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EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup.      John Thornton CleanFuture 090619
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EV Smart Charging Considerations: Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Workgroup. John Thornton CleanFuture 090619

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EV Smart Charging Considerations - Progress Report for Discussion to Oregon's Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Working Group on June 19, 2009

EV Smart Charging Considerations - Progress Report for Discussion to Oregon's Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Working Group on June 19, 2009

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  • 1. Smart Charging Considerations: EVs and the Smart Grid Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group Progress Report June 19, 2009 Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 2. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Insights: Smart Grid course @ PSU </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Charging = EV + Smart Grid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Importance of Smart Charging </li></ul><ul><li>Directional Recommendations </li></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 3. Introduction / Clarification <ul><li>Business and technical consulting, at the convergence of clean mobility, energy, sustainability and the Smart Grid. </li></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us http://www.cleanfuture.us
  • 4. Context / Contributors <ul><li>Matt Groves </li></ul><ul><li>Roger Hicks </li></ul><ul><li>Cody Meyer </li></ul><ul><li>Erin Rowland </li></ul><ul><li>John Thornton </li></ul><ul><li>Master of Mech. Engineering Student </li></ul><ul><li>Consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Master of Urban Planning Student </li></ul><ul><li>Master of Public Administration Student </li></ul><ul><li>Consultant </li></ul>Designing the Smart Grid for Sustainable Communities Portland State University: research seminar, January – June 2009 Capstone conference: June 18, 2009 http://www.eli.pdx.edu/smartgrid/ Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 5. Group Objectives <ul><li>Determine if the addition of Smart Grid technologies to Distributed Generation (DG) resources and Electric Vehicles (EV) will help in achieving sustainability goals </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the key feasibility issues with Smart Grid developments as EV and DG resources become more common and have a greater impact on the energy grid </li></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 6. Sustainability Goals <ul><li>Equity </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that the costs of new technologies do not create economic barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain and create family wage “green” collar jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Increase consumer choice and control </li></ul><ul><li>Lower consumer energy costs </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Produce energy from renewable sources </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize the need for long distance transmission of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize the negative environmental impacts in the electric industry </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Build local assets and self-reliance while avoiding dead-end investments </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage efficient use of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Generate positive return on investments (ROI) </li></ul><ul><li>Reward innovation, creativity, diversity and full engagement of all participants in the business ecosystem </li></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 7. Will EVs and Smart Grid technologies meet our sustainability goals? Sustainability Goals Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us Sustainability Goals Electric Vehicles without Smart Grid Electric Vehicles with Smart Grid Equity No Likely Environment Yes Yes Economy Probably Yes
  • 8. A Smart Grid is: <ul><li>The infusion of digital technologies into the power grid from generation to delivery to end use </li></ul><ul><li>The power grid outfitted with a two-way communications and control backbone that allows unprecedented capabilities to measure and manage power flow </li></ul><ul><li>A power network where demand plays as a supply resource </li></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 9. Smart Grid Systems Source: NIST EISA Domain Expert Working Groups in support of the NIST mandate to facilitate Smart Grid standards interoperability Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 10. What makes a Smart Grid? <ul><li>Development and incorporation of demand response, demand-side resources, and energy-efficiency resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Deployment of ‘‘smart’’ technologies (real-time, automated, interactive technologies that optimize the physical operation of appliances and consumer devices) for metering, communications concerning grid operations and status, and distribution automation. </li></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 11. What makes a Smart Grid? <ul><li>Integration of ‘‘smart’’ appliances and consumer devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Deployment and integration of advanced electricity storage and peak-shaving technologies, including plug-in electric and hybrid electric vehicles , and thermal-storage air conditioning. </li></ul><ul><li>Provision to consumers of timely information and control options. </li></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 12. What makes a Smart Grid? <ul><li>Development of standards for communication and interoperability of appliances and equipment connected to the electric grid, including the infrastructure serving the grid. </li></ul><ul><li>Identification and lowering of unreasonable or unnecessary barriers to adoption of smart grid technologies, practices, and services. </li></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 13. Economic Value <ul><li>25% of distribution & 10% of generation assets needed less than 400 hrs/year </li></ul>5% 75% 90% Hourly Loads as Fraction of Peak, Sorted from Highest to Lowest Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us 5% = ~400 hrs/yr (8,760 hrs) distribution generation
  • 14. Renewables and Variability http://www.transmission.bpa.gov/Business/Operations/Wind/baltwg.aspx Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 15. Electric Vehicles (EVs) without Smart Grid <ul><li>Simple (or convenience) charging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>charging behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous charging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This is the path Oregon is on with the current RFP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No request for Smart Charging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Likelihood of unintended consequences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How do we encourage off-peak charging? </li></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 16. Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 17. Will EV adoption be similar to Hybrids? Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 18. Will EV adoption be similar to Hybrids? Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 19. How can we avoid overload? Time of Day Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us <ul><li>Smart Grid can help move EV load to make use of unused energy grid capacity </li></ul>
  • 20. Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) – Bi-directional Energy Concept Mobility PEV’s Car Share- Multi node Multi modal Communication Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) Intelligent Vehicle Design Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us Courtesy of Porteon Electric Vehicles, Inc. Energy Storage Vehicle-to-grid (V2G), load leveling, integration of new energy sources (PV, wind.)
  • 21. EVs and the Smart Grid <ul><li>Smart Grid </li></ul><ul><li>A power supply system equipped with real-time communication, digital automation, transactive coordination, and resource control technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Capable of two-way interaction with load, generation and storage resources </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Grid technology manages flow of power to/from EVs </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Charging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows utilities to manage the one-way flow of electricity to EVs, within parameters set by owners. Able to adapt charging to grid requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slowing during high demand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing with availability of renewable energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Vehicle to Grid (V2G) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages the two-way flow of power to between EVs and the grid. Electricity can be stored in the vehicle and returned to the grid as needed. </li></ul></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 22. xEV, Building and Grid Interconnection Scenarios <ul><li>V0G (Simple Charge) - Vehicle starts charging as soon as plugged in, like an appliance </li></ul><ul><li>TC (Timed Charge) – vehicle charges at a given time. </li></ul><ul><li>V1G (Smart Charging) – vehicle charges with intelligence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V1.0G – Smart Charge controls and user-interface (UI) on vehicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>V1.5G – Smart Charging with off-board communication – DR or limited A/S </li></ul></ul><ul><li>V2B (Vehicle-to-Building): like V2G, except with building (not grid). “Microgrid-like application” with bi-directional energy flow </li></ul><ul><li>V2G (Vehicle-to-Grid): like V1G, except the car can discharge energy back to grid with bi-directional energy flow. </li></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 23. Smart Charging <ul><li>Smart Charging refers to a spectrum of technologies that involve plug‐in vehicles, either plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) or dedicated electric vehicles (EV), together referred to as plug‐in vehicles, interacting with the electrical grid beyond simple charging of the vehicle batteries . </li></ul><ul><li>Enables: </li></ul><ul><li>Time-of-day charging </li></ul><ul><li>Time‐of‐use rates </li></ul><ul><li>Smart “Fill” Charging </li></ul><ul><li>Demand response programs </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Peak Pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Charger “load”shaping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To maximize capture of renewable generation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vehicle to Home (V2H) </li></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 24. EVs can provide services <ul><li>Vehicles, by their numbers, represent enormous power and energy storage potential </li></ul><ul><li>Electric vehicle charge stations: grid connection points for power and ancillary services delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles can respond very fast compared to power plants </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles could provide Ancillary Services (A/S): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency regulation (automatic generation control - AGC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra power during demand peaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinning reserves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uninterruptible power source for businesses and homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active stability control of transmission lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispatchable reactive power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demand Response </li></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 25. Example: Frequency Regulation Ancillary Service ISO Goals: Load = Power Generated Power < Load: Frequency drops under 60 Hz. Power > Load: Frequency rises over 60 Hz. <ul><li>Regulation is the continuous matching of supply with demand in a control area </li></ul><ul><li>Area Control Error (ACE) is a measure of quality of operation of the grid </li></ul><ul><li>ACE includes a frequency regulation component </li></ul><ul><li>Powerplants provide regulation today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Real-time control of power plant output by grid operator </li></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 26. EV Connectivity Content
  • 27. Enabling Technologies <ul><li>Vehicle-to-grid Communication Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uni-directional power interface (regulation up) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bi-directional power interface (regulation up & down) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless internet communication </li></ul><ul><li>Global Positioning System (GPS) </li></ul><ul><li>Systems for tracking a large number of small transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle interconnection standards </li></ul><ul><li>Bi-directional energy metering at the retail level </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate tariffs </li></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 28. EV and Smart Grid Summary <ul><li>Electrification of transport sector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional loads, additional opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smart Grid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables aggregation of EVs as Generation equivalent resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demand side management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balance renewable generation with controlled loads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ancillary Services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Electrified vehicles could be the “killer application” for Smart Grid.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RMI - Smart Garage Charratte pre-read (v2.0, Oct-2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Green Jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Grid integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EVs and clean vehicle technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology development and companies in Oregon </li></ul></ul></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 29. Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Projects <ul><li>10 Electric Car Grid Projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://dsc.discovery.com/technology/tech-10/top-10-v2g-projects.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Puget Sound New Energy Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Where’s Oregon? </li></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 30. The Emerging New Energy System <ul><li>Smart power grids, green intelligent buildings and plug-in electric vehicles are converging to create new energy networks that will maximize energy productivity, renewable energy use and carbon reductions. </li></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 31. The Emerging New Energy System <ul><li>Smart power grids, green intelligent buildings and plug-in electric vehicles are converging to create new energy networks that will maximize energy productivity, renewable energy use and carbon reductions. </li></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 32. The Emerging New Energy System <ul><li>Smart power grids , green intelligent buildings and plug-in electric vehicles are converging to create new energy networks that will maximize energy productivity, renewable energy use and carbon reductions. </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond just EVs and charging, Oregon should lead here too! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jobs, economic development and exportable expertise / technology </li></ul></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us
  • 33. Proposal / Discussion <ul><li>Recommend infrastructure development efforts to trial each of the four (4) charging modes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Charging (V0G) – on track </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Charging (V1G) – absent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle-to-Building (V2B) – absent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) - absent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Targeting niche segments of early adopters </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass adoption comes easier. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 34.  
  • 35. Questions / Comments <ul><li>Follow-up: </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>503-806-1760 </li></ul>Smart Charging Considerations - Oregon Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Working Group John Thornton – john@cleanfuture.us

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