1 The Glow-Worm Churchillians by-the-Bay E-Newsletter Northern California Volume 3, Issue 1 First Quarter 2011 “We are all worms. But I do believe that I am a glow-worm.” **(Violet Bonham Carter, Winston Churchill as I knew Him, page 16—WSC’s remark was made at a dinner given by Lady Mary Elcho.) Winston Churchill confers with Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay See our lead article by David Ramsay son of Sir Bertram Ramsay: Memories of WorldWar II, Part III, page 3.
3Memories of World War II, Part III by David Ramsay About the author David Ramsay:David Ramsay’s late father, Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay, had adistinguished career in World War II, being responsible for the Dunkirkevacuation in May-June 1940. He was the Allied Naval C-in-C for thesuccessful Normandy Invasion in June 1944.David has a degree in history and economics from Trinity College,Cambridge and has long been interested in the history of both World Warsand in the career of Winston Churchill as well as in the history ofrailroads and ocean transport. He is President of The Churchillians of theDesert, the local affiliate of the Churchill Centre in the Coachella Valley.After he retired, he took up writing and his first book LUSITANIA SAGAAND MYTH, a history of the great but ill-fated liner, has been publishedin both the UK and the US. He has also written on the TITANIC for theBBC History Magazine, a history of the John Menzies bookstalls (acompany for which he worked for many years) on British railway stationsfor the Archives of the National Railway Museum in York and historicalarticles for British Regimental Magazines.His second book, BLINKER HALL SPYMASTER THE MAN WHOBRUGHT AMERICA INTO WORLD WAR I, was published in the UK inJuly 2008 and in the US in March 2009.The book tells the dramatic story of Admiral Sir Reginald ‘Blinker’ Halland the Naval Intelligence Division he led with outstanding success duringWorld War I. His greatest achievement was the interception andsubsequent revelation of the Zimmermann Telegram, the German effort toinveigle Mexico into invading America by promising them that they wouldregain the states of Texas, Arizona and New Mexico in any peace treaty.This disclosure led directly to American entry into the War in April 1917at a critical time for Britain and her allies. He has also written an accountof Admiral Hall’s earlier career in sea-going command before 1914,entitled BLINKER HALL AN OUTSTANDING SEA CAPTAIN, for theBritish magazine WARSHIP WORLD.He has lectured on a number of topics, including the careers of WinstonChurchill and Blinker Hall, the history of the liner LUSITANIA and the
4naval aspects of the Normandy invasion and his late father’s contributionto its success.David and his wife Pamela have lived in Indian Wells California since1990.Part III begins:BHR and Monty(Bertram Ramsay and Bernard Montgomery)As Vice-Admiral Dover, in the frontline of thecountry’s defence against German aggression, myfather worked closely with his Army and RAFopposite numbers. Early in 1941 a new three-starGeneral, Bernard Montgomery, was appointed tocommand the Army’s XII Corps, stationed in thecounties of Kent and Sussex. BHR had a very highopinion of Montgomery, describing him in one letterto my mother as ‘by far the best of our generals.’Almost alone of the top allied commanders, Americanand British, who served in North West Europe and inthe Mediterranean, BHR got on well with Monty ashe was universally known. Monty, who hadcommanded a division in the British ExpeditionaryForce, owed BHR one for rescuing him fromDunkirk. Both men were consummate professionalswho believed in the vital importance of meticulousoperational planning and detailed and effective
5training and a huge mutual regard grew up betweenthem. .The leaders in the photograph (clockwise from top left) are: Lieutenant-GeneralOmar Bradley, Commander, 1st US Army; Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay, NavalCommander-in-Chief; Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory, AirCommander-in-Chief; Lieutenant-General Walter Bedell Smith, Chief of Staff;General Sir Bernard Montgomery, Commander, 21st Army Group (all Allied landforces); General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Commander; Air Chief MarshalSir Arthur Tedder, Deputy Supreme Commander. CH 12110 (Feb 1944)Courtesy of the Imperial War Museum, London Personally they were very different. Monty was awiry man from Northern Ireland who could bebombastic, once telling troops that: ‘As GodAlmighty says and I must say that I agree with him…’ and who never met a camera he didn’t like, whileBHR was understated and in the tradition of theNavy, ever the Silent Service, didn’t court publicity.While BHR was inherently a family man who was mycousins’ favorite uncle, Monty was frequently at warwith his family, particularly after the tragic death of
6his wife shortly before World War II, and he waseven estranged from his son for a number of years.BHR used to call Monty the Iron General and in hisletters to my mother he would tell her how, in thename of physical fitness, he had ordered his staffofficers to go for regular runs. With his dry sense ofhumour, he would conjure up for her the image ofsedentary middle aged Majors and Colonelsdropping dead from unaccustomed physical exertionall over the highways and byways of Kent andSussex.The successful association between Admiral andGeneral which began in South–East England in 1941was to serve the country and the allied cause wellwhen they went on to larger events in which theywere to work harmoniously together as the top dogsof the Navy and the Army: the invasions of Sicily andNormandy.War comes to BerwickshireBerwickshire had escaped the First War unscathedbut was not to do so in the Second as the county laydirectly under the flight path taken by the Luftwaffewhen raiding the shipyards and factories in andaround Glasgow and Clydebank. The bombers usedto cross the coast between St. Abbs Head and
7Berwick-on-Tweed and followed the course of theTweed to its source in the same Peebleshire hillsideas the Clyde and then down Clydesdale to theirtargets. As the RAF night fighter squadrons, onceequipped with twin-engined Bristol Beaufighters,which proved an effective night-fighter, grew instrength and skill, the RAF and the Luftwaffe foughtfrequent duels all over the South of Scotland. Thebombers would often jettison their loads to try toescape the fighters and as a result bombs dropped allover Berwickshire, some of them within a few milesof Bughtrig. As the county was sparsely populated,they usually caused little damage. The skies aboveColonel Wilfrid Henrys Home Guard command atGreenlaw saw regular battles between the two airforces. Two land mines descended by parachute onGreenlaw and the Air Raid wardens, believing themto be paratroops and an invasion was in process,called out Wilfrid and his Home Guard. Instructionshad been sent out throughout the land tellingeveryone what to do in case of an invasion. A storyhad gone the rounds suggesting the paratroops wouldbe dropped disguised as nuns and people weresolemnly advised to call the police if they everencountered any nuns wearing hob-nailed boots!The mines caused considerable damage in the littletown, sadly killing a soldier who was home on leave,
8and destroying the Old Church, where theestablished Church of Scotland held its services. Mygoverness, Rena Hogg, and her husband Georgelived in a small house close to the centre of the townand the explosion blew out her windows. My oldfriend, Jean Thompson, who had been one of herformer pupils, remembers spending the nextafternoon helping her to remove splinters of glassfrom her furniture.Jean’s father Moffat, local laird and Elder of theKirk, jocularly opined that the bombs would finallyunite the towns two rival Presbyteriancongregations, whose relations were marginally lesshostile than those of the Hatfield and McCoyfamilies. He was wrong. The Old Church coldlydeclined an offer of hospitality made by its rivalwhose Church had only suffered broken windowsand, for the rest of the war, held its services in themanse as Presbyterian Ministers houses were knownin Scotland.Moffat Thomson lived at Lambden, about two and ahalf miles south of Greenlaw, where four bombslanded, two of them a field close by his entrancegates. Several more landed in neighboring farms.After one of these aerial battles, Wilfrid Henry andhis wife Cicely had a narrow escape when a bomb
9dropped only 200 yards from their house, Rathburne,in the Lammermuir Hills, north of the county town ofDuns and close to the village of Longformacus,destroying their tennis court and leaving a largecrater. Cicely, one of the county’s characters, botheccentric and resourceful and a champion bridgeplayer, rose to the challenge with typical aplomb. Onthe following Sunday, she welcomed all those whocame to Rathburne to witness the Luftwaffeshandiwork, charging them two shillings, theequivalent of 40 cents, for the privilege for the benefitof war charities.Cicely was also a skilled carpenter. One Sundaymorning, not long after the war ended, she andWilfrid went to church in Duns, arriving just as theservice began. To our considerable amusement, mymother, my brother Charles and myself sitting in anadjacent pew, noticed that Cicely was carrying anold green suede or felt bag containing a hammer, asaw, a chisel and other carpenters tools. Withoutbatting the proverbial eyelid, for she really did notcare a great deal for what other people thought aboutsuch matters, she deposited her tool bag on the ledgein front of her. Wilfrid, ever regimental, must havebeen ready to go to church in good time and gotirritated at Cicelys characteristic unpunctuality. In
10her hurry to placate him, she must have grabbed thewrong bag.I vividly remember going for a walk with my motherand our dogs. Suddenly we heard the sound ofairplanes and we saw two fighters apparently aboveus engaged in a dog fight. She quickly hurried usand the dogs into a ditch. After a bit I stuck my headabove the parapet to see what was going on and mymother pulled me down saying: ‘You fool. Do youwant to get shot?’ The planes eventually disappearedand we climbed out, rather pleased that we hadwatched some action. In hindsight, I wonder if wehad not been watching two RAF fighters, practicingfor dog fights as virtually all the fighting between thetwo air forces took place at night and the Luftwaffe’slead fighter, the Messerschmitt 109, had too short arange to fly to Scotland and back.RAF CharterhallThe rapid expansion of the Air Force resulted in theconstruction of a large number of airfields all overBritain; many of them close near to the East Coastsof both England and Scotland. Late in 1941,contractors arrived to build an airfield atCharterhall, about two miles from Bughtrig on landrequisitioned from our neighbour Colonel Algernon
11(Algy) Trotter, a veteran of the Boer War and WorldWar I. The Ramsay home Bughtrig with statue of Sir Bertram Ramsay in the garden My mother had known the Trotter family since shehad been a girl and Col. Algy’s eldest son Henry wasmy godfather. Charterhall had been a grass airstripin World War I when it was named Eccles Tofts aftera local farm. A second airfield was built at Winfieldon the road from Leitholm to Berwick and a third atMilfield in Northumberland. My friends and I usedto cycle up to a road which ran at right angles to themain runway, laid out East to West, in accordancewith the prevailing winds to watch the construction .The airfields were to be the base of No. 54Operational Training Unit whose task was to trainaircrews for night fighters.
12The first personnel, among them WAAFs, theacronym for the Women’s Auxiliary Air Force,arrived in April 1942 and the first aircraft a monthlater. I can remember their arrival with the skiesseemingly full of planes all day long. To us boys, thiswas intensely exciting but some of our elders viewedthis development very differently. RAF Charterhallwas to have a profound effect on local life. JeanThomson remembers that as soon as she was oldenough to get a driving license and pass the test, shewent to work for the RAF as a driver, proud to beable to contribute to the war effort.Flight-Lieutenant Paul Le Rougetel, an RAF officer,who had been posted to Charterhall, with his wifeHazel and their baby daughter Heather, whom inlater life became the well–known naturephotographer and TV presenter Heather Angel, werebilleted with us for some time. Paul had flown
13Blenheims in the elite 600 City of London Squadronof the RAF during the Battle of Britain. Heather tellsthe story of his remarkable bailout over the Channelafter he had been the victim of what waseuphemistically called ‘friendly fire’. ‘Paul was on a night mission somewhere over theKent coast. The coastal anti-aircraft defences hadforgotten or ignored his message that he would be inthe area, and managed a rare hit on his starboardengine. The Blenheim definitely needed both enginesto keep aloft. He did the right thing, insisting that hisnavigator/gunner get out first, although they wereover the sea and the poor chap couldnt swim - but hejumped. Unfazed, Paul trimmed the controls to putthe plane into a shallow descending arc beforeopening the escape hatch beneath him. The uprush ofair foiled a clean exit, and he found himself jammedin the hatch for a few seconds, before managing topush himself free. The parachute did its stuff, and onthe way down he had the presence of mind to jettisonanything weighty and superfluous, such as boots. Hewas a long time in the water, and passed out, but bythe greatest of good fortune was picked up by theRamsgate lifeboat who spotted the luminous dial ofhis watch which Hazel (my Mother) had given him.’
14I remember that Paul Le Rougetel very kindlyarranged for my brother Charles and me to be shownround the airfield when we climbed up into thecockpits of the Blenheims and Beaufighters, the nightfighters which were based there. Needless to say wethoroughly enjoyed our day out.Moffat Thomson was greatly amused when an officermistook him for a taxi driver. The airfield borderedmy grandparents home Kames and they found it asore trial. The Officers Mess and Kames were bothon the Leitholm telephone exchange while the localtaxi service, McDavids Garage, was on theneighboring Greenlaw exchange. As ill-luck wouldhave it, my grandparents’ number was Leitholm 202and McDavids was Greenlaw 202. The gallantofficers of RAF Charterhall would ring 202 and askfor a taxi. My grandmother, renowned for her fierypersonality, used to respond to this unwelcomeintrusion by roaring down the telephone ‘I am not ataxi.’ Her fulminations and a succession of angryletters to the Station Commander had little effect andnot surprisingly she developed a very poor opinion ofthe RAFs efficiency. She eventually relented whenshe realized the dangers which these pilots facedpractically every day.
15An inaugural dance was held in the Officers Messthat July, attended among others by my mother’sfriend and neighbour Hy Wilson, her daughter Judyand the Thomson family and from then on danceswere held in the Mess about once a fortnight:virtually the only social life in Berwickshire duringthe war years. Jean Thomson recalls one party atwhich her brother David was playing his bagpipes,drowning the sound of a concert being held in thenext room! The Wilson and Thomson families wereamong those who extended a lot of hospitality to theAir Force. Hy took some of the officers riding,discovering that they knew little more about horsesthan their predecessors had in the First War whenshe had been a nurse in one of the larger localhouses which had been commandeered as a wartimehospital. The genial Moffat Thomson, who organizedrough shoots around his house for the officers, foundthe experience decidedly dangerous! However histennis court proved highly popular and some of hisguests volunteered to milk his cows. Moffat washighly amused when one officer told him that his cowwas only flying on one cylinder!RAF Charterhall is remembered for its connectionwith Richard Hillary, a Spitfire pilot who had beenbadly burnt when he was shot down in the Battle ofBritain and whose bestselling book The Last Enemy
16had made him a celebrity. Hillary had spent sometime in a hospital in East Grinstead in Sussex whichwas run by Archibald McIndoe, a pioneer plasticsurgeon, who achieved remarkable results with hispatients, who called themselves The Guinea PigClub, treating them for deep burns and serious facialdisfiguration.Hillary was very attractive to women and followingthe success of his book, he was sent on a tour ofAmerica where he had a torrid affair in New Yorkwith the actress Merle Oberon, seven year his seniorand married to the film magnate, Alexander Korda,who was in England at the time.The recognition which his book had earned him hadreinforced Hilary’s already powerful character andhe succeeded in persuading- some might saybullying- a sympathetic Air Marshal, against hisbetter judgment, to bend the rules and allow him to
17fly again. He was posted to RAF Charterhall inNovember 1942 to train as a night-fighter pilot. Hiscolleagues in the Officers Mess noticed that he wasunable to manage a fork and knife: his hands weredescribed as being like claws. He and his radiooperator, Sergeant Wilfred Fison, were tragicallykilled when his Blenheim crashed on a local farmduring a night-flying exercise on January 8 1943.One of Hillary’s friends, Sergeant Andy Miller, whotook part in the same exercise and who was alsoflying a Blenheim, recalled that there was freezingfog over Berwickshire that night and that henarrowly escaped crashing due to icing. He believedthat Hillary’s plane had stalled as a result of icing.Although the demanding weather conditions wereprobably the direct cause of the crash, the ultimateblame has surely to rest with the training staff at RAFCharterhall in allowing Hillary to fly when they musthave known of his serious disability.The unacceptably high toll of aircrew at RAFCharterhall led to the airfield being cynicallynicknamed RAF Slaughterhall and eventually to thereplacement of the Station Commander and the entiretraining staff. When I was in Berwickshire last Maymy nephew and I visited the churchyard in the nearbyvillage of Fogo where sixteen flight crew from RAF
18Charterhall are buried. Ten of these sixteen werefrom Commonwealth countries: a poignant reminderof the considerable contribution which thesecountries, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, SouthAfrica, Rhodesia and India, made to the allied cause.I vividly recall that on one day between Christmasand New Year’s Eve 1944, Charles and I joined ourfriends, Jeremy and Martin Bates, who lived on theother side of Leitholm, on one of our regularexpeditions when we cycled to a road which ran eastof the airfield at an angle of 90 degrees to the runwaywhere we enjoyed watching planes take off. We were,as always, under adult supervision: on that day itwas Muriel Little a widow who was one of CecilyHenry’s sisters and a first cousin of Jeremy andMartin’s mother Jean. My mother had manyattributes but cooking was not one of them and shehad taken Muriel on as the family cook. Muriel fed uswell and Charles and I were very fond of her.On arrival Muriel instructed us to watch the action ata safe angle to the runway while she chatted to afriend of hers, a Mrs. Dobbie, who had cycled fromher house near Fogo to meet her. There was a fullflying programme that afternoon and we watchedseveral planes take off. Then a Beaufighter singularlyfailed to reach take off speed and belly flopped
19through the grass boundary, demolished the fencewhich separated the airfield from the adjoiningcountryside, continuing across the road, and endingup in a neighboring field. If anyone had been on thestretch of road opposite the runway they wouldalmost certainly have been killed.A horrified Muriel, suddenly aware of theresponsibility she bore to two families, rushed towhere we were standing watching the crash and toldus boys that this was far too dangerous a place forus, summarily instructing us that we were goinghome immediately. As we cycled back, we reflectedthat we had witnessed a small example of the riskswhich these brave pilots faced every day.By 1946 the Air Ministry had no further need forRAF Charterhall. Before men and planes departed,the Officers Mess held the last of their memorabledances and the airfield was handed back to HenryTrotter, the new Laird, as his father, Col. Algy, haddied shortly after the end of the war. The landreverted to farming. In the 1950s and 1960sCharterhall became a motor racing circuit but theventure was never financially successful and waseventually closed down. The main runway is stilloperational and is licensed by the Civil Aviation
20Authority for use by light aircraft. A couple ofbuildings survive and are used for farming,In 2001 a memorial to Richard Hillary and the otheraircrew who were killed at RAF Charterhall wasunveiled by the Duke of Kent. The clergyman whogave the dedication was the son of Sergeant WilfridFison, Hillary’s radio operator. The memorial standsat the entrance to the airfield on land donated by myold friend, Alexander Trotter the present Laird ofCharterhall. Memorial to Richard Hillary and his crew near CharterhallThe RAF was not the only part of the military towhich Berwickshire played host. A Polish ArmoredBrigade was stationed in and around Duns. Charlesremembers two of its officers coming to lunch with
21my mother at Bughtrig and treating him to a drive intheir jeep. The Poles weren’t universally popular asthey were widely considered to have an eye for themain chance. My mother, who often hit the nail on itshead, once told me: ‘The trouble with the Poles isthat they are very good at falling on other people’sfeet.’ In particular they were resented for theirsuccess in finding girl friends when so many localmen were away serving in the forces. Moffat Thomson’s wife Cathy, loved by everyonewho knew her, not least for her sparkling sense ofhumor, related how she once went to see a womanwho lived in one of the cottages on the Lambdenestate. She found the woman’s son aged three, whom,as she put it, had no identifiable father, playing witha toy outside the cottage. When she asked the boywhere his mother was, he replied: ‘Upstairs with herPole!’The War in North AfricaAfter Italy had entered the war in June 1940,Mussolini had invaded Egypt from neighboring Libyawhich was then an Italian colony but his attack soonpetered out. That December the British Army in theMiddle East, including Australian and Indian troops,commanded by General Sir Archibald Wavell, a verycapable Scottish soldier but who unfortunately never
22hit it off with Churchill, unceremoniously threw themuch larger Italians army out of Egypt and back intoLibya. By the middle of January 1941 Wavell’sDesert Army, effectively supported by theMediterranean Fleet and the Middle East Air Force,had advanced over 200 miles into Libya, and hadtaken two heavily defended seaports. On February7th Benghazi, the second largest city in Libya, fell tothe 6th Australian Division and the 7th ArmouredDivision, the famous Desert Rats, which hadbypassed Benghazi, cut off the fleeing Italian TenthArmy, which they forced to surrender. In less than amonth, the Desert Army had advanced a further 300miles, had destroyed nine Italian divisions, capturing135,000 prisoners, 400 tanks and 1,300 guns,reaching Agheila, less than 500 miles from thecapital city of TripoliThe victory in the African Desert was a powerfulboost to morale at home and, like many otherfamilies throughout Britain, we at Bughtrig keenlyfollowed its fortunes. With the help of my mother andRena Hogg and the Daily Express, complete withillustrations and cartoons, I was able to understandthe progress of the campaign and admire the Army’sachievements. At about this time I began to keep ascrapbook, cutting out articles, maps and picturesfrom the Express and the illustrated magazines to
23which my mother subscribed. Seventy years later,almost to the month, Libya, in the turmoil of a viciouscivil war, is once again in the news and names oftowns and cities like Sollum, Bardia, Tobruk,Benghazi and Brega, which I remember from so longago, are once more making headlines.Wavell’s success was short-lived. Early in February1941 British intelligence was warning that a Germanarmoured force was being sent to North Africa onHitler’s orders to reinforce their faltering Italianallies. On February 12 General Erwin Rommel, whohad earned a formidable reputation commanding aPanzer Division in the Battle of France (see MyMemories Part II), who had been appointed by Hitlerto lead the Afrikakorps, made up of the 15th and 21stPanzer Divisions, arrived in Tripoli, The German tanks were far superior to the British and they werealso equipped with what the historian John Keegancalled the superlative 88mm anti-tank (and anti-aircraft) gun.Churchill’s controversial decision to transfer troopsfrom Libya to Greece prevented Wavell fromcarrying on to Tripoli and he lacked the strength tocope with the counter-offensive which Rommellaunched on March 24, only forty days after hisadvance guard had disembarked at Tripoli. By April
243rd he had retaken Benghazi and a week later he hadbesieged Tobruk, which its garrison valiantly andsuccessfully defended, and had effectively pushed theDesert Army back to where they had started theiradvance, close to the border between Libya andEgypt. RommelRommel, known as The Desert Fox, proved to be amaster of mobile warfare and for the next eighteenmonths he repeatedly ran rings round the British,particularly after their most able front-line General,Richard O’Connor, had been captured during theGerman advance. I will recount in Part IV of MyMemories how BHR’s friend, Bernard Montgomery,finally won the Desert War and how BHR planned
25the invasion of North-West Africa. Between them theyplayed a very large part in the eventual AlliedVictory which expelled the Germans and Italiansfrom Africa. North Africa, November 1942 General Bernard L. Montgomery watches his tanks.British Official. (OWI) Part IV continued next issue …The Casablanca Conference (codenamed SYMBOL) was held at theAnfa Hotel in Casablanca, Morocco, then a French protectorate, from January 14 to 24,1943, to plan the European strategy of the Allies during World War II. Present wereFranklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill. the French sent many representatives tofile reports of the French . Soviet leader Joseph Stalin had also been invited but declinedto attend in light of the ongoing conflict at Stalingrad. General Charles de Gaulle hadinitially refused to come but changed his mind when Churchill threatened to recognizeHenri Giraud as head of the Free French Force.--WikipediaHollywood ‘never lets a crisis go to waste’: “In Early November 1942Allied forces landed on the North Africa coast and captured Casablanca.Capitalizing on the headlines, Warner Bros. launched its own offensive toput (the film) Casablanca into theaters as soon as possible. The pictureopened in New York on Thanksgiving Day, 1942. On January 23, 1943,one day before Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill wrapped uptheir “Casablanca Conference,” it went into general release.” --The Lost One a Life of Peter Lorre by Stephen D. Youngkin, pg.205
26 ‘Give us the tools’… Broadcast 9 February 1941After Wendell Willkie gave Winston Longfellow’s verse “Sail on, O Shipof State” which Franklin Roosevelt had written out in his own hand,Winston ended his broadcast with:What is the answer that I shall give, in your name, to this great man, thethrice-chosen head of a nation of a hundred and thirty millions? Here isthe answer which I will give to President Roosevelt: “Put your confidencein us. Give us your faith and your blessing, and, under Providence, all willbe well.We shall not fail or falter; we shall not weaken or tire. Neither the suddenshock of battle, nor the long-drawn trials of vigilance and exertion willwear us down. Give us the tools), and we will finish the job.The Unrelenting Struggle page 63 in the Cassell Edition.From the National Archives—The Lend Lease ActPassed on March 11, 1941, this act set up a system that would allow theUnited States to lend or lease war supplies to any nation deemed "vital to thedefense of the United States."In July 1940, after Britain had sustained the loss of 11 destroyers to theGerman Navy over a 10-day period, British Prime Minister WinstonChurchill requested help from President Roosevelt. Roosevelt responded byexchanging 50 destroyers for 99-year leases on British bases in theCaribbean and Newfoundland. As a result, a major foreign policy debateerupted over whether the United States should aid Great Britain or maintainstrict neutrality.In the 1940 Presidential election campaign, Roosevelt promised to keepAmerica out of the war. He stated, "I have said this before, but I shall say itagain and again and again; your boys are not going to be sent into anyforeign wars." Nevertheless, FDR wanted to support Britain and believed theUnited States should serve as a "great arsenal of democracy." Churchill
27pleaded, "Give us the tools and well finish the job." In January 1941,following up on his campaign pledge and the prime ministers appeal forarms, Roosevelt proposed to Congress a new military aid bill.The plan proposed by FDR was to "lend-lease or otherwise dispose of arms"and other supplies needed by any country whose security was vital to thedefense of the United States. In support of the bill, Secretary of War HenryL. Stimson told the Senate Foreign Relations Committee during the debateover lend-lease, "We are buying . . . not lending. We are buying our ownsecurity while we prepare. By our delay during the past six years, whileGermany was preparing, we find ourselves unprepared and unarmed, facinga thoroughly prepared and armed potential enemy." Following two monthsof debate, Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act, meeting Great Britain’sdeep need for supplies and allowing the United States to prepare for warwhile remaining officially neutral.For more information and other related documents, see the Teaching WithDocuments Lesson Plan Documents Related to Churchill and FDR.Transcript of the Lend Lease Act is available from the Department of the Navy’s NavalHistorical Center. The following words of Sir Winston and their sources are courtesy of Jim Lancaster.70th Anniversary of the Lend Lease Act—TheThird Climateric of World War II-- in Churchill’sOwn WordsChurchill from his broadcast address, on 22 June1941, on the invasion of Russia: I have taken occasion to speak to you to-nightbecause we have reached one of the climacterics ofthe war. The first of these intense turning-pointswas a year ago when France fell prostrate under theGerman hammer, and when we had to face the
28storm alone. The second was when the Royal AirForce beat the Hun raiders out of the daylight air,and thus warded off the Nazi invasion of our islandwhile we were still ill-armed and ill-prepared. Thethird turning-point was when the President andCongress of the United States passed the Lease-and-Lend enactment, devoting nearly 2,000 millionssterling of the wealth of the New World to help us todefend our liberties and their own. Those were thethree climacterics. The fourth is now upon us.WSC The Unrelenting Struggle (Little, Brown and Company, pp169-170) and (Cassell, page 176)Following is the full text of Winston’s shortstatement to the House of Commons on March 12,1941—‘A new Magna Carta.’ THE Lease-Lend Bill became law yesterday[March 11, 1941], when it received thesignature of the President. I am sure theHouse would wish me to express on their behalf,and on behalf of the nation, our deep and respectfulappreciation of this monument of generous and far-seeing statesmanship.The most powerful democracy has, in effect,declared in solemn Statute that they will devote theiroverwhelming industrial and financial strength toensuring the defeat of Nazism in order that nations,
29great and small, may live in security, tolerance andfreedom. By so doing, the Government and peopleof the United States have in fact written a newMagna Carta, which not only has regard to therights and laws upon which a healthy andadvancing civilization can alone be erected, but alsoproclaims by precept and example the duty of freemen and free nations, wherever they may be, toshare the responsibility and burden of enforcingthem.In the name of His Majesty’s Government andspeaking, I am sure, for Parliament and for thewhole country, and indeed, in the name of allfreedom-loving peoples, I offer to the United Statesour gratitude for her inspiring act of faith.(Unrelenting Struggle, Little, Brown & Companyedition, page 60)Winston’s address at the Pilgrims’ SocietyLuncheon on March 18 extracts:Extract #1 (unabridged) We have our faults, andour social system has its faults, but we hope that,with Gods help, we shall be able to prove for alltime, or at any rate, for a long time, that a State orCommon-wealth of Nations, founded on long-enjoyed freedom and steadily-evolved democracy,
30possesses amid the sharpest shocks the faculty ofsurvival in a high and honourable and, indeed, in aglorious degree. At such a moment, and under suchan ordeal, the words and the acts of the Presidentand people of the United States come to us like adraught of life, and they tell us by an ocean-bornetrumpet call that we are no longer alone.(Unrelenting Struggle, Little, Brown & Companyedition, page 62) Extract #2 (unabridged): It is my rule, as youknow, not to conceal the gravity of the danger fromour people, and therefore I have a right to bebelieved when I also proclaim our confidence thatwe shall over-come them. But anyone can see howbitter is the need of Hitler and his gang to cut thesea roads between Great Britain and the UnitedStates, and, having divided these mighty Powers, todestroy them one by one. Therefore we must regardthis Battle of the Atlantic as one of the mostmomentous ever fought in all the annals of war.Therefore, Mr. Winant, you come to us at a grandturning-point in the worlds history. We rejoice tohave you with us in these days of storm and trial,because we know we have a friend and a faithfulcomrade who will "report us and our cause aright."But no one who has met you can doubt that you
31hold, and embody in a strong and intense degree,the convictions and ideals which in the name ofAmerican democracy President Roosevelt hasproclaimed.In the last few months we have had a succession ofeminent American citizens visiting these storm-beaten shores and finding them unconquered andunconquerable — Mr. Hopkins, Mr. Willkie,Colonel Donovan, and now today we have here Mr.Harriman and yourself. I have dwelt with all thesemen in mind and spirit, and there is one thing Ihave discerned in them all — they would be ready togive their lives, nay, be proud to give their lives,rather than that the good cause should be trampleddown and the darkness of barbarism again engulfmankind. Mr. Ambassador, you share our purpose,you will share our dangers, you will share ouranxieties, you shall share our secrets, and the daywill come when the British Empire and the UnitedStates will share together the solemn but splendidduties which are the crown of victory. (Unrelenting Struggle, Little, Brown & Companyedition, page 63)
32From Churchill’s Eulogy on the death of PresidentRoosevelt:It was in February that the President sent to England thelate Mr Wendell Willkie, who, although a political rivaland an opposing candidate, felt as he did on manyimportant points. Mr Willkie brought a letter from MrRoosevelt, which the President had written in his ownhand, and this letter contained the famous lines ofLongfellow:... Sail on, 0 ship of State! Sail on, 0 Union, strong and great! Humanity with all its fears, with all the hopes of future years, Is hanging breathless on thy fate!At about that same time he devised the extraordinarymeasure of assistance called Lend-Lease, which will standforth as the most unselfish and unsordid financial act of anycountry in all history. The effect of this was greatly toincrease British fighting power, and for all the purposes ofthe war effort to make us, as it were, a much morenumerous community. To join Churchillians by-the-Bay send a check for the annual dues of $50 to Churchillians by-the-Bay President Jason Mueller at 17115 Wilson Way, Royal Oaks Calif. 95076
33 The following article is by our fellow Churchillian and often guest speaker, David Freeman.Perspective: How true is The Kings Speech?Screenwriter David Seidler did some tweakingand telescoping to tell his tale, a historyprofessor writes, but it was done to advancethe story, plus explore the relationshipbetween the stuttering royal and hiscommoner therapist.February 13, 2011|By David Freeman, Special to the Los Angeles TimesIf any best-picture contender was going to face questions about taking libertieswith the facts this Oscar season, it seemed likely it would be "The SocialNetwork." But now that screenwriter Aaron Sorkin and Facebook founder MarkZuckerberg have tactfully retreated a bit from their initially contentious stands,the accuracy debate has shifted to "The Kings Speech.""The Kings Speech" is being sold as a feel-good tale of how a friendship betweena royal and a commoner affected the course of history. But some commentatorsare complaining, among other things, that the film covers up Winston Churchillssupport for Edward VIII, the playboy king who abdicated to marry an Americandivorcee, and that the movie fails to acknowledge that the once tongue-tiedGeorge VI supported Prime Minister Neville Chamberlains appeasement of theNazis. (Writing last month at slate.com, Christopher Hitchens blasted the film as"a gross falsification of history.")As a specialist in British history, I agree that screenwriter David Seidler certainlyhas tweaked the record a bit and telescoped events in "The Kings Speech" — butfor the same artistic reasons that have guided writers from Shakespeare to AlanBennett, who wrote the screenplay for "The Madness of King George" (and theplay on which the movie was based). While historians must stick to the facts,
34dramatists need to tell a good story in good time. It also helps if they can explorethe human condition in the process.Seidlers script opens with Colin Firth as Prince Albert (the future King GeorgeVI, but then the Duke of York and known to his family as "Bertie") facing theordeal of making his first radio broadcast. To add to the strain, the duke mustdeliver the address in a stadium before a large crowd. However, his words comeonly haltingly, causing embarrassment for all present. Not shown but laterreferenced in the film is the fact that in the crowd was Lionel Logue (GeoffreyRush), a speech therapist recently transplanted from Australia.All this took place in 1925, but Seidler brings the speech disaster forward 10 yearsto the eve of the abdication crisis, which resulted in the duke unexpectedly beingtransformed into a king when his brother Edward VIII stepped aside. Thecompression of events, although understandable, requires a slew of historicalalterations to explain the back story.The dukes stammer derived in part from the verbal abuse he received as a childfrom his father, King George V (Michael Gambon). To indicate this, Seidlerconcocts a scene showing the adult Bertie still being hectored by his father, and itis only after this that he agrees to see Logue.Much of the early part of the film is taken up with Logues struggle to win thedukes trust. The therapist succeeds partly by trickery and partly because ofcontinued prompting by Berties wife, the Duchess of York (Helena BonhamCarter). After achieving a "breakthrough" with his patient and following Edwardsabdication in 1936, Logue helps prepare the new king for the ordeal of thecoronation ceremony. That hurdle cleared, the film culminates with the therapistcoaching Bertie through another historic moment: his broadcast to the BritishEmpire at the start of World War II with an approving Churchill (Timothy Spall)looking on.In reality, the duke first sought treatment from Logue in 1926, and, contrary tothe film, the two hit it off immediately. Logue wrote in a note later published inthe kings official biography that Bertie left their first meeting brimming withconfidence. After just two months of treatment, the dukes improvement wassignificant enough for him to begin making successful royal tours with all thepublic speaking that entailed. George V was so delighted that Bertie rapidlybecame his favored son and preferred heir.In interviews, Seidler has been ambiguous about what sources he consulted inwriting the script. The various biographies of George VI all tell of the kingsrelationship with Logue. This includes the official biography published in 1958.John Wheeler-Bennett, the royal biographer personally selected by the kingswidow, was himself a former patient of Logues and so wrote about the episodewith great emotion.
35It remains unclear, though, to what extent sources not available to scholars or thepublic played a role in the final shape of the film. Seidler has said that Loguesson offered 30 years ago to show him his fathers notebooks, provided the kingswidow agreed. But when Seidler wrote Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, hewas told that she found it too painful to remember the old anguish and beggedthat he wait until she had passed away.Although the Queen Mother died in 2002, filmmakers said they were providedwith Logues diaries, notes and letters only shortly before filming began. Seidlerhas not specified how material from Logues records was used, but he has saidthat research guided him to the conclusion that Logue utilized Freuds "talkingcure" approach. Thus, by reading up on the kings life, Seidler used what he terms"informed imagination" to create the films therapy scenes.Seidler also drew on personal experience: He himself stammered as a child, and itwas this that led him to an interest in George VI. From what he has said about hisown successful treatment, Seidler indicates that he projected that experience intohis fabrication about Logue having to work patiently to gain Berties trust. Thisliberty with the truth certainly gives the film more dramatic interest.There are many other instances of artistic license in "The Kings Speech." Forexample, Bertie chose his regal cognomen, George, out of respect for his fatherand not as the film has it because Churchill suggested that Albert sounded "tooGerman." Another dramatic fantasy occurs when the Archbishop of Canterbury(Derek Jacobi) breathlessly revealed that Logue was not in fact a doctor. Inreality, Logues credentials were never misrepresented. Bertie always referred tohim as "Mr. Logue" or simply "Logue." Logues grandchildren recently cameforward to say that their grandfather never used Christian names with the king atall — despite the movie making a strong point that the future king bristled atbeing called "Bertie" by Logue.As for Hitchens allegations, they are much ado about nothing. Churchillssupport of Edward VIII owed more to his near-medieval reverence for themonarchy than it did to the individual occupying the throne. In supporting theappeasement policies of Chamberlain, George VI acted in harmony with theoverwhelming majority of the British population across the political spectrum. Asa combat veteran of World War I, the king was as anxious as his subjects to avoida second conflict by any promising means. George VI was also at one with mostBritons in remaining skeptical about Churchill as prime minister until the greatman had proved himself.Hitchens will get a second chance to scrutinize moviedoms portrayal of EdwardVIII and George VI this year, when Madonnas film "W.E." — about WallisSimpson and Edward — hits theaters. Hes probably already stocking up onpencils. Freeman teaches history at California State Fullerton. Reprintedwith permission of the author. firstname.lastname@example.org.
36 Bookworm’s Corner by James R. Lancaster The curious chronology of the glow-worm storyIn Violet Bonham Carter’s book Winston Churchill as I Knew Him, published in1965, Violet tells us that the legendary first meeting with Winston took place inthe summer of 1906. Many years later, on 22 February 1942, she wrote to Winstona letter in which she referred to their first meeting: I always remember you saying to me at a dinner at Mary Elcho’s – at which I first met you – “We are all worms – but I do believe that I am a glow-worm.” You never said a truer word – but oh! for more glow-worms!This letter was printed in Champion Redoubtable, The Diaries and Letters ofViolet Bonham Carter, 1914-194, but this book was not published until 1998. Sowhere do we have to go for the first published account of the 1906 meeting?As it happens, the first published account of Violet Asquith’s meeting withWinston at Lady Elcho’s appeared as Violet’s tribute to Winston on his eightiethbirthday [30 November 1954], published as Winston Churchill — As I Know Him,almost the same title she would later use for her book.After receiving his copy of the book of tributes published by Cassell [WinstonSpencer Churchill, Servant of Crown and Commonwealth, a tribute by varioushands presented to him on his eightieth birthday, edited by Sir James Marchant,
37Cassell, 1954], Winston wrote a note of thanks to Violet, as she recounts in herdiary entry for Friday 5 November 1954: Worked. Was manicured (very badly!). Had a most moving letter from W. who had just got the Cassell book He writes of the various contributions: ‘There is one which means more to me than all the remainder & which indeed moves me deeply. It seems that after all these years you still believe me to be a glow-worm. That is a complement which I find entirely acceptable.’ It has made me very proud & happy.The next published account was in French, in 1956. The author was PrincessMarthe Bibesco (1886-1973), a Romanian who married Prince George III Bibescoat the age of 17 – on her wedding day she wrote: “I stepped onto the Europeanstage through the grand door”. Fluent in French, and spending most of her life inFrance, she became an established and successful writer in her adopted country.She first met Winston Churchill in Paris in 1914 at a private dinner to whichvarious members of the French Parliament had been invited to meet Churchill, theFirst Lord of the Admiralty at the time. Five years later Marthe was introduced to Violet Bonham Carter, eldestdaughter of Herbert Asquith, Prime Minister 1908-1916. Violets half-sisterElizabeth (1897-1945, the first child of her father’s second marriage) married, inLondon, May 1919, Marthe’s cousin Prince Antoine Bibesco. In 1956 Marthe’s book about Churchill’s courage – Churchill ou le Couragewas published in France. In the first chapter of this book she recounts a meeting inLondon (circa 1952) with Violet and some other friends where each was asked todescribe the circumstances when they met Winston for the first time. Violet wasthe first to give her account. It is very similar to the account she later gave in thefirst two pages of her book Winston Churchill as I Knew Him, published in 1965, afew months after the death of Winston Churchill. Marthe’s book was translated into English in 1957, published as Sir WinstonChurchill, Master of Courage. A short time ago in London, in a friend’s house, we were comparing notes about the great man and somebody suggested the following game: each one in turn was to say where, and under what circumstances, he had first met Winston Churchill. The first to be asked was Lady Violet Bonham Carter, Asquith’s eldest daughter. I asked her if their first meeting had taken place at Downing Street where she was then living with her father. She thought for a moment and said: “No, the first time I saw him was in London at a dinner party, the year I came out. I was sitting next to him. He did not open his mouth. He was hunched up with his head well down between his shoulders and seemed to be brooding about something. He intimidated me and I was
38piqued because he would not talk to me, so I said nothing; then I decided tostart a conversation with the man on the other side of me, who was only toodelighted. Because I was annoyed and wanted to annoy Winston, I kept upthe conversation for a long time. But all the time I was talking to the man onmy right I had the curious impression that something like a banked-up firewas smouldering or a cauldron boiling on my left. Just before the end ofdinner, Winston Churchill turned toward me and said suddenly, in thatchuckling voice of his which we all know, “How old are you?” I answered,“Nineteen”. “’Ah” he cried, “and to think that I am thirty-eight [sic, thirty-one]!Already thirty-eight [sic, thirty-one]! My life is finished! Is it worth going onliving when one has lost one’s youth?” And he launched out on a prodigiousimprovisation on the hackneyed theme of the shortness of life, how littletime was vouchsafed to the miserable human race; but these commonplaceplatitudes were transformed by his eloquence; it was a dazzling display oforatory. And his young listener was completely dazzled. Like a spentfireworks rocket falls to the ground, he relapsed into silence. Then he raisedhis head and concluded: “We are all nothing but worms, miserable worms!” Then, with a defiantair, but with a malicious gleam in his eye: “Yes, nothing but worms, miserable worms, but I, you see, I intend to be… and shall be … a glow-worm!”Jim LancasterThe longer version of this article, with the extract in French from PrincessBibesco’s book published in 1956, plus all the source notes etc., can beobtained by sending a request to the author’s email address: jim@JRLancaster.com
39 Lying-in-state Sir Winston Churchill Died January 24, 1965Silent mourners pace slowly by the catafalque in Westminster HallLying-in-state describes the formal occasion in which a coffin is placed on view toallow the public to pay their respects to the deceased before the funeral ceremony.Lying-in-state in the UK is given to the Sovereign, as Head of State, the current orpast Queen Consort and sometimes former Prime Ministers.Many notable occasions of lying-in-state have taken place in Westminster Hall at theHouses of Parliament, a few days before the funeral ceremony, including: • 1898 - William Ewart Gladstone • 1910 - King Edward VII • 1936 - King George V • 1952 - King George VI • 1953 - Queen Mary • 1965 - Sir Winston Churchill • 2002 - Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother.
40 Following is an article by the honored biographer of Sir Winston and contributor to Glow-Worm.Martin Gilbert: A friend of Israel National Post January 17, 2011 – 8:01 am A poster for a documentary exploring Winston Churchill’s relationship with Zionism. By Martin GilbertIn his determination to see Bolshevism crushed in Russia, Winston Churchillstudied the nature and organisation of the Bolshevik government in Moscow. Hewas familiar with the names and origins of all its leaders: Lenin was almost theonly member of the Central Committee who was not of Jewish origin. NeitherChurchill nor his colleagues, nor the Jews, knew that Lenin’s mother’sgrandfather was a Jew.In a speech in Sunderland on Jan 2, 1920, surveying the world scene, Churchilldescribed Bolshevism as a “Jewish movement.” Churchill had nothing butcontempt for what he described as “the foul baboonery of Bolshevism.” He hadstudied the Bolshevik terror against political opponents, democrats andconstitutionalists, and he knew the significant part individual Jews had played inestablishing and maintaining the Bolshevik regime.For the several million Jews of Russia, caught up in the rapid and often ruthlessspread of the Bolshevik revolution, three possibilities beckoned: to emigrate,either to Palestine or to the West; to seek to maintain Jewish social, religious andcultural institutions within Russia despite Bolshevik hostility; or to throw in their lotwith the Bolsheviks. A minority chose the latter. It was with these facts in mindthat, on 8 February 1920, a month after his Sunderland speech, Churchill wrote along and closely argued article for a popular British Sunday newspaper, theIllustrated Sunday Herald, appealing to the Jews of Russia, and beyond, tochoose between Zionism and Bolshevism. “Some people like Jews and some donot,” Churchill wrote, “but no thoughtful man can doubt the fact that they arebeyond all question the most formidable and the most remarkable race which hasever appeared in the world.”In a paragraph that the newspaper headed “Good and Bad Jews,” Churchillcharacterised the Jewish people in dramatic terms: “The conflict between goodand evil which proceeds unceasingly in the breast of man,” he told his readers,“nowhere reaches such intensity as in the Jewish race. The dual nature of
41mankind is nowhere more strongly or more terribly exemplified.” Elaborating onthis theme, he expressed his profound regard for an aspect of Judaism that hadimpressed itself upon him through his familiarity with the Old Testament. “Weowe to the Jews in the Christian revelation,” he wrote, “a system of ethics which,even if it were entirely separated from the supernatural, would be incomparablythe most precious possession of mankind, worth in fact the fruits of all otherwisdom and learning put together. On that system and by that faith there hasbeen built out of the wreck of the Roman Empire the whole of our existingcivilisation.”Jewish creativity was not, however, necessarily the final word. “It may well be,”Churchill wrote, “that this same astounding race may at the present time be in theactual process of producing another system of morals and philosophy, asmalevolent as Christianity was benevolent, which, if not arrested, would shatterirretrievably all that Christianity has rendered possible.” This was Bolshevism.At the present “fateful period” of history, Churchill wrote, “there are three mainlines of political conception among the Jews, two of which are helpful and hopefulin a very high degree to humanity, and the third absolutely destructive.” Firstthere were the Jews who, “dwelling in every country throughout the world,identify themselves with that country, enter into its national life, and, whileadhering faithfully to their own religion, regard themselves as citizens in thefullest sense of the State which has received them.” Churchill noted that such aJew living in England would say, “I am an Englishman practising the Jewishfaith.” This, Churchill added, “is a worthy conception, and useful in the highestdegree. We in Great Britain well know that during the great struggle the influenceof what may be called the ‘National Jews’ in many lands was castpreponderatingly on the side of the Allies; and in our own Army Jewish soldiershave played a most distinguished part, some rising to the command of armies,others winning the Victoria Cross for valour.”Churchill also pointed out that the “National Russian Jews,” in spite of thedisabilities under which they had suffered, “have managed to play an honourableand useful part in the national life even of Russia. As bankers and industrialists,they have strenuously promoted the development of Russia’s economicresources, and they were foremost in the creation of those remarkableorganisations, the Russian Co-operative Societies. In politics their support hasbeen given, for the most part, to liberal and progressive movements, and theyhave been among the staunchest upholders of friendship with France and GreatBritain.”Turning to what he called “International Jews,” those Jews who supportedBolshevik rule inside Russia and Bolshevik revolution beyond its borders,Churchill told his readers: “In violent opposition to all this sphere of Jewish effortrise the schemes of the International Jews. The adherents of this sinisterconfederacy are mostly men reared up among the unhappy populations of
42countries where Jews are persecuted on account of their race. Most, if not all, ofthem have forsaken the faith of their forefathers, and divorced from their mindsall spiritual hopes of the next world.”There was, Churchill continued — in the section of his article headed “TerroristJews” — “no need to exaggerate the part played in the creation of Bolshevismand in the actual bringing about of the Russian Revolution, by these internationaland for the most part atheistical Jews,” but he went on to write that the part theyplayed “is certainly a very great one; it probably outweighs all others. With thenotable exception of Lenin, the majority of the leading figures are Jews.Moreover, the principal inspiration and driving power comes from the Jewishleaders.”Churchill noted that “the fact that in many cases Jewish interests and Jewishplaces of worship are excepted by the Bolsheviks from their universal hostilityhas tended more and more to associate the Jewish race in Russia with thevillainies which are now being perpetrated.” This, he wrote, was an injustice onmillions of helpless people: Jews who were themselves suffering under theBolshevik regime. It was therefore “specially important to foster and develop anystrongly-marked Jewish movement which leads directly away from these fatalassociations. And it is here that Zionism has such a deep significance for thewhole world at the present time.”Headed “A Home for the Jews,” the next section of Churchill’s article was apublic declaration in favour of Zionism” “Zionism offers the third sphere to thepolitical conceptions of the Jewish race,” Churchill wrote. “In violent contrast tointernational communism, it presents to the Jew a national idea of a commandingcharacter.”It had fallen to the British Government, Churchill explained, as the result of theconquest of Palestine, “to have the opportunity and the responsibility of securingfor the Jewish race all over the world a home and a centre of national life. Thestatesmanship and historic sense of Mr. [Arthur] Balfour were prompt to seizethis opportunity. Declarations have been made which have irrevocably decidedthe policy of Great Britain.” The “fiery energies” of Dr. [Chaim] Weizmann — “theleader, for practical purposes, of the Zionist project, backed by many of the mostprominent British Jews … are all directed to achieving the success of thisinspiring movement.”The small size of Palestine was another aspect of Zionism that Churchill hadstudied, but he saw the potential of the country for considerable growth. “Ofcourse,” he wrote, “Palestine is far too small to accommodate more than afraction of the Jewish race, nor do the majority of national Jews wish to go there.But if, as may well happen, there should be created in our own lifetime by thebanks of the Jordan a Jewish State under the protection of the British Crown,which might comprise three or four millions of Jews, an event would have
44 Two of Churchill’s post-war speeches in 1946 atFulton, Missouri and Zurich, Switzerland established hisposition as the world’s most honored elder statesman.The Sinews of Peace, by Winston Churchill-- 65thAnniversaryNine months after Sir Winston Churchill failed to bereelected as Britains Prime Minister, he traveled by trainwith President Harry Truman to make a speech at therequest of Westminster College in the small Missouri town ofFulton. On March 5, 1946, Churchill gave his now famous"Iron Curtain" speech—following is an excerpt:A shadow has fallen upon the scenes so lately lighted by the Alliedvictory. Nobody knows what Soviet Russia and its Communistinternational organisation intends to do in the immediate future, orwhat are the limits, if any, to their expansive and proselytisingtendencies. I have a strong admiration and regard for the valiantRussian people and for my wartime comrade, Marshal Stalin. There isdeep sympathy and goodwill in Britain - and I doubt not here also -towards the peoples of all the Russias and a resolve to perseverethrough many differences and rebuffs in establishing lastingfriendships. We understand the Russian need to be secure on herwestern frontiers by the removal of all possibility of Germanaggression. We welcome Russia to her rightful place among theleading nations of the world. We welcome her flag upon the seas.Above all, we welcome constant, frequent and growing contactsbetween the Russian people and our own people on both sides of theAtlantic. It is my duty however, for I am sure you would wish me tostate the facts as I see them to you, to place before you certain factsabout the present position in Europe.From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain hasdescended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals ofthe ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin,
45Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all thesefamous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must callthe Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not onlyto Soviet influence but to a very high and, in many cases, increasingmeasure of control from Moscow.In Bern on the occasion of the address given by Winston Churchill at the University ofZurich on 19 September 1946 Churchill speaks in ZurichChurchill advocates the creation of a United States ofEurope based on Franco-German cooperation—From ourspecial correspondent, 19 September 1946Zurich, 19 SeptemberA few weeks ago, Mr. Churchill arrived in Switzerlandaccompanied by his wife and daughter, Mary. He is stayingin the villa placed at his disposal in Bursinel, where he hasremained out of sight, dividing his time between resting andhis favourite occupation, painting. Before his departure, he
46nonetheless made a point of thanking the SwissGovernment for its hospitality and, appearing in front ofthe Swiss people, he gave a lecture at the University ofZurich, addressing students world-wide. The substance ofthe speech confirmed the predictions of the journalists whohad foreseen its political importance.A huge crowd awaited Mr Churchill, who, in splendid form,asked to be presented to the policemen who had ensured hissafety. This was done. Shaking hands, Churchill gave eachof them one of his famous cigars as a souvenir.In a specially chartered train, he then went to Bern, wherethe locals gave him such an enthusiastic welcome thatMr Churchill could not help but shed a few tears. After thewelcome given by the President of the Confederation andthe ensuing traditional banquet, Churchill, standing up inhis car, was taken on a tour of the town, its inhabitantscheering him loudly. It seems that the Bernese, best knownfor being calm and unexcitable, abandoned these qualitiesfor once.Today, he was in Zurich, the high point of his stay inSwitzerland, and tomorrow he will leave the country in aspecially chartered aircraft bound for England.At ten o’clock, Mr. Churchill left the Hotel Dolder to go tothe reception held by the Cantonal Government. From nineo’clock onwards, all the roads of the town through whichhe was to pass, impressively decked out with flags, werecrowded with people, and on several occasions the policehad to call for reinforcements to keep order. A little after
47ten o’clock, Mr. Churchill went by in an open-topped car,standing up and waving to the crowds who threw himflowers. Once he had reached the Cantonal Governmentbuilding, Mr. Churchill was welcomed by the President ofthe Government and, after having replied and thanked him,he climbed back in his car to go to the University and makehis speech. The Great Hall was full when, to frenziedacclaim, Mr. Churchill made his entrance. After awelcoming speech made in German by the Dean of theUniversity, Mr. Anderes, and after having accepted anhonorary degree, Mr Churchill started speaking in English.Having thanked the Dean, he said that he wanted to speakabout the tragedy of Europe.Recognising that Europe was the cradle of Christianity,culture, philosophy and science, Mr. Churchill asked thequestion: ‘What has happened to Europe?’ He answered bysaying that, with the exception of a few small countries,there was hunger, poverty and devastation across most ofthe Continent. If Europe did not recover quickly, thisdevastation would eventually reach America. There was butone remedy, which was to create the European Community,and the only way to achieve this was through the UnitedStates of Europe. What had to follow was the re-educationof hundreds of thousands of Europeans.Mr. Churchill went on to recall that certain steps hadalready been taken: he spoke of the former idea ofEuropean union, of the great Frenchman Aristide Briand,of the League of Nations, which was not flawed in its
48principles but was undermined by the desertion of certaincountries. He declared that this disaster must not recur andthat his friend, President Truman, had already shown aninterest in the matter in the context of the United Nations.Speaking of Germany, he said that the crimes that countryhad committed could not be forgotten and that the guiltymust be punished, that Germany must never again be in aposition to wage an aggressive war. However, we had tolook to the future. The spirit of vengeance must cease. TheEuropean Family must learn to forgive. The first stepwould be cooperation between France and Germany! Itwas the only way for France to regain its moral andcultural authority in Europe. There must be as much roomfor the small nations as for the large ones.Mr Churchill ended his speech with a warning: time maybe short for the creation of the United States of Europe.Even though the war was over, the dangers were stillpresent; the creation of the United States of Europe muststart immediately. The atomic bomb, for example, was stillin the hands of only one nation, which would use it only forpeaceful purposes. Perhaps, however, in years to come,other nations would possess it and use it for other means.We must therefore strengthen the United Nations andrecreate the European Family in its original form, with thefirst step being the formation of a Council of Europe,providing solid foundations for those who are able andwilling. The other nations would probably join in duecourse. With France and Germany in partnership, Europewould ‘arise’.Rodolphe Singer
49 AN ADDITIONAL HISTORIC SPEECHPrime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom addressed aJoint Meeting of CongressJanuary 17, 1952On this date, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom addressed a JointMeeting of Congress in the House Chamber. The occasion marked the third time thatChurchill spoke before Congress—more than any other foreign dignitary in congressionalhistory. Churchill, who had coined the cold war term “Iron Curtain” to describe theSoviet Union’s grasp on Eastern Europe, implored Congress to support WesternEuropean re-armament in the face of Moscow’s continued threat to the continent. Hebelieved the Anglo-American alliance was the keystone to the defense of democraciesworldwide. “Bismarck once said that the supreme fact of the 19th century was thatBritain and the United States spoke the same language,” Churchill told the assembledRepresentatives and Senators. “Let us make sure that the supreme fact of the 20thcentury is that they tread the same path.” Winston Churchill earned the distinction of being the only foreign leader to addressCongress three times. As British Prime Minister he addressed Congress in 1941, 1943(pictured), and 1952.Courtesy of Library of CongressCite this HighlightOffice of History and Preservation, Office of the Clerk,http://clerk.house.govhighlights.html?action=view&intID=82, (March 01, 2011).
53 The Glow-Worm Gallery of Modern ArtDescription English: Cartoon depicting Sir Winston Churchill in the cubist manner of Picasso. Courtesy of the New York Public Library Digital Collection. Date circa 1920
54This cartoon Winston Churchill was made by urbanmonk. See this cartoons details or visit urbanmonksprofile page.You want to see more cartoons or upload your own cartoons?Visit the toonpool.com start page now! CHURCHILL IN THE NEWSArtwork by Teacher of Eisenhower and Churchill to beExhibited at Dolly Johnson ShowTuesday, March 1, 2011Abenstille am Wasser by Georg Arnold Grabone, 1960
55Artwork by a German artist, Georg Arnold Graboné, who gave lessons to both PresidentDwight D. Eisenhower and Winston Churchill will be on Display at the Dolly JohnsonArt and Antiques Show March 11 and 12.Born in Munich on September 11, 1896, Georg Arnold Graboné is known today for hispalette knife painting style. Beginning as a self-taught artist, Graboné would later travelto Berlin where he refined his techniques under the well-known German impressionistMax Liebermann and would teach at an academy in Zurich.In 1951 U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower was stationed in Garmisch, Germany as thecommander of occupied Europe. Sir Winston Churchill encouraged Eisenhower to takeup painting as a hobby. Eisenhower followed Churchill’s advice and began to takelessons from Professor Arnold-Graboné. At that time Arnold-Graboné had his studio onlya few miles from Eisenhower’s headquarters. For a period of time Eisenhower traveledtwice weekly from Paris to Tutzing where he took his art lessons.One of Arnold-Graboné’s paintings hung in the White House during Eisenhower’s termand later the former president hung one of the paintings, “Zugspitze” in his home inGettysburg.Through Eisenhower, Professor Arnold-Graboné eventually became acquainted with SirWinston Churchill who was interested in the artist’s spatula technique and asked him forsome tutelage. The two of them spent several weeks one summer in the early 1950spainting together on the Isle of Man.Graboné died on October 2, 1982 near Starnberg in Bavaria. The Spartanburg ArtMuseum in Spartanburg, SC. showcased an exhibit of Graboné’s work in 2009.The work will be displayed in the booth of Urban Art & Antiques of Grapevine, Texas.For more information see www. dollyjohnsonAntiqueAndArtShow.comMarch 15, 2011, 2:45 pmDallas Museum Is SuedBy KATE TAYLORLast year when the Dallas Museum of Art celebrated the 25th anniversary of one of itslargest donations — a collection of some 1,400 works of art, including paintings by VanGogh, Renoir, and Pissarro — it probably didn’t anticipate that it would soon be forced todefend its ownership of the art. But that’s what has happened.The collection, amassed by Emery Reves, a writer and publisher who was a close friendof Winston Churchill, was donated to the museum by Reves’s widow, Wendy Reves,who died in 2007. The Reveses lived in the South of France in a villa that had originallybeen built for Coco Chanel.
57According to The Mail On Sunday, Queen Elizabeth IIs late mother owned recordsincluding ska music, traditional folk tunes, Trinidadian calypso bands and audiorecordings of Winston Churchills wartime speeches.William Shawcross, her official biographer, told the paper: "During one of her trips to theCaribbean in the 60s, she was introduced to ska music, which she became very fond of."Noel Coward, who was a personal friend, had a house called Firefly in Jamaica and shegreatly enjoyed her visits there. The Queen Mother adored him and found his songs to bewonderfully witty."A former equerry to the Queen Mother said that she "enjoyed listening to everythingfrom Scottish reels to stage musicals".He further added that she was a devoted fan of BBC broadcaster Terry Wogan, listeningto his Radio 2 breakfast show "every morning before she came downstairs". The 1911 British Census By Steven Russell Thursday, March 24, 2011 5:01 PMDID you know Winston Churchill once employed a couple of housemaids from EastAnglia? Nor did I, until I took a gallop through the census returns from 100 years ago.Winston, then 36, is described in 1911 as “one of His Majesty’s principal Secretaries ofState”. He’s living south of Victoria station, with wife Clementine, 26, to whom he’dbeen married less than three years. Also in Eccleston Square on Sunday, April 2 istheir one-year-old daughter, Diana, while Clementine is heavily pregnant withRandolph, who will be born within two months. The Home Secretary’s household includes a number of domestic staff, all of them single folk. There’s 43-year-old cook Elizabeth Jackson, who was born in Lincolnshire, and nurse Ethel Higgs, 28 and from Margate. Nancy Baalham, a 24-year-old from Barking, is a lady’s maid, while Eva Knights – 30 and born at Aylsham, north of Norwich – is a parloumaid. There’s an under-parlourmaid and a kitchen maid – 21 and 17 – and housemaid Ada Robjent. She’s 25 years old and was born in Hatfield Peverel, the village between Witham and Chelmsford. The staff is completed by hall boy Albert Brown – a youthful 15 years old.Until next issue: