improve Primary Education?Initiative Improve Primary Education? at school and community level 1. Teachers, parents, school administrators believe that the OLPC is changing the development of children. 2. The OLPC initiative was a trigger for ICT adoption from the grassroots level. (“there is something going on”) 3. Further research is needed on the impact of the OLPC specific to the culture (school level) in which it is used, integrated and perceived. 17
  • March 13, 2012 Thank you for listening! John Auxillos | Masters Student @ Tokyo Institute of TechnologyKhishigbuyan Dayan-Ochir | Rural Education and Development Project, Mongolia Sukhbaatar Javzan | Institute of Finance and Economics, Ulanbaatar, Mongolia Bat-Erdene Regsuren | American University of Mongolia Shinobu Yume Yamaguchi | Tokyo Institute of Technology Email us at: auxillos@ap.ide.titech.ac.jp khishid@gmail.com yamaguchi@gsic.titech.ac.jp 18