Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Towards sustainable intensification of Maize-Legume cropping systems: Kenya experience. John Achieng
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Towards sustainable intensification of Maize-Legume cropping systems: Kenya experience. John Achieng

871

Published on

A presentation from the WCCA 2011 event held in Brisbane, Australia.

A presentation from the WCCA 2011 event held in Brisbane, Australia.

Published in: Education, Technology, Spiritual
2 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Hello. You may want to read more here http://aciar.gov.au/files/node/14068/evaluation_of_apsim_to_simulate_maize_bean_croppin_53028.pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • sorry Miss, Could u give me some information about the mungbean and cassava inter-cropping system?
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
871
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
42
Comments
2
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Towards Sustainable Intensification of Maize-Legume Cropping Systems: Kenya Experience SIMLESA PROJECT ACTIVITIES Achieng, J., Micheni, A., F. Kanampiu 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  • 2. Introduction & Background
    • Maize is a major staple food in Kenya
    • Often grown in association with beans
    • About 80% of maize produced by smallholders
    • Current yield: ‹1.0 t ha -1 against potential
    • of ≥ 3.5 t
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  • 3. Justification
    • Conv. tillage practices have degraded the soils
    • Droughts and long dry-spells are regular
    • Use of inorganic fertilizers is not common
    • Demand for maize increases by 4% annually; Food security is threatened
    • Need to embrace Conservation Agriculture to restore lost soil fertility
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  • 4. Objectives
    • Long-term:
    • To test resilient smallholder maize-legume farming technologies based on CA principles
    • Short-term:
      • To investigate the effects of minimal tillage and residue retention on water use efficiency, SOM and maize-legume yield
      • To test the capacity of APSIM to model performance of maize-legume systems under CA practices
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  • 5. Expected Output
    • About 30% increase in yield due to adoption of CA practices within a period of about 10 years
    • About 30% decrease in production risks due to adoption of CA practices within a period of about 10 years
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  • 6. Materials & Methods
    • 10 sites:
      • low potential zone: 2 sites each in eastern and western Kenya
      • medium potential zone: 2 sites each in eastern and western Kenya
      • Two on-station: each in KARI Embu and Kakamega
    • Participating farmers: 45 in Eastern, 130 in western; members of farmers’ groups
    • Type of research: Participatory and farmer-managed
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  • 7. Materials & Methods Cont
    • Treatments (western Kenya)
        • Conventional practice
        • CA + non-inoculated beans
        • CA + inoculated beans
        • CA + desmodium
      • Treatments (Eastern Kenya)*
        • Farmers’ tillage
        • Conventional tillage
        • Zero tillage
        • Furrows & Ridges
        • * Intercropped with either beans or pigeon pea
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  • 8. Materials & Methods Cont
    • Weather data
    • Daily rainfall
    • Daily Min & Max temp
    • Daily Min & Max temp for 30 yrs
    • Daily Radiation for 15 yrs
    • Rain gauge in a farmer’s home to record daily rain
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  • 9. Materials & Methods Cont.
    • Soil Data
    • Soil sampled from 4 layers (up to 90cm), 3 times a season for:
      • Gravimetric water determination
      • Bulk Density determination
      • Chemical analysis
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  • 10. Materials & Methods Cont. 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane Scientist and technicians examining degraded Western Kenya soils Tumaini Farmers’ Field School members discussing pros and cons of CA
  • 11. Materials & Methods Cont.
    • Crop Data
      • Maize crop sampled 3 times each season for chemical analysis
      • Maize & bean yield and related parameters
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  • 12. Materials & Methods Cont.
    • Maize and beans grown under conventional practice, western Kenya
    • Maize and beans grown under CA practice, western Kenya
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  • 13. Materials & Methods
    • Crops under conventional practice in eastern Kenya
    • Crops under CA in eastern Kenya
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  • 14. Materials & Methods Cont.
    • Residue retained in a maize crop in CA trial, western Kenya
    • Desmodium grown as a cover crop in maize in CA trial, western Kenya
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  • 15. Technology Dissemination
    • The District Commissioner being shown CA plots at Siaya Field Day
    • Provincial Administration staff attended the field day. DCs and Chiefs are influential and respected
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  • 16. Result : Water Use Efficiency
    • Conventional practice gave lower WUE compared to CA
    • CA practices progressively increased WUE while conventional practice progressively reduced the WUE
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane Treatment WUE (kg/mm/ha) 2010 LR Season WUE (kg/mm/ha) 2011 LR Season Conventional 8.5 8.0 CA + non-inoculated beans 10.8 11.9 CA + inoculated beans 9.5 9.9 CA + desmodium 9.8 9.9
  • 17. Result: Siaya Crop Yield (2010 Season)
    • Rhizobial inoculation increased bean yield
    • CA had no effect on maize yield
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane Treatment Beans (kg/ha) Maize (kg/ha) Conventional 355c 4,075 CA + non-inoculated beans 626b 4,650 CA + inoculated beans 927a 4,416 CA + desmodium 707ab 4,483 Mean 654 4,406 LSD (5%) 231 ns
  • 18. Result : Siaya Crop Yield 2011 season
    • Conventional practice gave highest bean yield
    • CA practices gave higher maize yield compared to conventional practice
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane Treatment Beans (kg/ha) Maize (kg/ha) Conventional 640a 2,810b CA + non-inoculated beans 520ab 5,150a CA + inoculated beans 390ab 4,330a CA + desmodium 320bc 4,310a Mean 468 4,150 LSD (5%) 240 989
  • 19. Suitability of APSIM
    • The slope of the regression between observed and predicted yield is R 2 = 0.9, indicating a high degree of accuracy
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane R 2 =0.9
  • 20.
    • Maize grain yields under different tillage practices in on-farm trials in eastern Kenya
    • Beans grain yields under different tillage practices in on-farm trials in eastern Kenya
  • 21. Conclusions
    • Combination of minimal tillage and residue retention:
      • maximized soil water use and hence can be an effective tool in mitigating effects of drought and prolonged dry spells
      • More than doubled maize yield; food security among smallholders can be achieved in a short-run
      • APSIM can model performance of maize-beans system under CA practices
      • Farmers beginning to appreciate CA
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  • 22. Achievements
      • Farmers, extension and researchers trained four times
      • Three field-days held
      • One article in CIMMYT’s Informa September issue
      • Two articles in newsletters
      • One documentary (CD) produced
      • 3 papers presented at WCCA
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  • 23. Challenges
      • Competition for crop residues
      • Lack of appropriate implements to be used under very smallholder farms
      • Termites that feed on residue
    5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  • 24. 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  • 25. 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane

×