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METAMORPHISM  AND  METAMORPHIC ROCKS
WHAT IS METAMORPHISM? <ul><li>recrystallisation of pre-existing rocks, leaving  larger  crystals </li></ul><ul><li>new min...
 
WHAT ARE THE AGENTS OF METAMORPHISM? <ul><li>heat , usually from proximity to igneous intrusions, but also from depth and ...
HEAT <ul><li>breaks chemical bonds </li></ul><ul><li>mobilises hydothermal fluids of hot water and gases </li></ul><ul><li...
PRESSURE <ul><li>Can be lithostatic, equal in all directions, or compressive/ non uniform which gives a degree of foliatio...
HYDROTHERMAL FLUIDS <ul><li>Water comes from minerals, rocks, seawater or from magma </li></ul><ul><li>fluids are water wi...
 
CONTACT/THERMAL METAMORPHISM
CONTACT/THERMAL METAMORPHISM <ul><li>forms around an igneous intrusion </li></ul><ul><li>the zone of alteration is called ...
SIZE OF THE AUREOLE Determined by:- <ul><li>Size of the intrusion </li></ul><ul><li>shape of the intrusion </li></ul><ul><...
ROCK TYPES Argillaceous country rock: shale/slate <ul><li>Away from the intrusion large crystal called  porphyroblasts  fo...
Spotted slate
andalusite
porphyroblasts Poikiloblast of  cordierite (poikilitic texture)
hornfels
CONTACT METAMORPHISM OF OTHER ROCKS <ul><li>Sandstone </li></ul><ul><li>metaquartzite results </li></ul><ul><li>large inte...
metaquartzite
marble
 
 
 
 
Table 2 Common Metamorphic Rocks Rock Parent Rock Key Minerals Metamorphic Environment Foliated Slate Shale Clay minerals,...
 
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Metaa2

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geology - metamorphic rocks

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Transcript of "Metaa2"

  1. 1. METAMORPHISM AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS
  2. 2. WHAT IS METAMORPHISM? <ul><li>recrystallisation of pre-existing rocks, leaving larger crystals </li></ul><ul><li>new minerals form, but composition usually stays the same </li></ul><ul><li>metamorphic rocks form from igneous, sedimentary or other metamorphic rocks </li></ul><ul><li>3 types of metamorphism are recognised </li></ul><ul><li>thermal/contact metamorphism </li></ul><ul><li>regional metamorphism </li></ul><ul><li>dynamic/dislocation metamorphism </li></ul>
  3. 4. WHAT ARE THE AGENTS OF METAMORPHISM? <ul><li>heat , usually from proximity to igneous intrusions, but also from depth and temperature increases with the geothermal gradient </li></ul><ul><li>pressure , due to overlying rocks, but more especially in tectonically active zones </li></ul><ul><li>hydothermal fluids , especially adjacent to igneous intrusions </li></ul>
  4. 5. HEAT <ul><li>breaks chemical bonds </li></ul><ul><li>mobilises hydothermal fluids of hot water and gases </li></ul><ul><li>softens rocks to allow deformation </li></ul>Geothermal gradient
  5. 6. PRESSURE <ul><li>Can be lithostatic, equal in all directions, or compressive/ non uniform which gives a degree of foliation </li></ul>Compressive pressure
  6. 7. HYDROTHERMAL FLUIDS <ul><li>Water comes from minerals, rocks, seawater or from magma </li></ul><ul><li>fluids are water with dissolved gases and elements </li></ul><ul><li>work most effectively at high temperatures and pressures when reaction rates are speeded up </li></ul><ul><li>fluids move through the fissures and pore spaces in rocks </li></ul>
  7. 9. CONTACT/THERMAL METAMORPHISM
  8. 10. CONTACT/THERMAL METAMORPHISM <ul><li>forms around an igneous intrusion </li></ul><ul><li>the zone of alteration is called a metamorphic aureole </li></ul><ul><li>metamorphism is by heat and hydrothermal fluids </li></ul><ul><li>pressure does not operate so the rocks are unfoliated </li></ul><ul><li>metamorphism varies from HIGH GRADE to MEDIUM GRADE to LOW GRADE away from the intrusion </li></ul><ul><li>high grade metamorphic rocks have undergone the most heat and alteration by hydrothermal fluids </li></ul><ul><li>unaltered rock well away from the intrusion is called country rock </li></ul><ul><li>a good example is the altered slates around the Skiddaw granite in the Lake District </li></ul>
  9. 11. SIZE OF THE AUREOLE Determined by:- <ul><li>Size of the intrusion </li></ul><ul><li>shape of the intrusion </li></ul><ul><li>type of magma - lower temperature acidic intrusions may have larger aureole due to producing more hydrothermal fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Type of country rock </li></ul><ul><li>transfer of heat </li></ul><ul><li>porosity </li></ul><ul><li>permeability </li></ul><ul><li>mudstone produces a larger aureole than sandstone </li></ul>
  10. 12. ROCK TYPES Argillaceous country rock: shale/slate <ul><li>Away from the intrusion large crystal called porphyroblasts form in a generally unchanged rock </li></ul><ul><li>this medium grade metamorphism may give large andalucite crystals in the form of chaistolite </li></ul><ul><li>the loose patterns of porphyroblasts shows no orientation </li></ul><ul><li>cordierite crystals may contain other minerals to give a poikiloblastic texture </li></ul><ul><li>Near the intrusion high grade metamorphism gives hornfels </li></ul><ul><li>this is completely recrystallised </li></ul><ul><li>with an equi-sized granoblastic texture </li></ul>
  11. 13. Spotted slate
  12. 14. andalusite
  13. 15. porphyroblasts Poikiloblast of cordierite (poikilitic texture)
  14. 16. hornfels
  15. 17. CONTACT METAMORPHISM OF OTHER ROCKS <ul><li>Sandstone </li></ul><ul><li>metaquartzite results </li></ul><ul><li>large interlocking crystals with 120 degree angles </li></ul><ul><li>a granoblastic texture </li></ul><ul><li>Limestone </li></ul><ul><li>pure calcite produces marble </li></ul><ul><li>with a large grained sugary or saccharoidal texture </li></ul><ul><li>impure limestones have other elements </li></ul><ul><li>eg dolomite, and magnesium oxide (periclase) remains </li></ul>
  16. 18. metaquartzite
  17. 19. marble
  18. 24. Table 2 Common Metamorphic Rocks Rock Parent Rock Key Minerals Metamorphic Environment Foliated Slate Shale Clay minerals, micas. chlorite. graphite Relatively low temperature and pressure Foliated Schist Shale, basalt, graywacke sandstone, impure limestone Mica, chlorite, garnet, talc, epdiodte, hornblende, graphite, staurite, kyanite Intermediate - to - high temperature and pressure Foliated Gneiss Shale, felsic igneous rocks, graywacke, sandstone, granite, impure limestone Garnet, mica, augite, hornblende, staurolite, kyanite, sillimanite High Temperature and pressure Nonfoliated Marble Pure limestone calcite, dolomite Contact with hot magma, or confining pressure from deep burial Nonfoliated Quartzite Pure sandstone, chert Quartz Contact with hot magma, or confining pressure from deep burial
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