Meteorology Deals with the study of  climate and weather. Is the study of the changes  in temperature, air pressure,  mois...
<ul><li>The blanket of air around the earth is called the  atmosphere .    </li></ul>The earth's atmosphere is a very thin...
<ul><li>Atmosphere   </li></ul><ul><li>It is an envelope of gases that surrounds the Earth. Used by life as a reservoir of...
<ul><li>Evolution of the Atmosphere   </li></ul><ul><li>First Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Composition -  Probably H 2 , H...
<ul><li>Second Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Produced by  volcanic out gassing.   </li></ul><ul><li>Gases produced were pro...
<ul><li>Addition of O 2  to the Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Today, the atmosphere is ~21% free oxygen. How did oxygen rea...
<ul><li>Structure of the  </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul>
The word troposphere comes from  tropein,  meaning to turn or change. All of the earth's weather occurs in the troposphere...
<ul><li>Atmosphere’s Properties… </li></ul>Two gases make up the bulk of the earth's atmosphere: nitrogen (     ), which c...
<ul><li>Variable Substance in the Air </li></ul><ul><li>Scientist Classify these Variable Substance into two kinds: </li><...
<ul><li>Ozone depletion: Who is responsible?   </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to recognize the sour...
<ul><li>The Ozone Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Human activity is by far the most prevalent source of ozone depletion.  Human ...
<ul><li>Air Pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>May come from mobile sources like motor vehicles or stationary sources like facto...
<ul><li>Mechanism of Heat Transfer… </li></ul>Energy is transferred between the earth's surface and the atmosphere via con...
<ul><li>HEATING THE ATMOSPHERE </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun And Its Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Our Sun pumps about 386 billion ...
<ul><li>Electromagnetic Spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>The sun sends out the energy in all direction. It is believed that the ...
<ul><li>Energy from the sun comes in waves of many different wavelength,  </li></ul><ul><li>which together make up the ele...
<ul><li>Conduction  </li></ul><ul><li>is the process by which heat energy is transmitted through contact with neighboring ...
<ul><li>Convection  </li></ul><ul><li>It transmits heat by transporting groups of molecules from place to place within a s...
<ul><li>To understand the convection cells that distribute heat over the whole earth, let's consider a simplified, smooth ...
Radiation   is the transfer of heat energy without the  involvement of a physical substance in the  transmission. Radiatio...
 
<ul><li>GLOBAL   ENVIRONMENTAL   PROBLEMS </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse effect </li></ul><ul><li>Helps maintain our tempera...
<ul><li>The Seasons </li></ul>We divide the year into seasons, or sets of  consecutive months that have similar  weather p...
<ul><li>What Causes the Seasons of the Year? </li></ul><ul><li>The axis of the Earth is tilted approximately 22.5° in refe...
<ul><li>Thus we can say that the causes of  </li></ul><ul><li>the seasons are: </li></ul><ul><li>The Inclination of the Ea...
<ul><li>Atmospheric Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of Air Movement </li></ul>
<ul><li>Sea Breeze – Breeze direction </li></ul><ul><li>is toward the land </li></ul><ul><li>Land breeze- During night, la...
<ul><li>Factors Affecting The Wind </li></ul><ul><li>1. The Pressure Gradient Force </li></ul>The  pressure gradient force...
<ul><li>Coriolis Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered by Gaspar Coriolis. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a deflecting force of Ear...
<ul><li>Friction </li></ul><ul><li>Friction plays an important role in wind. It can be caused by hills and mountains, but ...
<ul><li>Friction is the third factor. In short the differences in pressure creates a force from high to low pressure. The ...
Wind Belts There are two types of winds: 1. Local wind  2. Prevailing wind Wind Belts –  circle the earth and play an impo...
<ul><li>Philippine Wind Systems </li></ul>The Philippines has a maritime tropical climate and has two distinct seasons, ra...
<ul><li>References: </li></ul><ul><li>www.WeatherBug.com </li></ul><ul><li>PHILIPPINE HEADLINE NEWS ONLINE </li></ul><ul><...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Meteorology-a student's report( a compilation of facts from books,internet,journal and articles)

2,773 views

Published on

it is a summary of the topic about t6he atmosphere..... all information written are not words of the maker but are compilations only from various book,journal,internet sources... this makes learning about the atmosphere for freshmen easier,,,

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,773
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
11
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
84
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Meteorology-a student's report( a compilation of facts from books,internet,journal and articles)

  1. 1. Meteorology Deals with the study of climate and weather. Is the study of the changes in temperature, air pressure, moisture, and wind direction.   
  2. 2. <ul><li>The blanket of air around the earth is called the atmosphere .  </li></ul>The earth's atmosphere is a very thin layer wrapped around a very large planet
  3. 3. <ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>It is an envelope of gases that surrounds the Earth. Used by life as a reservoir of chemical compounds used in living systems. </li></ul><ul><li>It has no outer boundary, just fades into space. Dense part of atmosphere (97% of mass) lies within 30 km of the Earth (so about same thickness as continental crust). </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Evolution of the Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>First Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Composition - Probably H 2 , He </li></ul><ul><li>These gases are relatively rare on Earth compared to other places in the universe and were probably lost to space early in Earth's history because Earth's gravity is not strong enough to hold lighter gases. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth still did not have a differentiated core (solid inner/liquid outer core) which creates Earth's magnetic field which deflects solar winds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once the core differentiated the heavier gases could be retained </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Second Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Produced by volcanic out gassing. </li></ul><ul><li>Gases produced were probably </li></ul><ul><li>similar to those created by modern volcanoes (H 2 O, CO 2 , SO 2 , CO, S 2 , Cl 2 , N 2 , H 2 ) and NH 3 (ammonia) and CH 4 (methane) </li></ul><ul><li>No free O 2 at this time (not found in volcanic gases). </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Addition of O 2 to the Atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Today, the atmosphere is ~21% free oxygen. How did oxygen reach these levels in the atmosphere? </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen Production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photochemical dissociation - breakup of water molecules by ultraviolet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produced O 2 levels approx. 1-2% current levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At these levels O 3 (Ozone) can form to shield Earth surface from UV </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis - CO 2 + H 2 O + sunlight = organic compounds + O2 - produced by cyanobacteria, and eventually higher plants - supplied the rest of O 2 to atmosphere. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Structure of the </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul>
  8. 8. The word troposphere comes from tropein, meaning to turn or change. All of the earth's weather occurs in the troposphere. Increased temperature because of the ozone in this layer that absorbs Uv radiation from the sun. Mesosphere - Its teperature reaches 100 degree celcius. A layer which contains a fraction of the atmosphere mass.The temperature is too high that allows molecules to move at speed. Ionosphere - A region in the atmosphere where Ionization takes Place. Exosphere- Is the outermost layer. The hottest. Collision of particles is very rare.
  9. 9. <ul><li>Atmosphere’s Properties… </li></ul>Two gases make up the bulk of the earth's atmosphere: nitrogen (    ), which comprises 78% of the atmosphere, and oxygen (    ), which accounts for 21%. Various trace gases make up the remainder.
  10. 10. <ul><li>Variable Substance in the Air </li></ul><ul><li>Scientist Classify these Variable Substance into two kinds: </li></ul><ul><li>Gaseous Impurities – </li></ul><ul><li> Water vapor </li></ul><ul><li> CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li> Ozone </li></ul><ul><li>Solid Impurities – </li></ul><ul><li>Dust </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical salts </li></ul><ul><li>Microorganisms </li></ul>Water Vapor - Most significant component of the atmosphere. Any small fraction of this is significant because this is the source of all precipitation and cloud formation. It also absorbs heat given off by earth and some solar energy. Dust includes many microscopic particles that are invisible to the naked eye ex. Pollen, spores and seeds. It reflect and intercept solar radiation. They are responsible to the red and orange color of sunrise and sunset. Another component is Ozone (O3). It is created when an atom of O collide with a molecule of Oxygen ( O2) in the presence of a third neutral molecule which acts as a catalyst. Ozone layer is important. It is because of the ability of the ozone to absorb the burning UV rays from the sun.
  11. 11. <ul><li>Ozone depletion: Who is responsible? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to recognize the sources of ozone depletion before one can fully understand the problem.  There are three main contributors to the ozone problem: human activity, natural sources, and volcanic eruptions. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The Ozone Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Human activity is by far the most prevalent source of ozone depletion.  Human activity, such as the release of various compounds containing chlorine or bromine, accounts for approximately 85 percent of ozone damage.  Perhaps the most evident and destructive molecule of this description is chloroflourocarbon (CFC). </li></ul><ul><li>  CFCs were first used to clean electronic circuit boards, and as time progressed, were used in aerosols and coolants, such as refrigerators and air conditioners.  When CFCs from these products are released into the atmosphere, the destruction begins.  As CFCs are emitted, the molecules float toward the ozone rich stratosphere.  Then, when UV radiation contacts the CFC molecule, this causes one chlorine atom to liberate.  This threatening chlorine atom then continues the cycle and results in further destruction of the ozone layer  Measures have been taken to reduce the amount of CFC emission, but since CFCs have a life span of 20-100 years, previously emitted CFCs will do damage for years to come. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Air Pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>May come from mobile sources like motor vehicles or stationary sources like factories. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Mechanism of Heat Transfer… </li></ul>Energy is transferred between the earth's surface and the atmosphere via conduction, convection, and radiation.
  15. 15. <ul><li>HEATING THE ATMOSPHERE </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun And Its Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Our Sun pumps about 386 billion million gigawatts into space, mostly in the form of electromagnetic radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun's energy output is produced by nuclear fusion reactions. Each second about 700,000,000 tons of hydrogen are converted to about 695,000,000 tons of helium and 5,000,000 tons of energy in the form of gamma rays. As it travels out toward the surface, the energy is continuously absorbed and re-emitted at lower and lower temperatures so that by the time it reaches the surface, it is primarily visible light. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Electromagnetic Spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>The sun sends out the energy in all direction. It is believed that the energy is carried in the form of waves. These waves are similar to those produced by electromagnet thus it is called electromagnetic waves. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Energy from the sun comes in waves of many different wavelength, </li></ul><ul><li>which together make up the electromagnetic spectrum.The spectrum has the electromagnetic waves of the visible light. The visible light includes color of the rainbow (ROYGBIV). </li></ul>1 Wavelength = the distance from crest to crest or trough to trough. The closest invisible wave to violet is ULTRAVIOLET RAYS and are responsible for sunburn. Adjacent to Red and do have a longer wavelength is INFRARED Radiation which we can see but feel as heat.
  18. 18. <ul><li>Conduction </li></ul><ul><li>is the process by which heat energy is transmitted through contact with neighboring molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Some solids, such as metals, are good conductors of heat while others, such as wood, are poor conductors. Air and water are relatively poor conductors. </li></ul><ul><li>Since air is a poor conductor, most energy transfer by conduction occurs right at the earth's surface. At night, the ground cools and the cold ground conducts heat away from the adjacent air. During the day, solar radiation heats the ground, which heats the air next to it by conduction. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Convection </li></ul><ul><li>It transmits heat by transporting groups of molecules from place to place within a substance. Convection occurs in fluids such as water and air, which move freely. </li></ul><ul><li>In the atmosphere, convection includes large- and small-scale rising and sinking of air masses and smaller air parcels. These vertical motions effectively distribute heat and moisture throughout the atmospheric column and contribute to cloud and storm development (where rising motion occurs) and dissipation (where sinking motion occurs). </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>To understand the convection cells that distribute heat over the whole earth, let's consider a simplified, smooth earth with no land/sea interactions and a slow rotation. Under these conditions, the equator is warmed by the sun more than the poles. The warm, light air at the equator rises and spreads northward and southward, and the cool dense air at the poles sinks and spreads toward the equator. As a result, two convection cells are formed. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Radiation is the transfer of heat energy without the involvement of a physical substance in the transmission. Radiation can transmit heat through a vacuum. Energy travels from the sun to the earth by means of electromagnetic waves. The shorter the wavelength, the higher the energy associated with it. This is demonstrated in the animation that I will be showing on the next slide.. As the drill's revolutions per minute (RPMs) increase, the number of waves generated on the string increases, as does the oscillation rate. The same principle applies to electromagnetic waves from the sun, where shorter wavelength radiation has higher energy than longer wavelength radiation.
  22. 23. <ul><li>GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse effect </li></ul><ul><li>Helps maintain our temperature on earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Is a term used to describe how water vapor,CO2 and other gases in the atmosphere that helps maintain its temperate. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in the concentration of gases in the atmosphere results to increase in earth’s temperature. </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>The Seasons </li></ul>We divide the year into seasons, or sets of consecutive months that have similar weather patterns and length of days. There are four seasons in many parts of the world: winter, spring, summer, and fall (also called autumn). Other parts of the world have two seasons: wet and dry . Children should observe that seasons happen in the same cycles year after year and that different types of weather occur during different seasons. The seasons are thought to be distinct phases of the year: spring , the time of new life or rebirth; summer , the time of warmth and verdant growth; autumn , the time for harvest and gathering; winter , the time for sleep, rest and death.
  24. 25. <ul><li>What Causes the Seasons of the Year? </li></ul><ul><li>The axis of the Earth is tilted approximately 22.5° in reference to the Sun and the Earth's orbit. The tilt of the Earth always points in the same direction no matter where it happens to be positioned in its orbit. Thus, as the planet circles the sun, the axis is tilted more toward or away from the sun. The Earth's orbit around the sun is not exactly centered on the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>The point at which the axis of the Earth is pointed most toward the Sun is called the summer solstice. This marks the beginning of summer. Summer's end and autumn's beginning occurs on the autumnal equinox. The equinox occurs when the sun appears to be directly over the equator and the poles are &quot;equidistant&quot; from the sun. Autumn lasts until the winter solstice, which occurs toward the end of December . And thus, the seasons progress, with winter ending at the vernal equinox. Spring then lasts until the summer solstice rolls around again. </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Thus we can say that the causes of </li></ul><ul><li>the seasons are: </li></ul><ul><li>The Inclination of the Earth Axis </li></ul><ul><li>Parallelism of the Axis </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation of the Earth on its axis </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution of the earth around the sun </li></ul><ul><li>The Spherical shape of the Earth. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Atmospheric Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of Air Movement </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Sea Breeze – Breeze direction </li></ul><ul><li>is toward the land </li></ul><ul><li>Land breeze- During night, land </li></ul><ul><li>heat rises faster than in a body </li></ul><ul><li>of water and the cold dense air </li></ul><ul><li>from land replaces it. This is </li></ul><ul><li>called land breeze. </li></ul><ul><li>Valley breeze- On warm sunny days, the slopes of the valley are intensely heated. This heated air rises up in the side of the valley creating a valley breeze. </li></ul><ul><li> Mountain Breeze – The air is close to the sides of the valley cools. This cooler air blows down slope into the valley creating mountain breeze. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Factors Affecting The Wind </li></ul><ul><li>1. The Pressure Gradient Force </li></ul>The pressure gradient force is not actually a 'force' but the acceleration of air due to pressure difference (a force per unit mass). The PGF is the amount of pressure change occurring over a Coriolis effect
  29. 30. <ul><li>Coriolis Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered by Gaspar Coriolis. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a deflecting force of Earth’s rotation on all free moving objects, including atmosphere and Ocean. Deflection is towards the right in the N Hemisphere and left of S hemisphere. </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Friction </li></ul><ul><li>Friction plays an important role in wind. It can be caused by hills and mountains, but also by forests or towns. They can reduce the speed, and change the direction of the wind. </li></ul><ul><li>Friction plays a role at lower altitudes, above a certain height wind isn't affected by friction. This height is dependant on the terrain, wind and temperature. Friction usually plays a role up to 1 or 2 km height. This &quot;layer&quot; in the atmosphere where friction plays a role is called the boundary layer (or sometimes just friction layer). </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Friction is the third factor. In short the differences in pressure creates a force from high to low pressure. The Coriolis force goes vice versa. This makes the wind blow parallel to an isobar, a geostrophic wind. </li></ul><ul><li>Now friction is going to play a role. Friction causes the wind to slow down, thus decreasing the Coriolis force. This makes the wind spiral away from high pressure centers and spriral to low pressure centers on the Northern Hemisphere. On the Southern Hemisphere the effects are vice versa. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Wind Belts There are two types of winds: 1. Local wind 2. Prevailing wind Wind Belts – circle the earth and play an important role in the weather and climate. Prevailing Westerlies – wind Blowing for the direction from west Prevailing Easterlies Winds Blowing from East. Winds we usually encounter. Blow from the same direction and often travel long distance.
  33. 34. <ul><li>Philippine Wind Systems </li></ul>The Philippines has a maritime tropical climate and has two distinct seasons, rainy and dry season. The temperature average range from 23° to 32° Celcius in the entire archipelago throughout the year. The humidity varies from 75% to 85% depending on the time of the year. The season differ throughout the islands because of the varying exposures to the two major wind belt, northeast monsoon ( Hanging Amihan ) and southwest monsoon( Hanging Habagat ). Because of these wind belts that affect our climate, the east coasts receive heavy winter rainfall and the west coasts heavy summer rainfall. Rainfall measures from 5,000 millimeters in the mountainous east coast section of the country, but less than 1,000 millimeters in some of the sheltered valleys in the entire year. The Philippine archipelago is located also in the typhoon belt. That is why Philippines is hit by numerous typhoon and storm starting in the month of July through October but sometimes it extend to December. The places that the typhoon struck are the Northern and Eastern Luzon and the Bicol and Eastern Visayas Region. The strength of the typhoon differ each year. An average of 25 typhoons visit the Philippines each year. Not only typhoon, Philippines is also hit by drought called the El Niño. This occur from the dry season and extend to the wet season. There is no rainfall in a long time.
  34. 35. <ul><li>References: </li></ul><ul><li>www.WeatherBug.com </li></ul><ul><li>PHILIPPINE HEADLINE NEWS ONLINE </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wisegeek.com/how-much-energy-does-the-sungenerate.htm december 10 2008 by Michael Anissimov </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.scribd.com/doc/1147/The-Sun-and-Energy </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.indepthinfo.com/seasons/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.theweatherprediction.com/habyhints2/475/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.angelfire.com/ny5/weather/windbelts.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental principles of Physical Science:Tegonciang, Salustino </li></ul><ul><li>Meteorology:4 th edition by Willliam L. Don </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere weather and Climate:Introduction to Meteorology by John Gabriel Navarra </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments to our Atmospheric Environment bySteven Businger </li></ul><ul><li>www. BlockBoard.com </li></ul>The End

×