History of Imaging
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History of Imaging

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History of Imaging

History of Imaging

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    History of Imaging History of Imaging Presentation Transcript

    • The History of Imaging Conventional/Silver Processes
    • Visual Communication began with Cave Art
    • Continued with Hieroglyphics
    • Then lead into Drawing/Painting
    • Aiding Drawing/Painting with Camera Obscura
    • Camera Obscura
      • The earliest camera obscura s were actually rooms with a hole in the wall at one end, which projected an image (upside down) on the wall at the opposite end. These were eventually made portable to a box that could be carried around and pointed at various scenes to project an image on a ground-glass screen. An artist could then trace the scene from the ground glass onto paper.
    • The first “ photo•graph ” (Light Drawing)
      • Name: Helio•graph (Sun Drawing)
      • Date/Location: c.1826/France
      • Creator: Nicéphore Niépce (nee•say• fawr nyeps)
      • Materials:
        • Pewter plate
        • Bitumen of Judea
        • Oil of Lavendar
      • Equipment: Camera Obscura
      • Exposure time: Eight hours
      • Disadvantages
        • Long exposure times
        • Poor image quality
        • Unique image (non-reproducible)
    • First Popular Photographic Process
      • Name: Daguerreotype
      • Date/Location:
        • Announced 1839
        • France
      • Creator: Jacques Mandé Daguerre (da• gherr )
      • Materials:
        • Siver-plated copper sheet
        • Iodine
        • Mercury
        • Sodium thiosulfate
      • Exposure time: 15 - 30 seconds
        • Not go for any motion
      • Advantage: beautiful, durable, grainless image
      • Disadvantages
        • Exposure times still too long
        • Difficult to view
        • Poisonous chemicals
        • Non-reproducible
    • First Reproducible Process
      • Name: Calo•type (beautiful impression) or Talbotype
      • Date/Location: 1839/England
      • Creator: William Henry Fox Talbot
      • Materials:
        • Silver chloride
        • Paper
        • Silver iodide/Gallo nitrate
      • Exposure time: 5 seconds
      • Advantage: silver NEGATIVE image
      • could be reproduced
      • Disadvantage: paper base obscured detail
        • of the reproduced images
    • Wet-Plate Process
      • Name: Collodion wet-plate (also Ambrotype & Tintype )
      • 1851/England
      • Frederick Scott Archer
      • Materials:
        • Glass plate
        • Collodion (nitrocellulose/ether/alcohol)
        • Silver chloride, Silver iodide,Silver nitrate
      • Exposure time: 5 seconds
      • Advantages:
        • Transparent (glass) base produced sharp, clear images
        • Negative image could be printed on paper for limitless reproduction
      • Disadvantages:
        • Must be exposed and developed wet
        • Exposure times still too long.
    • Notable Glass Plate
      • Taken by Alexander Gardner in 1865, the picture of Abraham Lincoln has A jagged line that appears upper-right corner of the photograph and slashes through the top of Lincoln ’ s head. It ’ s a crack in the glass-plate negative due to careless handling by the photographer or his assistant. This is one of the last images of the President before being assonated two months later.
      • 1871/England
      • Richard L. Maddox
      • Materials:
        • Glass plate
        • Gelatin emulsion
        • (increased sensitivity of silver compounds)
        • Silver salts
      • Exposure time: under 1 second
      • Advantages:
        • Motion-stopping exposure times
        • Plates could be exposed dry
      Dry-Plate Process: Gelatin Emulsion
    • Other Improvements to Conventional Photography
      • Projection printing (enlarging) allowed use of smaller negatives/smaller cameras
      • Emulsion coated onto flexible film allowed roll-film (George Eastman of Eastman Kodak)
      • Color Images
        • 1861 an additive color process
        • 1869 subtractive color theory developed
        • 1907 Autochrome process
        • 1935 Kodachrome film introduced
      • 1936 : Development of Kodachrome, the first color multi-layered color film; development of Exakta, pioneering 35mm single-lens reflex (SLR) camera
      • 1963 : First color instant film developed by Polaroid; Instamatic released by Kodak;
      • 1973 : C-41 color negative process introduced. (That ’ s what we still use today for color neg. film.)
      • 1990 : Adobe Photoshop released.
      • 1991 : Kodak DCS-100, first digital SLR
      • 2000 : Camera phone introduced in Japan by Sharp/J-Phone
      • 2001 : Polaroid goes bankrupt
      • 2004 : Kodak ceases production of film cameras