Towards Sustainable Intensification of Maize-Legume Cropping Systems: Kenya Experience SIMLESA PROJECT ACTIVITIES Achieng,...
Introduction & Background <ul><li>Maize is a major staple food in Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Often grown in association with ...
Justification <ul><li>Conv. tillage practices have degraded the soils </li></ul><ul><li>Droughts and long dry-spells are r...
Objectives <ul><li>Long-term: </li></ul><ul><li>To test resilient smallholder maize-legume farming technologies based on C...
Expected Output   <ul><li>About 30% increase in yield due to adoption of CA practices within a period of about 10 years </...
Materials & Methods <ul><li>10 sites:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low potential zone: 2 sites each in eastern and western Kenya...
Materials & Methods Cont <ul><li>Treatments (western Kenya) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional practice </li></ul></ul...
Materials & Methods Cont <ul><li>Weather data </li></ul><ul><li>Daily rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Min & Max temp </li...
Materials & Methods Cont. <ul><li>Soil Data </li></ul><ul><li>Soil sampled from  4 layers (up to 90cm), 3 times a season f...
Materials & Methods Cont. 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane Scientist and technicians examining deg...
Materials & Methods Cont. <ul><li>Crop Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maize crop sampled 3 times each season for chemical anal...
Materials & Methods Cont. <ul><li>Maize and beans grown under conventional practice, western Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Maize...
Materials & Methods <ul><li>Crops under conventional practice in eastern Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Crops under CA in eastern...
Materials & Methods Cont. <ul><li>Residue retained in a maize crop in CA trial, western Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Desmodium ...
Technology Dissemination <ul><li>The District Commissioner being shown CA plots at Siaya  Field Day </li></ul><ul><li>Prov...
Result : Water Use Efficiency <ul><li>Conventional practice gave lower WUE compared to CA </li></ul><ul><li>CA practices p...
Result:  Siaya Crop Yield (2010 Season) <ul><li>Rhizobial inoculation increased bean yield </li></ul><ul><li>CA had no eff...
Result : Siaya Crop Yield 2011 season  <ul><li>Conventional practice gave highest bean yield </li></ul><ul><li>CA practice...
Suitability of APSIM <ul><li>The slope of the regression between observed and predicted yield is R 2  = 0.9, indicating a ...
<ul><li>Maize grain yields under different tillage practices in on-farm trials in eastern Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Beans gr...
Conclusions <ul><li>Combination of minimal tillage and residue retention: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maximized soil water use a...
Achievements <ul><ul><li>Farmers, extension and researchers trained four times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three field-days...
Challenges <ul><ul><li>Competition for crop residues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of appropriate implements to be used ...
5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
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Towards sustainable intensification of Maize-Legume cropping systems: Kenya experience. John Achieng

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A presentation from the WCCA 2011 event held in Brisbane, Australia.

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  • Hello. You may want to read more here http://aciar.gov.au/files/node/14068/evaluation_of_apsim_to_simulate_maize_bean_croppin_53028.pdf
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  • sorry Miss, Could u give me some information about the mungbean and cassava inter-cropping system?
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Towards sustainable intensification of Maize-Legume cropping systems: Kenya experience. John Achieng

  1. 1. Towards Sustainable Intensification of Maize-Legume Cropping Systems: Kenya Experience SIMLESA PROJECT ACTIVITIES Achieng, J., Micheni, A., F. Kanampiu 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  2. 2. Introduction & Background <ul><li>Maize is a major staple food in Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Often grown in association with beans </li></ul><ul><li>About 80% of maize produced by smallholders </li></ul><ul><li>Current yield: ‹1.0 t ha -1 against potential </li></ul><ul><li>of ≥ 3.5 t </li></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  3. 3. Justification <ul><li>Conv. tillage practices have degraded the soils </li></ul><ul><li>Droughts and long dry-spells are regular </li></ul><ul><li>Use of inorganic fertilizers is not common </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for maize increases by 4% annually; Food security is threatened </li></ul><ul><li>Need to embrace Conservation Agriculture to restore lost soil fertility </li></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>Long-term: </li></ul><ul><li>To test resilient smallholder maize-legume farming technologies based on CA principles </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To investigate the effects of minimal tillage and residue retention on water use efficiency, SOM and maize-legume yield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To test the capacity of APSIM to model performance of maize-legume systems under CA practices </li></ul></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  5. 5. Expected Output <ul><li>About 30% increase in yield due to adoption of CA practices within a period of about 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>About 30% decrease in production risks due to adoption of CA practices within a period of about 10 years </li></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  6. 6. Materials & Methods <ul><li>10 sites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low potential zone: 2 sites each in eastern and western Kenya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medium potential zone: 2 sites each in eastern and western Kenya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two on-station: each in KARI Embu and Kakamega </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participating farmers: 45 in Eastern, 130 in western; members of farmers’ groups </li></ul><ul><li>Type of research: Participatory and farmer-managed </li></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  7. 7. Materials & Methods Cont <ul><li>Treatments (western Kenya) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional practice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CA + non-inoculated beans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CA + inoculated beans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CA + desmodium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatments (Eastern Kenya)* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers’ tillage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional tillage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zero tillage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Furrows & Ridges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* Intercropped with either beans or pigeon pea </li></ul></ul></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  8. 8. Materials & Methods Cont <ul><li>Weather data </li></ul><ul><li>Daily rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Min & Max temp </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Min & Max temp for 30 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Radiation for 15 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Rain gauge in a farmer’s home to record daily rain </li></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  9. 9. Materials & Methods Cont. <ul><li>Soil Data </li></ul><ul><li>Soil sampled from 4 layers (up to 90cm), 3 times a season for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravimetric water determination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulk Density determination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical analysis </li></ul></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  10. 10. Materials & Methods Cont. 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane Scientist and technicians examining degraded Western Kenya soils Tumaini Farmers’ Field School members discussing pros and cons of CA
  11. 11. Materials & Methods Cont. <ul><li>Crop Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maize crop sampled 3 times each season for chemical analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maize & bean yield and related parameters </li></ul></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  12. 12. Materials & Methods Cont. <ul><li>Maize and beans grown under conventional practice, western Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Maize and beans grown under CA practice, western Kenya </li></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  13. 13. Materials & Methods <ul><li>Crops under conventional practice in eastern Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Crops under CA in eastern Kenya </li></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  14. 14. Materials & Methods Cont. <ul><li>Residue retained in a maize crop in CA trial, western Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Desmodium grown as a cover crop in maize in CA trial, western Kenya </li></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  15. 15. Technology Dissemination <ul><li>The District Commissioner being shown CA plots at Siaya Field Day </li></ul><ul><li>Provincial Administration staff attended the field day. DCs and Chiefs are influential and respected </li></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  16. 16. Result : Water Use Efficiency <ul><li>Conventional practice gave lower WUE compared to CA </li></ul><ul><li>CA practices progressively increased WUE while conventional practice progressively reduced the WUE </li></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane Treatment WUE (kg/mm/ha) 2010 LR Season WUE (kg/mm/ha) 2011 LR Season Conventional 8.5 8.0 CA + non-inoculated beans 10.8 11.9 CA + inoculated beans 9.5 9.9 CA + desmodium 9.8 9.9
  17. 17. Result: Siaya Crop Yield (2010 Season) <ul><li>Rhizobial inoculation increased bean yield </li></ul><ul><li>CA had no effect on maize yield </li></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane Treatment Beans (kg/ha) Maize (kg/ha) Conventional 355c 4,075 CA + non-inoculated beans 626b 4,650 CA + inoculated beans 927a 4,416 CA + desmodium 707ab 4,483 Mean 654 4,406 LSD (5%) 231 ns
  18. 18. Result : Siaya Crop Yield 2011 season <ul><li>Conventional practice gave highest bean yield </li></ul><ul><li>CA practices gave higher maize yield compared to conventional practice </li></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane Treatment Beans (kg/ha) Maize (kg/ha) Conventional 640a 2,810b CA + non-inoculated beans 520ab 5,150a CA + inoculated beans 390ab 4,330a CA + desmodium 320bc 4,310a Mean 468 4,150 LSD (5%) 240 989
  19. 19. Suitability of APSIM <ul><li>The slope of the regression between observed and predicted yield is R 2 = 0.9, indicating a high degree of accuracy </li></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane R 2 =0.9
  20. 20. <ul><li>Maize grain yields under different tillage practices in on-farm trials in eastern Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Beans grain yields under different tillage practices in on-farm trials in eastern Kenya </li></ul>
  21. 21. Conclusions <ul><li>Combination of minimal tillage and residue retention: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maximized soil water use and hence can be an effective tool in mitigating effects of drought and prolonged dry spells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than doubled maize yield; food security among smallholders can be achieved in a short-run </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>APSIM can model performance of maize-beans system under CA practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers beginning to appreciate CA </li></ul></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  22. 22. Achievements <ul><ul><li>Farmers, extension and researchers trained four times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three field-days held </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One article in CIMMYT’s Informa September issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two articles in newsletters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One documentary (CD) produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 papers presented at WCCA </li></ul></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
  23. 23. Challenges <ul><ul><li>Competition for crop residues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of appropriate implements to be used under very smallholder farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Termites that feed on residue </li></ul></ul>5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Brisbane
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