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The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith
The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith
The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith
The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith
The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith
The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith
The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith
The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith
The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith
The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith
The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith
The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith
The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith
The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith
The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith
The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith
The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith
The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith
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The promotion of CA in the South African Landcare programme during the last decade: evolution and impact of action research. Hendrik J Smith

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A presentation from the WCCA 2011 conference in Brisbane.

A presentation from the WCCA 2011 conference in Brisbane.

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  • 1. The Promotion of Conservation Agriculture in the South African LandCare Programme during the Last Decade: Evolution and Impact of Action Research HJ Smith, MC Matlou, L Maribeng, MV Kidson, G Trytsman WCCA 25-29 September 2011, Brisbane, Australia
  • 2. Background <ul><li>1997 - South African LandCare Study Tour to Australia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National LandCare conference in Adelaide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1998 - LandCare South Africa was established as a top priority initiative for the South African government </li></ul><ul><li>1999 – funding to ARC </li></ul>The goal of the South African LandCare programme is to: ‘ optimise productivity through the sustainable use of natural resources to improve food security, job creation and the quality of life of the South African people’
  • 3. A tentative start … <ul><li>Aim : Promote sustainable practices to combat soil related production problems among small-scale farmers, e.g. poor soil fertility and acidity </li></ul><ul><li>YES to CA </li></ul><ul><li>Totally inappropriate training and background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CA and community-based NRM and research </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Natural Science-based approach <ul><li>On-farm, researcher-managed trials (demo plots) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical ‘white-peg’ approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitoring on farmers fields </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil, leave and yield samples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pamphlets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific conferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-graduate qualifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-reviewed articles </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Testing “LandCare theories” <ul><li>“ Pre-development” survey (semi-structured interviews) </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once-off training session for farmers and extension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farmer-managed trials </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-disciplinary teams </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperatives </li></ul>
  • 6. Action Research as Methodology Critical reflection Action (Implementation) Ideas Frequent events (e.g. weekly, monthly) <ul><li>Action research allows experimentation with ‘ideas’ and real world experience where learning is in the hands of the participants. </li></ul><ul><li>This learning can then be tested in subsequent learning cycles. </li></ul>
  • 7. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK From Paradigms to Practice PARADIGM Constructivism METHODOLOGIES Action Research : Landcare, FPR, FSA, FFS, M&E, experiential-, social- and discovery learning TOOLS, METHODS & TECHNIQUES Visioning, farmer-led experimentation, farmer groups / networks
  • 8. Development of Action Research process in PhD research (Smith, 2006) Learning <ul><ul><li>Real World problem situation A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Area of application) </li></ul></ul>ACTION: in LandCare Project REFLECTION using SSM and cognitive mapping Findings / Theories about: F, M, A Learning Research Themes F: Framework of ideas M: Methodology
  • 9. Action Research Process
  • 10. Where are we now? Implementation & Integration process
  • 11. Season-long awareness & training processes <ul><li>Initiate with awareness event </li></ul><ul><li>Based on cropping calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent very practical sessions in farmers’ situations </li></ul><ul><li>Part of continuous learning process </li></ul>
  • 12. Farmer-led experimentation … using CA principles <ul><li>Participating farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Some inputs & equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Simple paired designs </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection, learning, adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>… socially constructing individual CA systems </li></ul>Plan Observe Reflect Act
  • 13. Indicators Sustain- ability dimensions Baseline values (2001) 1 year after start (2002) 2 years after start (2003) 3 years after start (2004) 4 years after start (2005) <ul><li>Soil Organic Carbon (% C) [3] </li></ul><ul><li>% Residue Cover [30] </li></ul><ul><li>pH (topsoil) [5.5] </li></ul><ul><li>Ca – topsoil (mg kg -1 ) [240] </li></ul><ul><li>Mg – topsoil (mg kg -1 ) [80] </li></ul><ul><li>P – topsoil (mg kg -1 ) [8-12] </li></ul><ul><li>K – topsoil (mg kg -1 ) [120] </li></ul><ul><li>Acid Saturation (%) [20-30] </li></ul><ul><li>Earthworms </li></ul><ul><li># conservation tillage implements converted </li></ul>Bio-technical feasibility 1.6 5 4 343 108 6 139 46 0 0 1.6 10-15 4.1 425 139 7 142 39 0 0 1.6 10-15 4.3 620 223 10 153 24 0 0 2 15 4.15 560 181 11.3 239 30 0 143 2 15 4.10 537 173 11.3 241 32 0 143 <ul><li>Farmer-to-farmer extension: # number of farmers trained </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in farmer forums </li></ul><ul><li>Number of farmer-managed trials (# leader farmers) </li></ul><ul><li>Number of training courses for leader farmers (cumulative) </li></ul><ul><li># field days (cumulative) </li></ul><ul><li># PSE tools for group learning </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated area under CA (ha) </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer cooperatives </li></ul>Social acceptability 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 10 18 2 1 0 2 2 85 80 18 5 10 0 48 24 214 70 18 5 20 2 175 ? 365 50 20 5 25 3 400 ? <ul><li>Maize Yield (ton ha -1 ) </li></ul><ul><li>[4 ton ha -1 ] </li></ul><ul><li>Gross Margin (R ha -1 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[R3000 ha -1 ] </li></ul></ul>Economic viability 1.5 -R200 3.2 Maize: R800 Soya: R1000 Intercrop: R2480 3.1 Maize: R800 Soya: R1000 Intercrop: R2480 4.9 M – R1500 S – R2500 IC – R3442 LEISA – R2800 4.2 M – R1500 S – R2500 IC – R3442 LEISA – R2800
  • 14. Performance on Farmer-led trials (Bergville / Emmaus LandCare Project)
  • 15. Social learning <ul><li>Small learning groups (5 persons) </li></ul><ul><li>Larger group of 25-35 </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer networks </li></ul><ul><li>Community structures </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-stakeholder (innovation) platforms </li></ul>Plan Act Observe Reflect Act Plan Observe Reflect Act
  • 16. Future Implications
  • 17. <ul><li>The impact of action research in the promotion of CA in the LandCare Programme during the last decade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to an increasing awareness , demand and response on all levels that [CA x AR] has the potential to bridge the gap between science and society and address critical environmental and societal challenges. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What we are aiming for in the next decade: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaling out and up/down (mainstreaming) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Framework’ for awareness, funding, integration and wider impact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation platforms / networks driven by action research (all levels) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity building in CA and Action Research (all levels) </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul>

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