The effect of tillage practice and residue management on wheat yield and yield stability in two agro-ecological environments in Mexico. Bram Govaerts
The effect of tillage practice and residue management on wheat yield and yield stability in two agro- ecological environments in Mexico
Two cropping systems Cd. Obregón (39 m): Irrigated wheat-based system El Batán (2249 m) Mexico Rainfed highland system City
Strategic research ● Long-term and component technology trials ● Different environments Contrasts and similarities => process level Keeps thinking flexible Obregon => mimic environments ● Network of excellence ● Center of training => on farm trials
El Batán: Characteristics● Non-equatorial semi-arid highlands (2240 masl)● Rain fed agriculture● Periodical drought● Periodical water excess● Wind and water erosion● Grain yield < 2 ton ha-1
El Batán: Characteristics● Soil: Haplic Phaeozem (Clayic)
Treatments● Zero tillage● Conventional tillage after harvest One pass with a chisel plough to 30 cm depth Two passes with a disk harrow to 20 cm depth and two passes with a spring tooth harrow to 10 cm. The spring tooth harrow was used when needed for weed control (typically twice) during the winter fallow season. the seed bed preparation One pass with a chisel plough to 30 cm depth Two passes with a disk harrow to 20 cm depth and one pass with a spring tooth harrow to 10 cm
El Batán: resultsManagement Average yield Coefficient ofpractice (t ha-1 at 12% H2O) variation (%)CT-Keep 5.31 BC 22.3 BCT-Remove 5.04 C 23.2 BZT-Keep 5.96 A 19.0 BZT-Remove 3.92 D 35.8 AZT-Keep M1/3W 4.93 C 33.8 AZT-Keep1/2 5.59 AB 24.7 B CT: conventional tillage; ZT: zero tillage
Cd. Obregón: results Management Average yield Coefficient of practice (t ha-1 at 12% H2O) variation (%) CTB-Keep 7.01 BC 10.69 A PB-Burn 6.65 C 11.66 A PB-Remove 7.24 AB 9.53 A PB-Partial 6.91 BC 10.28 A PB-Keep 7.42 A 8.65 A CTB: conventionally tilled beds; PB: permanent beds
Cd. Obregón: results 8.5Treatment yield (Mg/ha at 12% H2O) 8.0 Management Slope Inter- R² 7.5 practice cept 7.0 CTB-Keep 1.07 -0.52 0.95 PB-Burn 1.09 -0.98 0.91 6.5 PB-Remove 0.96 0.42 0.96 6.0 PB-Partial 1.00 -0.11 0.93 5.5 PB-Keep 0.85 1.44 0.91 5.0 CTB: conventionally tilled beds; PB: permanent 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 beds Year mean yield (Mg/ha at 12% H2O) CTB-Keep PB-Burn PB-Remove PB-Partial PB-Keep Linear (CTB-Keep) Linear (PB-Burn) Linear (PB-Remove) Linear (PB-Partial) Linear (PB-Keep)
Conclusion● CA highest yielding in both environments● Differences in stability were only found in rain fed, more adverse conditions● Straw fully removed or burned combined with ZT is not sustainable● More research is needed to design optimal systems with partial residue retention
http://conservacion.cimmyt.orgThank you for your attention
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