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Towards sustainable intensification of Maize-Legume cropping systems: Kenya experience. John Achieng
 

Towards sustainable intensification of Maize-Legume cropping systems: Kenya experience. John Achieng

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A presentation from the WCCA 2011 event held in Brisbane, Australia.

A presentation from the WCCA 2011 event held in Brisbane, Australia.

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  • Hello. You may want to read more here http://aciar.gov.au/files/node/14068/evaluation_of_apsim_to_simulate_maize_bean_croppin_53028.pdf
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  • sorry Miss, Could u give me some information about the mungbean and cassava inter-cropping system?
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    Towards sustainable intensification of Maize-Legume cropping systems: Kenya experience. John Achieng Towards sustainable intensification of Maize-Legume cropping systems: Kenya experience. John Achieng Presentation Transcript

    • Towards Sustainable Intensification of Maize-Legume Cropping Systems: Kenya Experience SIMLESA PROJECT ACTIVITIES Achieng, J., Micheni, A., F. Kanampiu 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Introduction & Background
      • Maize is a major staple food in Kenya
      • Often grown in association with beans
      • About 80% of maize produced by smallholders
      • Current yield: ‹1.0 t ha -1 against potential
      • of ≥ 3.5 t
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Justification
      • Conv. tillage practices have degraded the soils
      • Droughts and long dry-spells are regular
      • Use of inorganic fertilizers is not common
      • Demand for maize increases by 4% annually; Food security is threatened
      • Need to embrace Conservation Agriculture to restore lost soil fertility
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Objectives
      • Long-term:
      • To test resilient smallholder maize-legume farming technologies based on CA principles
      • Short-term:
        • To investigate the effects of minimal tillage and residue retention on water use efficiency, SOM and maize-legume yield
        • To test the capacity of APSIM to model performance of maize-legume systems under CA practices
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Expected Output
      • About 30% increase in yield due to adoption of CA practices within a period of about 10 years
      • About 30% decrease in production risks due to adoption of CA practices within a period of about 10 years
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Materials & Methods
      • 10 sites:
        • low potential zone: 2 sites each in eastern and western Kenya
        • medium potential zone: 2 sites each in eastern and western Kenya
        • Two on-station: each in KARI Embu and Kakamega
      • Participating farmers: 45 in Eastern, 130 in western; members of farmers’ groups
      • Type of research: Participatory and farmer-managed
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Materials & Methods Cont
      • Treatments (western Kenya)
          • Conventional practice
          • CA + non-inoculated beans
          • CA + inoculated beans
          • CA + desmodium
        • Treatments (Eastern Kenya)*
          • Farmers’ tillage
          • Conventional tillage
          • Zero tillage
          • Furrows & Ridges
          • * Intercropped with either beans or pigeon pea
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Materials & Methods Cont
      • Weather data
      • Daily rainfall
      • Daily Min & Max temp
      • Daily Min & Max temp for 30 yrs
      • Daily Radiation for 15 yrs
      • Rain gauge in a farmer’s home to record daily rain
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Materials & Methods Cont.
      • Soil Data
      • Soil sampled from 4 layers (up to 90cm), 3 times a season for:
        • Gravimetric water determination
        • Bulk Density determination
        • Chemical analysis
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Materials & Methods Cont. 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane Scientist and technicians examining degraded Western Kenya soils Tumaini Farmers’ Field School members discussing pros and cons of CA
    • Materials & Methods Cont.
      • Crop Data
        • Maize crop sampled 3 times each season for chemical analysis
        • Maize & bean yield and related parameters
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Materials & Methods Cont.
      • Maize and beans grown under conventional practice, western Kenya
      • Maize and beans grown under CA practice, western Kenya
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Materials & Methods
      • Crops under conventional practice in eastern Kenya
      • Crops under CA in eastern Kenya
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Materials & Methods Cont.
      • Residue retained in a maize crop in CA trial, western Kenya
      • Desmodium grown as a cover crop in maize in CA trial, western Kenya
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Technology Dissemination
      • The District Commissioner being shown CA plots at Siaya Field Day
      • Provincial Administration staff attended the field day. DCs and Chiefs are influential and respected
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Result : Water Use Efficiency
      • Conventional practice gave lower WUE compared to CA
      • CA practices progressively increased WUE while conventional practice progressively reduced the WUE
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane Treatment WUE (kg/mm/ha) 2010 LR Season WUE (kg/mm/ha) 2011 LR Season Conventional 8.5 8.0 CA + non-inoculated beans 10.8 11.9 CA + inoculated beans 9.5 9.9 CA + desmodium 9.8 9.9
    • Result: Siaya Crop Yield (2010 Season)
      • Rhizobial inoculation increased bean yield
      • CA had no effect on maize yield
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane Treatment Beans (kg/ha) Maize (kg/ha) Conventional 355c 4,075 CA + non-inoculated beans 626b 4,650 CA + inoculated beans 927a 4,416 CA + desmodium 707ab 4,483 Mean 654 4,406 LSD (5%) 231 ns
    • Result : Siaya Crop Yield 2011 season
      • Conventional practice gave highest bean yield
      • CA practices gave higher maize yield compared to conventional practice
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane Treatment Beans (kg/ha) Maize (kg/ha) Conventional 640a 2,810b CA + non-inoculated beans 520ab 5,150a CA + inoculated beans 390ab 4,330a CA + desmodium 320bc 4,310a Mean 468 4,150 LSD (5%) 240 989
    • Suitability of APSIM
      • The slope of the regression between observed and predicted yield is R 2 = 0.9, indicating a high degree of accuracy
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane R 2 =0.9
      • Maize grain yields under different tillage practices in on-farm trials in eastern Kenya
      • Beans grain yields under different tillage practices in on-farm trials in eastern Kenya
    • Conclusions
      • Combination of minimal tillage and residue retention:
        • maximized soil water use and hence can be an effective tool in mitigating effects of drought and prolonged dry spells
        • More than doubled maize yield; food security among smallholders can be achieved in a short-run
        • APSIM can model performance of maize-beans system under CA practices
        • Farmers beginning to appreciate CA
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Achievements
        • Farmers, extension and researchers trained four times
        • Three field-days held
        • One article in CIMMYT’s Informa September issue
        • Two articles in newsletters
        • One documentary (CD) produced
        • 3 papers presented at WCCA
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • Challenges
        • Competition for crop residues
        • Lack of appropriate implements to be used under very smallholder farms
        • Termites that feed on residue
      5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
    • 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane