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Presentation 3.1 Where does corruption occur?

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    Presentation 3.1 Where does corruption occur? Presentation 3.1 Where does corruption occur? Presentation Transcript

    • Module 3 Corruption Risk Mapping Session 3.1 Where does corruption occur? Training workshop 3-5 Nov 2010 Strengthening transparency, integrity and accountability IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre
    • In this session:
      • We are all familiar with some aspects of corruption, through our own experience, or exposure through others, the media etc.
      • It is helpful to be able to categorise corruption types, as a precursor to planning anti-corruption (pro accountability/transparency) activities.
      • So, in this session, we:
        • Map out different corruption types.
        • Highlight some early warning signs indicators.
        • Take a first look at anti-corruption activities.
      • Acknowledgement – Janelle Plummer
    • Locating corruption Public Officials Public Actors Consumers Private Corruption occurs between public officials and three different sets of actors Elsewhere?
    • Mapping Matrix
      • PUBLIC
      • CONSUMER
      • interactions
      PUBLIC PRIVATE interactions PUBLIC PUBLIC interactions Tendering and Procurement Construction / Operations Payment Systems Policy-making and regulating Planning / budgeting / transfers Management
    • Corruption locations Public Officials - Public Actors Public Officials to Private Public Officials to Consumer
      • Policy making/regulating
      • Diversion of funds
      • Distortions in decision- and policy- making
      • Procurement
      • Bribery, fraud, collusion in tenders
      • Construction
      • Theft of materials
      • Fraudulent documents
      • Planning and budgeting
      • Corruption in planning and management
      • Bribery and kickbacks in fiscal transfers
      • Construction
      • Fraud/bribes in construction
      • Work not carried out to spec
      • Operations
      • Admin corruption
      • (access, service, speed)
      • Management and Programme Design
      • Appointments, transfers
      • Preferred candidates
      • Project selection
      • Operations
      • Fraud/bribes
      • Payment systems
      • Meter, billing and collection: fraud, extortion and bribery
    • Mapping our experiences
      • Start with the case studies we heard yesterday and then add on other experiences
      • So, firstly locate on a matrix the case studies we heard about yesterday
      • Then, briefly highlight further corruption experiences:
        • One sentence summary
        • What type of corruption
        • We’ll add that to the matrix
      • Early warning indicators
      • Monopolies / tariff abnormalities
      • Lack of clarity of regulator / provider roles
      • Embezzlement in budgeting, planning, fiscal transfers
      • Speed / complexity of budget processes
      • No.of signatures
      • % spending on capital intensive spending
      • Unqualified senior staff
      • Low salaries, high perks, cf. HH assets
      • Increase in price of informal water
      PUBLIC to PUBLIC interactions
      • Planning and budgeting
      • Corruption in planning and management
      • Bribery and kickbacks in fiscal transfers
      • Management and Program Design
      • Appointments, transfers
      • Preferred candidates
      • Selection of projects
      • Policy-making / Regulating
      • Diversion of funds
      • Distortions in decision-making, policy-making
      • Anti-corruption Measures
      • Policy and tariff reform
      • Separation
      • Transparent minimum standards
      • Independent auditing
      • Citizen oversight and monitoring
      • Technical auditing
      • Participatory planning and budgeting
      • Performance based staff reforms
      • Transparent, competitive appointments
      • Early warning indicators
      • Same tender lists
      • Bidders drop out
      • Higher unit costs
      • Variation orders
      • Low worker payments
      • Single source supply
      • Change in quality and coverage
      • Anti-corruption Measures
      • Simplify tender documents
      • Bidding transparency
      • Independent tender evaluation
      • Integrity pacts
      • Citizen oversight and monitoring
      • Technical auditing
      • Citizen auditing, public hearings
      • Benchmarking
      • SSIP support mechs
      PUBLIC to PRIVATE interactions
      • Procurement
      • Bribery, fraud, collusion in tenders
      • Construction
      • Fraud / bribes in construction
      • Operations
      • Fraud / bribes in construction
      • PUBLIC to CONSUMER
      • interactions
      • Construction
      • Community based WSS – theft of materials
      • Fraudulent documents
      • Operations
      • Admin corruption
      • (access, service, speed)
      Payment systems
      • meter, billing and collection – fraud and bribery
      • Early warning indicators
      • Loss of materials
      • Infrastructure
      • failure
      • Low rate of faults
      • Lack of interest in connection campaigns
      • Night time tanking
      • Unexplained variations in revenues
      • Anti-corruption Measures
      • Corruption assessments
      • Citizen monitoring and oversight
      • Report cards
      • Transparency in reporting
      • Citizen oversight and monitoring
      • Complaint redressal
      • Reform to customer interface (e.g. women cashiers)